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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: V600EBRAF mutated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a subtype (10%) with overall poor prognosis, but the clinical experience suggests a great heterogeneity in survival. It is still unexplored the real distribution of traditional and innovative biomarkers among V600EBRAF mutated mCRC and which is their role in the improvement of clinical prediction of survival outcomes. METHODS: Data and tissue specimens from 155 V600EBRAF mutated mCRC patients treated at eight Italian Units of Oncology were collected. Specimens were analysed by means of immunohistochemistry profiling performed on tissue microarrays. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: CDX2 loss conferred worse OS (HR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.03-2.86, p = 0.036), as well as high CK7 expression (HR = 2.17, 95%CI 1.10-4.29, p = 0.026). According to Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS), CMS1 patients had better OS compared to CMS2-3/CMS4 (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.71, p = 0.003). Samples showing less TILs had worse OS (HR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.16-2.56, p = 0.007). Progression-free survival analyses led to similar results. At multivariate analysis, CK7 and CMS subgrouping retained their significant correlation with OS. CONCLUSION: The present study provides new evidence on how several well-established biomarkers perform in a homogenousV600EBRAF mutated mCRC population, with important and independent information added to standard clinical prognosticators. These data could be useful to inform further translational research, for patients' stratification in clinical trials and in routine clinical practice to better estimate patients' prognosis.

2.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 79: 101889, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445415

RESUMO

The overall 5-year survival of gastric cancer (GC) has change only little in the last decades and it remains the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. However, in the past few years a more effective combination chemotherapy has raised the bar of curability of about 10% in resectable disease. Morever, a deeper knowledge of GC biology have unveiled biomarkers to help personalize adjunctive treatments in patients candidate to surgery. Despite a plateau in efficacy of fist-line treatment, incremental survival advantages have been recorded in unresectable advanced disease. The growing number of effective drugs in second and later lines along with a more judicious delivery of cytotoxics and early supportive interventions have enabled more patients to proceed beyond first-line. The continuum of care has become a reality in a considerable proportion of patients that offer opportunities to improve outcomes. Finally, the advent of the immune checkpoint inhibitors has brought great expectations in molecularly-defined subset of patients. This Review summarizes the state-of-the art in the management of GC together with novel concepts that have entered clinical development with the potential of change practice in the foreseeable future.

3.
Int J Surg Pathol ; : 1066896919869477, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416371

RESUMO

Preoperative chemotherapy or combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CRT), followed by surgery, represents the standard approach for locally advanced esophageal, gastric, and rectal carcinomas. To adequately evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant CRT in the resection specimens, several histopathologic tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring systems have been introduced into clinical practice. The primary goal of these TRG systems relies on a correct prognostic stratification of patients in the attempt to help clinical decision-making and influence surgical strategies, postoperative adjuvant therapies, and surveillance intensity. However, most TRG systems suffer from poor reproducibility and low interobserver concordance rates. Many efforts have been made in the identification of alternative, robust, simple, and universally accepted TRG scoring systems, which would help in the comparison of different treatment strategies and in the standardization of multimodal therapies. The aim of this review is to analyze the most commonly used TRG systems in gastrointestinal cancers highlighting their pitfalls and usefulness, depending on the tumor type.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11527, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395900

RESUMO

Polymorphisms contribute to inter-individual differences and show a promising predictive role for chemotherapy-related toxicity in colon cancer (CC). TOSCA is a multicentre, randomized, non-inferiority, phase III study conducted in high-risk stage II/stage III CC patients treated with 6 vs 3 months of FOLFOX-4 or XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy. During this post-hoc analysis, 218 women and 294 men were genotyped for 17 polymorphisms: TYMS (rs34743033, rs2853542, rs11280056), MTHFR (rs1801133, rs1801131), ERCC1 (rs11615), XRCC1 (rs25487), XRCC3 (rs861539), XPD (rs1799793, rs13181), GSTP1 (rs1695), GSTT1/GSTM1 (deletion +/-), ABCC1 (rs2074087), and ABCC2 (rs3740066, rs1885301, rs4148386). The aim was to assess the interaction between these polymorphisms and sex, on safety in terms of time to grade ≥3 haematological (TTH), grade ≥3 gastrointestinal (TTG) and grade ≥2 neurological (TTN) toxicity. Interactions were detected on TTH for rs1801133 and rs1799793, on TTG for rs13181 and on TTN for rs11615. Rs1799793 GA genotype (p = 0.006) and A allele (p = 0.009) shortened TTH in men. In women, the rs11615 CC genotype worsened TTN (co-dominant model p = 0.008, recessive model p = 0.003) and rs13181 G allele improved the TTG (p = 0.039). Differences between the two sexes in genotype distribution of rs1885301 (p = 0.020) and rs4148386 (p = 0.005) were found. We highlight that polymorphisms could be sex-specific biomarkers. These results, however, need to be confirmed in additional series.

