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1.
N. Engl. j. med ; 381(1): 97-98, Jul. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1009827
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350149

RESUMO

The search for safe and effective patient management strategies during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass is ongoing; intravenous calcium is occasionally used as a first-line drug. The physiologic role of calcium suggests that it can support the function of the cardiovascular system during this critical period. Patients may be mildly hypocalcemic after cardiopulmonary bypass; however, this degree of hypocalcemia does not significantly impair the cardiovascular system. The transient beneficial effects of calcium administration (increase in arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, stroke volume, and coronary perfusion pressure) might be helpful in cases of moderate contractility reduction or vasoplegia. Nonetheless, effects on clinically relevant endpoints are unknown, and possible systemic side effects, such as transient reduction in internal mammary artery graft flow, attenuation of the effects of ß-sympathomimetics, "stone heart" phenomenon, and pancreatic cellular injury, may limit the use of calcium salts. Further studies are needed to expand the understanding of the effects of calcium administration on patient outcomes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129071

RESUMO

Deep hypothermic perfusionless circulatory arrest was the first practical neuroprotective technique used for open-heart surgery. It was refined at the Novosibirsk Medical Research Center in Siberia and was actively used from the mid-1950s until 2001.This review describes the development of this technique and its contribution to our understanding of the dynamic changes in human physiology during induced hypothermia for circulatory arrest without extracorporeal perfusion. Deep hypothermic perfusionless circulatory arrest was an important stepping stone in the development of modern approaches in neuroprotection and monitoring during cardiac surgery.

5.
Int Angiol ; 38(1): 46-53, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with type I chronic aortic dissection before and one year after prosthetics of the aorta, and to test the hypothesis that long-term postoperative parameters of HRQoL are affected by clinical determinants related to the underlying disease, intraoperative characteristics, and complications of the early postoperative period. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 82 patients with type I chronic aortic dissection. HRQoL parameters were examined using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire before and one year after surgery. RESULTS: Patients with aortic dissection one year after surgery demonstrated an improvement in many HRQoL parameters, including two summary measures of the questionnaire - Physical component summary (PCS) and Mental component summary (MCS). A lower level of PCS and MCS at the preoperative stage significantly predicted lower values of these indices for a long time after aortic prosthetics. The neurological complications in the early postoperative period were the factor affecting the MCS after surgery. Moreover, the neurological complications and the presence of coronary artery disease increased the risk of the adverse outcomes, including aortic related death and significant decrease of MCS or aortic related death and significant decrease of PCS one year after the operation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment in patients with type I chronic aortic dissection leads to an increase of many HRQoL parameters. Factors affecting MCS and PCS one year after surgery included the neurological complications and lower level of the MCS and PCS at the preoperative stage. Furthermore, the neurological complications and the presence of coronary artery disease increased the risk of the combined endpoints - aortic related death and significant decrease of MCS or aortic related death and significant decrease of PCS one year after the operation, respectively.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
8.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802587

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of spinal cord stimulation in patients with critical limb ischemia and to test the hypothesis that the dynamics of clinical changes one year after therapy depend both on the clinical determinants associated with the underlying disease and on factors related to systemic atherosclerosis. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 56 patients with critical limb ischemia. All patients before and after spinal cord stimulation were examined in terms of the dynamics of their clinical changes using the Rutherford scale and transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2, mmHg) in the affected foot. The active orthostatic test was used to assess the functional state of peripheral perfusion. RESULTS: One year after spinal cord stimulation 74% of patients showed positive clinical outcomes. No changes were observed in 9.3% of patients, while adverse clinical outcomes were revealed in 16.7% of cases. The TcPO2 values were significantly reduced before spinal cord stimulation: 10.5 (6.4-16.0) mmHg. The functional status of the peripheral microvasculature was also disturbed. One year after therapy, TcPO2 significantly increased and the adaptive mechanisms of the microvasculature were improved in more than 70% of patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that the initially low TcPO2 values (<10 mmHg) with a lack of gain in TcPO2 during the orthostatic test are associated with the negative clinical outcomes after spinal cord stimulation. The gain in TcPO2 during the orthostatic test to > 10 mmHg is associated with the positive clinical outcomes after spinal cord stimulation. The age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index > 5 and duration of critical ischemic symptoms also had a negative effect on the clinical outcomes after spinal cord stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: The positive clinical outcomes were revealed in most patients with critical limb ischemia one year after spinal cord stimulation. The low values of peripheral tissue metabolism with the disturbed functional status of the microvasculature are associated with the negative clinical outcome. The patients with baseline TcPO2 <10 mmHg can recover if they still have a sufficient microcirculatory reserve capacity. Duration of critical ischemic symptoms and high comorbidity burden with allowance for age are negative factors affecting the clinical outcome.

