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4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and investigate possible cardiovascular effects of a sustained high-dose intravenous thiamine protocol in patients undergoing combined valvular and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot feasibility trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery department of a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients undergoing combined valvular and coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous thiamine (600 mg on the day of surgery, and 400 mg/day on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3) or placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary feasibility endpoints were recruitment rate and protocol compliance. Secondary endpoints included markers of possible biological and physiological effects. The mean recruitment rate was 8 patients per month and protocol compliance was 97.5%. There were no differences in median peak postoperative lactate (2.7 mmol/L [interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-4.6] for thiamine v 2.5 mmol/L [IQR 1.4-3.6] for placebo; p = 0.53), median peak postoperative creatinine (104 µmol/L [IQR 92.5-129] for thiamine v 99 µmol/L [IQR 86.5-109.5] for placebo; p = 0.53), median nadir postoperative cardiac index (1.8 L/min/m2 [IQR 1.5-2.1] for thiamine v 2.2 L/min/m2 [IQR 1.5-2.5] for placebo; p = 0.25), or the number of patients on vasopressor/inotropic agents (thiamine, 12 [63%]; placebo, 12 [60%]; p = 0.80), or in the total inotrope/vasopressor dose 0.14 µg/kg for thiamine v 0.12 µg/kg for placebo; p = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: A double-blind trial of sustained high-dose intravenous thiamine supplementation in higher-risk cardiac surgery patients was feasible and appeared to be safe. However, such treatment did not demonstrate evidence of biological or physiological effects.

5.
N. Engl. j. med ; 381(1): 97-98, Jul. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1009827
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350149

RESUMO

The search for safe and effective patient management strategies during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass is ongoing; intravenous calcium is occasionally used as a first-line drug. The physiologic role of calcium suggests that it can support the function of the cardiovascular system during this critical period. Patients may be mildly hypocalcemic after cardiopulmonary bypass; however, this degree of hypocalcemia does not significantly impair the cardiovascular system. The transient beneficial effects of calcium administration (increase in arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, stroke volume, and coronary perfusion pressure) might be helpful in cases of moderate contractility reduction or vasoplegia. Nonetheless, effects on clinically relevant endpoints are unknown, and possible systemic side effects, such as transient reduction in internal mammary artery graft flow, attenuation of the effects of ß-sympathomimetics, "stone heart" phenomenon, and pancreatic cellular injury, may limit the use of calcium salts. Further studies are needed to expand the understanding of the effects of calcium administration on patient outcomes.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129071

RESUMO

Deep hypothermic perfusionless circulatory arrest was the first practical neuroprotective technique used for open-heart surgery. It was refined at the Novosibirsk Medical Research Center in Siberia and was actively used from the mid-1950s until 2001.This review describes the development of this technique and its contribution to our understanding of the dynamic changes in human physiology during induced hypothermia for circulatory arrest without extracorporeal perfusion. Deep hypothermic perfusionless circulatory arrest was an important stepping stone in the development of modern approaches in neuroprotection and monitoring during cardiac surgery.

9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

10.
Int Angiol ; 38(1): 46-53, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with type I chronic aortic dissection before and one year after prosthetics of the aorta, and to test the hypothesis that long-term postoperative parameters of HRQoL are affected by clinical determinants related to the underlying disease, intraoperative characteristics, and complications of the early postoperative period. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 82 patients with type I chronic aortic dissection. HRQoL parameters were examined using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire before and one year after surgery. RESULTS: Patients with aortic dissection one year after surgery demonstrated an improvement in many HRQoL parameters, including two summary measures of the questionnaire - Physical component summary (PCS) and Mental component summary (MCS). A lower level of PCS and MCS at the preoperative stage significantly predicted lower values of these indices for a long time after aortic prosthetics. The neurological complications in the early postoperative period were the factor affecting the MCS after surgery. Moreover, the neurological complications and the presence of coronary artery disease increased the risk of the adverse outcomes, including aortic related death and significant decrease of MCS or aortic related death and significant decrease of PCS one year after the operation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment in patients with type I chronic aortic dissection leads to an increase of many HRQoL parameters. Factors affecting MCS and PCS one year after surgery included the neurological complications and lower level of the MCS and PCS at the preoperative stage. Furthermore, the neurological complications and the presence of coronary artery disease increased the risk of the combined endpoints - aortic related death and significant decrease of MCS or aortic related death and significant decrease of PCS one year after the operation, respectively.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
13.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802587