5.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest a potential activity and a good tolerability of capecitabine in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AIMS: To evaluate capecitabine activity and safety in a wide cohort of advanced HCC patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 143 capecitabine-treated patients (January 2010 to December 2017) in three centers of the Veneto Oncology Network. RESULTS: Capecitabine was administered in second and third line, but also in first line instead of sorafenib in Child-Pugh B patients (70%), compromised clinical conditions (14%) or contraindications to antiangiogenetics (16%). Median overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) were 6.9 and 2.8 months, respectively. There were no differences in OS and TTP between the 32 patients treated with non-metronomic scheme (2000 mg/day for 14 days) and the 111 patients treated with metronomic scheme (1000 mg/day) after correction for prognostic factors at baseline with a propensity score analysis. Capecitabine was more active in patients intolerant to sorafenib than in those progressing during treatment (p = 0.024). At least one adverse event (mainly hematological) was experienced by 73% of patients but discontinuation was necessary only in 11 (8%). CONCLUSIONS: Capecitabine can be considered an active and safe option in advanced HCC, especially for patients unfit for other treatments.

6.
Eur J Cancer ; 118: 121-130, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known negative prognostic value of the V600EBRAF mutation in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), its outcome is quite heterogeneous, and the basis for this prognostic heterogeneity should be better defined. METHODS: Two large retrospective series of V600EBRAF-mutated mCRC from 22 institutions served as an exploratory and validation set to develop a prognostic score. The model was internally and externally validated. RESULTS: A total of 395 V600EBRAF-mutated mCRCs were included in the exploratory set. Performance status, CA19.9, lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, grading and liver, lung and nodal involvement emerged as independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Two different scoring systems were built: a 'complete' score (0-16) including all significant covariates and a 'simplified' score (0-9), based only on clinicopathological covariates, and excluding laboratory values. Adopting the complete score, proportions of patients with a low (0-4), intermediate (5-8) and high (9-16) score were 44.7%, 42.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The median OS was 29.6, 15.5 (hazard ratio [HR] for intermediate vs low risk: 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-3.22, p < .001) and 6.6 months (HR for high vs low risk: 4.72, 95% CI: 2.72-8.20, p < .001). Similar results were observed also after adjusting for the type of first-line treatment and adopting the simplified score. The simplified prognostic score derived from the exploratory set was then applied to the validation set for external confirmation. CONCLUSIONS: These scoring systems are based on easy-to-collect data and defined specific subgroups with relevant differences in their life expectancy. These tools could be useful in clinical practice, would allow better stratification of patients in clinical trials and may be adopted for proper adjustments in exploratory translational analyses.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268481