9.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 80: 76-81, 2019 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation on health-related quality of life in older adults with multimorbidity and to evaluate the predictive factors for postoperative quality of life impairment in such patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This study included 141 older adults with severe aortic stenosis scheduled for elective transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Quality of life was examined in all patients using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire, before and 2 years after surgery. Comorbidity was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: In older adult patients with aortic stenosis and multimorbidity, transcatheter aortic valve implantation significantly improved both physical and mental components of quality of life 2 years after surgery. A Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥5 points was independently associated with the absence of positive dynamics in Physical Health score [odds ratio (OR) 0.38 (0.20-0.75), p = 0.007]. Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥5 points [OR 0.31 (0.19-0.58), p = 0.026] and new-onset arrhythmia [OR 0.54 (0.38-0.78), p = 0.017] were independent predictors of the absence of positive dynamics in Mental Health score after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. CONCLUSIONS: High-level comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥5 points) predicts both Physical and Mental Health scores for quality of life impairment following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in older adults, and new-onset arrhythmia predicts the Mental Health score for quality of life impairment following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in these patients.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Multimorbidade , Qualidade de Vida , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular surgery patients with a prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay may benefit most from early nutrition support. Using established scoring systems for nutrition assessment and operative risk stratification, we aimed to develop a model to predict a prolonged ICU stay ≥5 days in order to identify patients who will benefit from early nutrition interventions. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study of patients undergoing elective valvular, coronary artery bypass grafting, or combined cardiac surgery. The nutrition risk was assessed by well-established screening tools. Patients' preoperative EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation), primary disease, and intraoperative cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time were included as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict a prolonged ICU stay (>4 days). RESULTS: The number of cardiac surgery patients included was 1193. Multivariate analysis revealed that for prediction of ICU stay >4 days, both Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (area under the curve (AUC): 0.716, P = .020) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score (AUC: 0.715, P = .037) were significant, whereas for prediction of ICU stay >5 days, only the MNA score showed significant results (AUC: 0.762, P = .011). CONCLUSION: Present data provide first evidence about the combined use of EuroSCORE, primary disease, CPB time, and nutrition risk screening tools for prediction of prolonged ICU stay in cardiac surgery patients. If prospectively evaluated in adequately designed studies, this model may help to identify patients with prolonged ICU stay to initiate early postoperative nutrition therapy and thus, facilitate an enhanced recovery.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pilot study was to elucidate the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) supply to the extracorporeal circulation circuit for cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: A total of 60 patients with coronary artery disease scheduled for CABG with CPB were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Patients were allocated randomly to receive treatment according to standard or modified CPB protocol where 40-ppm NO was added to the CPB circuit during cardiac surgery. The primary endpoint was the measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The secondary end points consisted in the measurements of creatine kinase-muscle/brain fraction (CK-MB) and vasoactive inotropic score (VIS). RESULTS: NO delivered into the CPB circuit had a cardioprotective effect. The level of cTnI was significantly lower in NO-treated group compared with the control group 6 hours after surgery: 1.79 ± 0.39 ng/mL versus 2.41 ± 0.55 ng/mL, respectively (P = .001). The CK-MB value was significantly lower in NO-treated group compared with the control group 24 hours after surgery: 47.69 ± 8.08 U/L versus 62.25 ± 9.78 U/L, respectively (P = .001); and the VIS was significantly lower in the NO-treated group 6 hours after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: NO supply to the CPB circuit during CABG exerted a cardioprotective effect and was associated with lower levels of VIS and cardiospecific blood markers cTnI and CK-MB.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072269

RESUMO

Anesthesiology, the branch of medicine concerning anesthesia and management of the vital functions of patients undergoing surgery, has played an important role in the development of cardiac surgery. In the middle of the last century, medical professionals had little experience in the treatment of congenital and acquired heart diseases. Progress of cardiac anesthesiology in Russia, as well as in countries across the globe, was due to requests to increase the safety of surgical procedures and to improve survival rates for the increasing number of patients with complex heart diseases. The development of cardiac surgery and anesthesiology in Russia evolved in 2 directions simultaneously in the mid-1950s. Some surgeons widely accepted the use of perfusionless hypothermia (hypothermia caused by surface cooling without perfusion); others were in favor of cardiopulmonary bypass technology. This review focuses on major historic milestones of cardiac anesthesiology in Russia, including its current status and the major problems it faces today.

14.
Clin Respir J ; 12(7): 2242-2248, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and examine their impact on the results of pulmonary thrombendarterectomy (PEA). METHODS: We enrolled 136 patients with CTEPH who scheduled for elective PEA. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) including full-body plethysmography with bronchodilation test and lung diffusion capacity assessment were performed in all patients prior to surgery treatment. The diagnosis of COPD was verified in accordance with the recommendations of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017. The effect of COPD on perioperative characteristics, complications, in-hospital and one-year mortality of patients with CTEPH were analysed. RESULTS: In the study group with CTEPH the prevalence of COPD was 23%. In 13% of patients, COPD was first detected. The results of PFTs showed more severe airflow limitations with obstructive pattern in patients with concomitant COPD, as well as a more pronounced decrease in the lung diffusion capacity. The presence of COPD in patients with CTEPH significantly increases the risk of residual pulmonary hypertension in the early postoperative period of PEA (OR = 6.2 (1.90-10.27), P = .002), duration of hospital stay (OR = 1.1 (1.01-1.20), P = .020) and the risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 4.4 (1.21-16.19), P = .023). The lung diffusion capacity revealed significant negative associations with the duration of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality (OR 0.87 (0.74-0.98), P = .012). CONCLUSION: COPD in patients with CTEPH significantly increases the risk of residual pulmonary hypertension, in-hospital mortality and increases the duration of hospital stay after PEA.