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of spinal cord stimulation in patients with critical limb ischemia and to test the hypothesis that the dynamics of clinical changes one year after therapy depend both on the clinical determinants associated with the underlying disease and on factors related to systemic atherosclerosis. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 56 patients with critical limb ischemia. All patients before and after spinal cord stimulation were examined in terms of the dynamics of their clinical changes using the Rutherford scale and transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2, mmHg) in the affected foot. The active orthostatic test was used to assess the functional state of peripheral perfusion. RESULTS: One year after spinal cord stimulation 74% of patients showed positive clinical outcomes. No changes were observed in 9.3% of patients, while adverse clinical outcomes were revealed in 16.7% of cases. The TcPO2 values were significantly reduced before spinal cord stimulation: 10.5 (6.4-16.0) mmHg. The functional status of the peripheral microvasculature was also disturbed. One year after therapy, TcPO2 significantly increased and the adaptive mechanisms of the microvasculature were improved in more than 70% of patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that the initially low TcPO2 values (<10 mmHg) with a lack of gain in TcPO2 during the orthostatic test are associated with the negative clinical outcomes after spinal cord stimulation. The gain in TcPO2 during the orthostatic test to > 10 mmHg is associated with the positive clinical outcomes after spinal cord stimulation. The age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index > 5 and duration of critical ischemic symptoms also had a negative effect on the clinical outcomes after spinal cord stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: The positive clinical outcomes were revealed in most patients with critical limb ischemia one year after spinal cord stimulation. The low values of peripheral tissue metabolism with the disturbed functional status of the microvasculature are associated with the negative clinical outcome. The patients with baseline TcPO2 <10 mmHg can recover if they still have a sufficient microcirculatory reserve capacity. Duration of critical ischemic symptoms and high comorbidity burden with allowance for age are negative factors affecting the clinical outcome.

14.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
15.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 80: 76-81, 2019 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation on health-related quality of life in older adults with multimorbidity and to evaluate the predictive factors for postoperative quality of life impairment in such patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This study included 141 older adults with severe aortic stenosis scheduled for elective transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Quality of life was examined in all patients using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire, before and 2 years after surgery. Comorbidity was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: In older adult patients with aortic stenosis and multimorbidity, transcatheter aortic valve implantation significantly improved both physical and mental components of quality of life 2 years after surgery. A Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥5 points was independently associated with the absence of positive dynamics in Physical Health score [odds ratio (OR) 0.38 (0.20-0.75), p = 0.007]. Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥5 points [OR 0.31 (0.19-0.58), p = 0.026] and new-onset arrhythmia [OR 0.54 (0.38-0.78), p = 0.017] were independent predictors of the absence of positive dynamics in Mental Health score after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. CONCLUSIONS: High-level comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥5 points) predicts both Physical and Mental Health scores for quality of life impairment following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in older adults, and new-onset arrhythmia predicts the Mental Health score for quality of life impairment following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in these patients.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Multimorbidade , Qualidade de Vida , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular surgery patients with a prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay may benefit most from early nutrition support. Using established scoring systems for nutrition assessment and operative risk stratification, we aimed to develop a model to predict a prolonged ICU stay ≥5 days in order to identify patients who will benefit from early nutrition interventions. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study of patients undergoing elective valvular, coronary artery bypass grafting, or combined cardiac surgery. The nutrition risk was assessed by well-established screening tools. Patients' preoperative EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation), primary disease, and intraoperative cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time were included as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict a prolonged ICU stay (>4 days). RESULTS: The number of cardiac surgery patients included was 1193. Multivariate analysis revealed that for prediction of ICU stay >4 days, both Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (area under the curve (AUC): 0.716, P = .020) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score (AUC: 0.715, P = .037) were significant, whereas for prediction of ICU stay >5 days, only the MNA score showed significant results (AUC: 0.762, P = .011). CONCLUSION: Present data provide first evidence about the combined use of EuroSCORE, primary disease, CPB time, and nutrition risk screening tools for prediction of prolonged ICU stay in cardiac surgery patients. If prospectively evaluated in adequately designed studies, this model may help to identify patients with prolonged ICU stay to initiate early postoperative nutrition therapy and thus, facilitate an enhanced recovery.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pilot study was to elucidate the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) supply to the extracorporeal circulation circuit for cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: A total of 60 patients with coronary artery disease scheduled for CABG with CPB were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Patients were allocated randomly to receive treatment according to standard or modified CPB protocol where 40-ppm NO was added to the CPB circuit during cardiac surgery. The primary endpoint was the measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The secondary end points consisted in the measurements of creatine kinase-muscle/brain fraction (CK-MB) and vasoactive inotropic score (VIS). RESULTS: NO delivered into the CPB circuit had a cardioprotective effect. The level of cTnI was significantly lower in NO-treated group compared with the control group 6 hours after surgery: 1.79 ± 0.39 ng/mL versus 2.41 ± 0.55 ng/mL, respectively (P = .001). The CK-MB value was significantly lower in NO-treated group compared with the control group 24 hours after surgery: 47.69 ± 8.08 U/L versus 62.25 ± 9.78 U/L, respectively (P = .001); and the VIS was significantly lower in the NO-treated group 6 hours after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: NO supply to the CPB circuit during CABG exerted a cardioprotective effect and was associated with lower levels of VIS and cardiospecific blood markers cTnI and CK-MB.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072269

RESUMO

Anesthesiology, the branch of medicine concerning anesthesia and management of the vital functions of patients undergoing surgery, has played an important role in the development of cardiac surgery. In the middle of the last century, medical professionals had little experience in the treatment of congenital and acquired heart diseases. Progress of cardiac anesthesiology in Russia, as well as in countries across the globe, was due to requests to increase the safety of surgical procedures and to improve survival rates for the increasing number of patients with complex heart diseases. The development of cardiac surgery and anesthesiology in Russia evolved in 2 directions simultaneously in the mid-1950s. Some surgeons widely accepted the use of perfusionless hypothermia (hypothermia caused by surface cooling without perfusion); others were in favor of cardiopulmonary bypass technology. This review focuses on major historic milestones of cardiac anesthesiology in Russia, including its current status and the major problems it faces today.

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