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies are available on the role of maintenance strategies after induction treatment regimens based on anti-epidermal growth factor receptors, and the optimal regimen for an anti-epidermal growth factor receptors-based maintenance treatment in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer is still to be defined. Objective: To determine whether maintenance therapy with single-agent panitumumab was noninferior to panitumumab plus fluorouracil and leucovorin after a 4-month induction treatment regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, randomized phase 2 noninferiority trial was conducted from July 7, 2015, through October 27, 2017, at multiple Italian centers. Patients with RAS wild-type, unresectable metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma who had not received previous treatment for metastatic disease were eligible. Induction therapy consisted of panitumumab plus FOLFOX-4 (panitumumab, 6 mg/kg, oxaliplatin, 85 mg/m2 at day 1, leucovorin calcium, 200 mg/m2, and fluorouracil, 400-mg/m2 bolus, followed by 600-mg/m2 continuous 24-hour infusion at days 1 and 2, every 2 weeks). Cutoff date for analyses was July 30, 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized (1:1) to first-line panitumumab plus FOLFOX-4 for 8 cycles followed by maintenance therapy with panitumumab plus fluorouracil-leucovorin (arm A) or panitumumab (arm B) until progressive disease, unacceptable toxic effects, or consent withdrawal. The minimization method was used to stratify randomization by previous adjuvant treatment and number of metastatic sites. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prespecified primary end point was 10-month progression-free survival (PFS) analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis with a noninferiority margin of 1.515 for the upper limit of the 1-sided 90% CI of the hazard ratio (HR) of arm B vs A. Results: Overall, 229 patients (153 male [66.8%]; median age, 64 years [interquartile range (IQR), 56-70 years]) were randomly assigned to arm A (n = 117) or arm B (n = 112). At a median follow-up of 18.0 months (IQR, 13.1-23.3 months]), a total of 169 disease progression or death events occurred. Arm B was inferior (upper limit of 1-sided 90% CI of the HR, 1.857). Ten-month PFS was 59.9% (95% CI, 51.5%-69.8%) in arm A vs 49.0% (95% CI, 40.5%-59.4%) in arm B (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.11-2.07; P = .01). During maintenance, arm A had a higher incidence of grade 3 or greater treatment-related adverse events (36 [42.4%] vs 16 [20.3%]) and panitumumab-related adverse events (27 [31.8%] vs 13 [16.4%]), compared with arm B. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, maintenance therapy with single-agent panitumumab was inferior in terms of PFS compared with panitumumab plus fluorouracil-leucovorin, which slightly increased the treatment toxic effects. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02476045.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(11): 3864-3875, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195370

RESUMO

In our previous study, we found that low thymic output and short telomere length were associated with a higher risk of tumor in elderly cancer patients. Here, we aimed to examine in depth the impact of immunological and biological senescence and immune activation on disease outcome in elderly patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).Peripheral blood samples from 81 CRC patients were studied for immune activation, immune senescence and recent thymic emigrant(RTE) CD4 and CD8 cells by flow cytometry. T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle (TREC) levels and telomere lengths were measured by real-time PCR. Plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, LPS and sCD14, were quantified by ELISA. While TREC levels and telomere length were not prognostic of disease outcome, high percentages of immune senescent and immune activated CD8 cells were associated with a higher risk of a negative event (relapse, progression, or death) in all studied patients and disease relapse in I-III staged patients. Levels of sCD14 and LPS were higher in patients who will experience a negative event than in patients who will not. In conclusion, in elderly CRC patients higher immunological senescence and immune activation negatively impact the disease outcome; how these characteristics influence the antineoplastic treatments remains to be investigated.

9.
Br J Cancer ; 121(3): 257-263, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Claudin-18 (CLDN18) is a highly specific tight junction protein of the gastric mucosa. An isoform of CLDN18, the Claudin 18.2, has recently emerged as an innovative drug target for metastatic gastric cancer. METHODS: We investigated the immunohistochemical profile of CLDN18, p53, p16, E-cadherin, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PSM2, HER2, and PDL-1 in a large series of 523 primary gastric carcinomas (GCs; n = 408) and gastro-oesophageal carcinomas (GECs; n = 115) and 135 matched and synchronous nodal metastases. The status of HER2 and EBER by means of chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) was also evaluated. RESULTS: High membranous CLDN18 expression was present in 150/510 (29.4%) primary cases and in 45/132 (34.1%) metastases. An abnormal expression (i.e. nuclear and/or cytoplasmic) was observed in 115 (22.5%) primary cases and in 33 (25.0%) metastases. A 38.8% of the cases showed significant CLDN18 intratumoural variability among the different tissue microarray cores obtained from the same tumour. Positive membrane CLDN18 expression was statistically associated with non-antral GCs (p = 0.016), Lauren diffuse type (p = 0.009), and with EBV-associated cancers (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CLDN18 is frequently expressed in gastric and gastro-oesophageal cancers; further studies should investigate the prognostic significance of CLDN18 heterogeneity in order to implement its test into clinical practice.