15.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 51: 254-261, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is a recognized treatment for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), with good long-term hemodynamic results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the dynamics of health-related quality of life (QoL), 1 year after PTE, depend both on the clinical determinants associated with the underlying disease and the adverse events occurring in the early postoperative period. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 136 patients with CTEPH. All patients before and after PTE (1-year follow-up) were examined in terms of QoL, by using the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire. RESULTS: One year after PTE, a significant improvement in the QoL of patients was observed in all subscales of the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire, except in the general health scale. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictors adversely affecting the dynamics of QoL after PTE were the presence of comorbidities (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and coronary artery disease) and early postoperative complications (specific ones for this category of patients are residual pulmonary hypertension and neurological complications, and nonspecific ones are atrial fibrillation and heart failure). CONCLUSIONS: The determinants that affect the dynamics of QoL 1 year after PTE in patients with CTEPH were the presence of comorbidities (COPD and coronary artery disease) and adverse events in the early postoperative period (residual pulmonary hypertension, neurological complications, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure).


Assuntos
Endarterectomia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Endarterectomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/psicologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2152-2159, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan might reduce the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors investigated whether levosimendan administration could reduce AKI incidence in a high-risk cardiac surgical population. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units of 14 centers in 3 countries. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 90 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and perioperative myocardial dysfunction. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive levosimendan (0.025-0.2 µg/kg/min) or placebo in addition to standard inotropic treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-six patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 44 to receive placebo. Postoperative AKI occurred in 14 (30%) patients in the levosimendan group versus 23 (52%) in the placebo group (absolute difference -21.8; 95% confidence interval -41.7 to -1.97; p = 0.035). The incidence of major complications also was lower (18 [39%]) in the levosimendan group versus that in the placebo group (29 [66%]) (absolute difference -26.8 [-46.7 to -6.90]; p = 0.011). A trend toward lower serum creatinine at intensive care unit discharge was observed in the levosimendan group (1.18 [0.99-1.49] mg/dL) versus that in the placebo group (1.39 [1.05-1.76] mg/dL) (95% confidence interval -0.23 [-0.49 to 0.01]; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan may improve renal outcome in cardiac surgery patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing mitral valve surgery who develop perioperative myocardial dysfunction. Results of this exploratory analysis should be investigated in future properly designed randomized controlled trials.

19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(2): 762-770, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is experimental evidence that phosphocreatine (PCr) can decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart. The authors investigated if PCr would improve heart performance as compared with standard treatment in cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Adult and pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The ability of PCr to improve cardiac outcomes as compared with standard treatment was investigated. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANGFANG DATA, and VIP Paper Check System were searched to March 1 2017. The authors included 26 randomized controlled trials comprising 1,948 patients. Random and fixed-effects models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). PCr use was associated with reduced rates of intraoperative inotropic support (27% v 44%; OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35-0.61; p < 0.001), major arrhythmias (16% v 28%; OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.69; p < 0.001), as well as increased spontaneous recovery of the cardiac rhythm immediately after aortic declamping (50% v 34%; OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.82-3.30; p < 0.001) as compared with standard treatment. The use of PCr decreased myocardial damage and augmented left ventricular ejection fraction in the postoperative period; however, MD for these outcomes were small and do not seem to be clinically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In randomized trials, PCr administration was associated with reduced rates of intraoperative inotropic support and major arrhythmias, and increased spontaneous recovery of the cardiac rhythm after aortic declamping. Large multicenter evidence is needed to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Fosfocreatina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
20.
Qual Life Res ; 27(3): 747-754, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965282

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that quality of life (QoL) parameters before surgery in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are influenced by clinical determinants related to the underlying disease and to examine QoL parameters affected in the long-term after the operation by complications presenting in the early postoperative period. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 128 patients who presented with CTEPH before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE; 1-year follow-up). All patients were examined regarding QoL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). RESULTS: In patients with CTEPH, PTE provided immediate improvement in terms of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters and favorable effects on long-term outcome, including QoL 1 year after surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular ejection fraction, and the presence of coronary artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were independent factors affecting QoL on several SF-36 subscales in patients with CTEPH prior to surgery. The factors that affect patient QoL 1 year after surgery on some SF-36 subscales included the presence of coronary artery disease, COPD, heart failure, residual pulmonary hypertension, and prolonged ventilation, neurological complications in the early postoperative period of PTE. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment for CTEPH leads to an increase in QoL in all SF-36 subscales, excluding general health perceptions. Factors affecting QoL in patients with CTEPH included severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension, comorbidity, and complications in the early postoperative period after PTE, such as heart failure, neurologic problems, residual pulmonary hypertension, and prolonged ventilation.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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