10.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 13(7): 635-644, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119959

RESUMO

Introduction: Lung metastases occur in 10-20% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Most of them are treated with palliative intent and have a poor prognosis. Pulmonary metastasectomy may be a curative option for carefully selected patients with 5-year survival rates ranging from 25% to 60%. However, up to 70% of patients develop recurrence after pulmonary metastasectomy. Therefore, the identification of prognostic factors is essential in CRC patients with resectable lung metastases. Areas covered: This review aims at summarizing the actual body of knowledge available on lung metastases from CRC focusing on their clinical, pathological and molecular profile. Moreover, we provide an update on experts' attitudes towards lung metastasectomy, adjuvant or perioperative chemotherapy. Expert opinion: Traditional clinical prognosticators such as the total number of pulmonary metastases, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels before surgery, and presence of lymph node metastases cannot provide reliable criteria to predict survival after lung metastasectomy. Indeed, research efforts have been directed in recent years toward studying the biological characteristics of lung lesions to better define prognosis and response to treatment, and ultimately shed new light on their proper local and systemic management.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 3954-3961, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRAF mutations are grouped in activating RAS-independent signaling as monomers (class 1-V600E) or as dimers (class 2-codons 597/601), and RAS-dependent with impaired kinase activity (class 3-codons 594/596). Although clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of V600EBRAF-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are well known, limited data are available from the two other classes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Data from 117 patients with BRAF (92 class 1, 12 class 2, and 13 class 3)-mutated mCRC were collected. A total of 540 BRAF wt mCRCs were included as control. IHC profiling was performed to determine the consensus molecular subtypes (CMS), cytokeratin 7/20 profiles, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte infiltration, and BM1/BM2 categorization. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test. RESULTS: Class 3 BRAF-mutated mCRC was more frequently left sided (P = 0.0028), pN0 (P = 0.0159), and without peritoneal metastases (P = 0.0176) compared with class 1, whereas class 2 cases were similar to class 1. Hazard ratio for OS, as compared with BRAF wt, was 2.38 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.61-3.54] for class 1, 1.90 (95% CI, 0.85-4.26) for class 2, and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.51-1.69) for class 3 (P < 0.0001). Class 2 and 3 tumors were all assigned to CMS2-3. A higher median CD3/CD8-positive lymphocyte infiltration was observed in BRAF-mutated class 2 (P = 0.033) compared with class 3 cases. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, different clinical and pathologic features and outcome data were reported according to the three BRAF mutation classes in mCRC. Specific targeted treatment strategies should be identified in the near future for such patients.

12.
Radiother Oncol ; 134: 110-118, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capecitabine-based radiochemotherapy (cbRCT) is standard for preoperative long-course radiochemotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer. This prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial investigated two intensification regimens. cT4 lesions were excluded. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: pathological outcome (TRG 1-2) among arms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Low-located cT2N0-2M0, cT3N0-2M0 (up to 12 cm from anal verge) presentations were treated with cbRCT randomly intensified by either radiotherapy boost (Xelac arm) or multidrug concomitant chemotherapy (Xelox arm). Xelac: concomitant boost to bulky site (45 Gy/1.8 Gy/die, 5 sessions/week to the pelvis, +10 Gy at 1 Gy twice/week to the bulky) plus concurrent capecitabine (1650 mg/mq/die). Xelox: 45 Gy to the pelvis + 5.4 Gy/1.8 Gy/die, 5 sessions/week to the bulky site + concurrent capecitabine (1300 mg/mq/die) and oxaliplatin (130 mg/mq on days 1,19,38). Surgery was planned 7-9 weeks after radiochemotherapy. RESULTS: From June 2005 to September 2013, 534 patients were analysed: 280 in Xelac, 254 in Xelox arm. Xelox arm presented higher G ≥ 3 haematologic (p = 0.01) and neurologic toxicity (p < 0.001). Overall, 98.5% patients received curative surgery. The tumour regression grade distribution did not differ between arms (p = 0.102). TRG 1+2 rate significantly differed: Xelac arm 61.7% vs. Xelox 52.3% (p = 0.039). Pathological complete response (ypT0N0) rates were 24.4 and 23.8%, respectively (p non-significant). Median follow-up:5.62 years. Five-year disease-free survival rate were 74.7% (Xelac) and 73.8% (Xelox), respectively (p = 0.444). Five-year overall survival rate were 80.4% (Xelac) and 85.5% (Xelox), respectively (p = 0.155). CONCLUSION: Xelac arm significantly obtained higher TRG1-2 rates. No differences were found about clinical outcome. Because of efficacy on TRG, inferior toxicity and good compliance, Xelac schedules or similar radiotherapy dose intensification schemes could be considered as reference treatments for cT3 lesions.

13.
Tumori ; 105(4): 353-358, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exocrine pancreatic cancers include common type pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cystic neoplasms, which account for 85% and 10% of cases, respectively. The remaining 5% are rare histotypes, comprising adenosquamous carcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma, hepatoid carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma and its variant with osteoclast-like giant cells, solid pseudopapillary carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma. Due to their low incidence, little knowledge is available on their clinical and molecular features as well as on treatment choices. The national initiative presented here aims at the molecular characterization of series of rare histotypes for which therapeutic and follow-up data are available. METHODS: A nationwide Italian Rare Pancreatic Cancer (IRaPaCa) task force whose first initiative is a multicentric retrospective study involving 21 Italian cancer centers to retrieve histologic material and clinical and treatment data of at least 100 patients with rare exocrine pancreatic cancers has been created. After histologic revision by a panel of expert pathologists, DNA and RNA from paraffin tissues will be investigated by next-generation sequencing using molecular pathway-oriented and immune-oriented mutational and expression profiling panels constructed availing of the information from the International Cancer Genome Consortium. Bioinformatic analysis of data will drive validation studies by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, as well as nanostring assays. CONCLUSIONS: We expect to gather novel data on rare pancreatic cancer types that will be useful to inform the design of therapeutic choices.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/patologia , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Oncologist ; 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2 amplification is detected in 3% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), making tumors in the metastatic setting vulnerable to double pharmacological HER2 blockade. Preclinical findings show that it also might impair response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) treatment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients with KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic CRC underwent molecular screening of HER2 positivity by HERACLES criteria (immunohistochemistry 3+ or 2+ in ≥50% of cells, confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization). A sample of consecutive HER2-negative patients was selected as control. A regression modeling strategy was applied to identify predictors explaining the bulk of HER2 positivity and the association with response to previous anti-EGFR treatment. RESULTS: From August 2012 to April 2018, a total of 100 HER2-positive metastatic CRC tumors were detected out of 1,485 KRAS exon 2 wild-type screened patients (6.7%). HER2-positive patients show more frequently lung metastases (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.61; p = .014) and higher tumor burden (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-2.01; p = .011), and tumors were more likely to be left sided (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.22-1.11; p = .088). HER2-positive patients who received treatment with anti-EGFR agents (n = 79) showed poorer outcome (objective response rate, 31.2% vs. 46.9%, p = .031; progression-free survival, 5.7 months vs. 7 months, p = .087). CONCLUSION: Testing for HER2 should be offered to all patients with metastatic CRC because the occurrence of this biomarker is unlikely to be predicted based on main clinicopathological features. Patients with HER2-amplified metastatic CRC are less likely to respond to anti-EGFR therapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Patients with HER2-amplified/overexpressed metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harbor a driver actionable molecular alteration that has been shown in preclinical models to hamper efficacy of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies. The present study confirmed that this molecular feature was associated with worse objective tumor response and shorter progression-free survival in response to previous anti-EGFR therapies. Moreover, it was found that the occurrence of this biomarker is unlikely to be predicted based on main clinicopathological features. Therefore, HER2 status assessment should be included in the molecular diagnostic workup of all mCRC for speedy referral to clinical trials encompassing HER2-targeted double blockade independently of previous anti-EGFR treatment.

15.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 18(2): 125-132.e2, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MET overexpression/amplification has been associated with resistance to anti- epidermal growth factor receptor therapies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Combining tivantinib, an inhibitor of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase, and cetuximab may be effective in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-resistant MET-high mCRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter, single-arm, Simon 2-stage, phase II study enrolled patients with MET-high, KRAS wild-type mCRC, who were treated with ≥ 1 prior systemic therapy, with at least stable disease on the last treatment regimen containing cetuximab or panitumumab. Patients were enrolled if they presented tumor progression on cetuximab or panitumumab within 3 months before enrollment. Patients received tivantinib (360 mg twice daily) plus cetuximab (500 mg intravenously every 2 weeks). The primary endpoint was objective response rate; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. The treatment would be considered effective if ≥ 5 confirmed partial responses were observed among 41 patients. RESULTS: In total, 41 patients were evaluated, 4 patients (9.8%) achieved an objective response, the median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval, 1.9-4.2 months), and the median overall survival was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval, 7.1-15.1 months). Among 13 patients with tested MET amplification, 2 responding patients had MET amplification compared with none of the nonresponding patients. The most common grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (14.6%), skin toxicity (12.2%), and fatigue (9.8%). CONCLUSION: Although the study did not meet its primary endpoint, efficacy results suggest some activity of the tested combination, with almost 10% of patients achieving objective response in a difficult-to-treat setting. Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of tivantinib and cetuximab.

16.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 19(5): 399-409, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mortality is most often attributable to metastatic disease. Despite the progress achieved so far, life expectancy continues to be limited in most patients. Ramucirumab, a most recent antiangiogenic drug, is vying in the race to metastatic CRC (mCRC) treatment since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), based on the results of the RAISE study. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the role of ramucirumab in mCRC, including clinical indication, safety issues, and future perspectives. EXPERT OPINION: The use of Ramucirumab in clinical practice is still limited, probably due to economic burden and the lack of specific biomarkers. Future efforts will be addressed to improve our knowledge in the use of this drug and better guide us in patients' care.

17.
Tumori ; 105(3): 243-252, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857495

RESUMO

AIMS: BEAWARE investigated the pattern of first-line bevacizumab early interruption in the Italian real-world setting of metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 386 patients were followed for 15 months after first-line chemotherapy + bevacizumab start. The rate of bevacizumab interruption for progression or adverse drug reactions (ADRs) constituted the primary endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 78.2% of patients interrupted bevacizumab: 56.6% for progression, 7.3% for ADRs, and 36.1% for other reasons. Median treatment duration was 6.7, 2.5, and 4.6 months, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 10.3 months; however, 35.8% of patients were not progressed and were thus censored at the data cutoff of 15 months, while 21.8% were still receiving bevacizumab. Patients discontinuing for progression/ADRs more frequently had metastases in >1 site (p = .0001), and a shorter median progression-free survival (6.9 vs 13.9 months, p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, first-line bevacizumab is interrupted mainly for progression, only 7.3% due to adverse events, and about one third of cases for other reasons. In clinical practice, the attitude to treat until progression as per guidelines might be implemented. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01609075.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
18.
Eur J Cancer ; 111: 94-106, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of second-line chemotherapy (L2) over standard first-line (L1) gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GEMCIS) or oxaliplatin (GEMOX) chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) is unclear. Our aim was to identify and validate prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) with L2 in aBTC to guide clinical decisions in this setting. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of four prospective patient cohorts: a development cohort (28 French centres) and three validation cohorts from Italy, UK and France. All consecutive patients with aBTC receiving L2 after GEMCIS/GEMOX L1 between 2003 and 2016 were included. The association of clinicobiological data with OS was investigated in univariate and multivariate Cox analyses. A simple score was derived from the multivariate model. RESULTS: The development cohort included 405 patients treated with L1 GEMOX (91%) or GEMCIS. Of them, 55.3% were men, and median age was 64.8 years. Prior surgical resection was observed in 26.7%, and 94.8% had metastatic disease. Performance status (PS) was 0, 1 and 2 in 17.8%, 52.4% and 29.7%, respectively. Among 22 clinical parameters, eight were associated with OS in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, four were independent prognostic factors (p < 0.05): PS, reason for L1 discontinuation, prior resection of primary tumour and peritoneal carcinomatosis. The model had the Harrell's concordance index of 0.655, a good calibration and was validated in the three external cohorts (N = 392). CONCLUSION: We validated previously reported predictive factors of OS with L2 and identified peritoneal carcinomatosis as a new pejorative factor in nearly 800 patients. Our model and score may be useful in daily practice and for future clinical trial design.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 283, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum/fluoropyrimidine regimens are the backbone of first-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). However response rates to first line chemotherapy range from 30 to 50% and disease progression occurs after 4-6 cycles. The optimal duration of first-line therapy is still unknown and its continuation until disease progression represents the standard. However this strategy is often associated with cumulative toxicity and rapid development of drug resistance. Moreover, only about 40% of AGC pts. are eligible for second-line treatment. METHODS: This is a randomized, open-label, multicenter phase III trial. It aims at assessing whether switch maintenance to ramucirumab plus paclitaxel will extend the progression-free survival (PFS) of subjects with HER-2 negative AGC who have not progressed after 3 months of a first-line with a platinum/fluoropyrimidine regimen (either FOLFOX4, mFOLFOX6 or XELOX). The primary endpoint is to compare Progression-Free Survival (PFS) of patients in ARM A (switch maintenance to ramucirumab and placlitaxel) versus ARM B (continuation of the same first-line therapy with oxaliplatin/fluoropyrimidine). Secondary endpoints are: overall survival, time-to-treatment failure, overall response rate, duration of response, percentage of patients that will receive a second line therapy according to arm treatment, safety, quality of life. Exploratory studies including Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) in archival tumor tissues are planned in order to identify potential biomarkers of primary resistance and prognosis. DISCUSSION: The ARMANI study estimates if patients treated with early swich with ramucirumab plus paclitaxel received benefit when compared to those treated with continuation of first line therapy. The hypothesis is that the early administration of an active, non-cross resistant second-line regimen such as ramucirumab plus paclitaxel may prolong the time in which patients are progression-free, and consequently have a better quality of life. Moreover, this strategy may rescue all those subjects that become ineligible for second-line therapy due to the rapid deterioration of health status after the first disease progression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ARMANI is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02934464 , October 17, 2016) and EudraCT(2016-001783-12, April 202,016).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Junção Esofagogástrica/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(3): 420-435, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated signalling and angiogenesis can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. We aimed to assess whether the addition of ramucirumab, a VEGFR-2 antagonist monoclonal antibody, to first-line chemotherapy improves outcomes in patients with metastatic gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 126 centres in 20 countries, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with metastatic, HER2-negative gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, and adequate organ function. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) with an interactive web response system to receive cisplatin (80 mg/m2, on the first day) plus capecitabine (1000 mg/m2, twice daily for 14 days), every 21 days, and either ramucirumab (8 mg/kg) or placebo on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. 5-Fluorouracil (800 mg/m2 intravenous infusion on days 1-5) was permitted in patients unable to take capecitabine. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival, analysed by intention to treat in the first 508 patients. We did a sensitivity analysis of the primary endpoint, including a central review of CT scans. Overall survival was a key secondary endpoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02314117. FINDINGS: Between Jan 28, 2015, and Sept 16, 2016, 645 patients were randomly assigned to receive ramucirumab plus fluoropyrimidine and cisplatin (n=326) or placebo plus fluoropyrimidine and cisplatin (n=319). Investigator-assessed progression-free survival was significantly longer in the ramucirumab group than the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·753, 95% CI 0·607-0·935, p=0·0106; median progression-free survival 5·7 months [5·5-6·5] vs 5·4 months [4·5-5·7]). A sensitivity analysis based on central independent review of the radiological images did not corroborate the investigator-assessed difference in progression-free survival (HR 0·961, 95% CI 0·768-1·203, p=0·74). There was no difference in overall survival between groups (0·962, 0·801-1·156, p=0·6757; median overall survival 11·2 months [9·9-11·9] in the ramucirumab group vs 10·7 months [9·5-11·9] in the placebo group). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (85 [26%] of 323 patients in the ramucirumab group vs 85 [27%] of 315 in the placebo group), anaemia (39 [12%] vs 44 [14%]), and hypertension (32 [10%] vs 5 [2%]). The incidence of any-grade serious adverse events was 160 (50%) of 323 patients in the ramucirumab group and 149 (47%) of 315 patients in the placebo group. The most common serious adverse events were vomiting (14 [4%] in the ramucirumab group vs 21 [7%] in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (11 [3%] vs 19 [6%]). There were seven deaths in each group, either during study treatment or within 30 days of discontinuing study treatment, which were the result of treatment-related adverse events. In the ramucirumab group, these adverse events were acute kidney injury, cardiac arrest, gastric haemorrhage, peritonitis, pneumothorax, septic shock, and sudden death (n=1 of each). In the placebo group, these adverse events were cerebrovascular accident (n=1), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (n=2), pulmonary embolism (n=2), sepsis (n=1), and small intestine perforation (n=1). INTERPRETATION: Although the primary analysis for progression-free survival was statistically significant, this outcome was not confirmed in a sensitivity analysis of progression-free survival by central independent review, and did not improve overall survival. Therefore, the addition of ramucirumab to cisplatin plus fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy is not recommended as first-line treatment for this patient population. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.

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