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2.
Nature ; 577(7788): 64-68, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739311

RESUMO

The size-dependent and shape-dependent characteristics that distinguish nanoscale materials from bulk solids arise from constraining the dimensionality of an inorganic structure1-3. As a consequence, many studies have focused on rationally shaping these materials to influence and enhance their optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties4-6. Although a select number of stable clusters can typically be synthesized within the nanoscale regime for a specific composition, isolating clusters of a predetermined size and shape remains a challenge, especially for those derived from two-dimensional materials. Here we realize a multidentate coordination environment in a metal-organic framework to stabilize discrete inorganic clusters within a porous crystalline support. We show confined growth of atomically defined nickel(II) bromide, nickel(II) chloride, cobalt(II) chloride and iron(II) chloride sheets through the peripheral coordination of six chelating bipyridine linkers. Notably, confinement within the framework defines the structure and composition of these sheets and facilitates their precise characterization by crystallography. Each metal(II) halide sheet represents a fragment excised from a single layer of the bulk solid structure, and structures obtained at different precursor loadings enable observation of successive stages of sheet assembly. Finally, the isolated sheets exhibit magnetic behaviours distinct from those of the bulk metal halides, including the isolation of ferromagnetically coupled large-spin ground states through the elimination of long-range, interlayer magnetic ordering. Overall, these results demonstrate that the pore environment of a metal-organic framework can be designed to afford precise control over the size, structure and spatial arrangement of inorganic clusters.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(19): 13314-13322, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525034

RESUMO

The Mössbauer spectra of trigonal α-FePO4, measured between 4.2 and 300 K, exhibit hyperfine parameters characteristic of high-spin iron(III) in a pseudotetrahedral oxygen environment. Between 24.5 and 300 K, the spectra show a paramagnetic quadrupole doublet and at 24.0 K the spectrum reveals the onset of antiferromagnetic exchange. At 4.2 and 16 K, a single magnetic sextet is observed with hyperfine fields of 51.36(1) and 42.74(1) T, respectively, with an angle, θ, of 90° between the principal axis of the electric field gradient tensor in the basal plane of the trigonal unit cell and the hyperfine field along the c axis. The spectra obtained between 21 and 18 K have been fitted with two equal-area magnetic sextets with θ angles of 25 and 85°, angles which indicate that the iron(III) magnetic moments are canted away from the c axis. The reduced hyperfine field versus reduced temperature plot indicates a departure from a Brillouin S = 5/2 behavior, as a result of some magnetostriction at the Néel temperature. The Mössbauer spectra of class 1 mixed-valence SrFe3(PO4)3, measured between 4.2 and 300 K, exhibit hyperfine parameters characteristic of two high-spin iron(II) ions and one high-spin iron(III) ion in a pseudooctahedral oxygen environment. At and above 40 K, the spectra show two paramagnetic quadrupole doublets, whereas at 39.0 K the spectrum reveals the onset of ferrimagnetic exchange. Between 4.2 and 30 K, the spectra have been fitted with two magnetic sextets with θ angles of 85 and 10° for the iron(II) and iron(III) sites, respectively. The reduced hyperfine field versus reduced temperature plots for the iron(II) and iron(III) sites show a distinct departure from Brillouin S = 2 and S = 5/2 behavior, respectively, a departure that suggests a first-order magnetic transition at 39.5(5) K with differing magnetostrictions at the iron(II) and iron(III) sites.

4.
Chem Sci ; 10(27): 6651-6660, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367318

RESUMO

Iron is one of the most abundant elements in the environment and in the human body. As an essential nutrient, iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and iron dysregulation is implicated in numerous pathologies, including neuro-degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Endogenous iron pool concentrations are directly linked to iron ion uptake from environmental sources such as drinking water, providing motivation for developing new technologies for assessing iron(ii) and iron(iii) levels in water. However, conventional methods for measuring aqueous iron pools remain laborious and costly and often require sophisticated equipment and/or additional processing steps to remove the iron ions from the original environmental source. We now report a simplified and accurate chemical platform for capturing and quantifying the iron present in aqueous samples through use of a post-synthetically modified porous aromatic framework (PAF). The ether/thioether-functionalized network polymer, PAF-1-ET, exhibits high selectivity for the uptake of iron(ii) and iron(iii) over other physiologically and environmentally relevant metal ions. Mössbauer spectroscopy, XANES, and EXAFS measurements provide evidence to support iron(iii) coordination to oxygen-based ligands within the material. The polymer is further successfully employed to adsorb and remove iron ions from groundwater, including field sources in West Bengal, India. Combined with an 8-hydroxyquinoline colorimetric indicator, PAF-1-ET enables the simple and direct determination of the iron(ii) and iron(iii) ion concentrations in these samples, providing a starting point for the design and use of molecularly-functionalized porous materials for potential dual detection and remediation applications.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(27): 8526-8534, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893567

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks are of interest for use in a variety of electrochemical and electronic applications, although a detailed understanding of their charge transport behavior, which is of critical importance for enhancing electronic conductivities, remains limited. Herein, we report isolation of the mixed-valence framework materials, Fe(tri)2(BF4) x (tri- = 1,2,3-triazolate; x = 0.09, 0.22, and 0.33), obtained from the stoichiometric chemical oxidation of the poorly conductive iron(II) framework Fe(tri)2, and find that the conductivity increases dramatically with iron oxidation level. Notably, the most oxidized variant, Fe(tri)2(BF4)0.33, displays a room-temperature conductivity of 0.3(1) S/cm, which represents an increase of 8 orders of magnitude from that of the parent material and is one of the highest conductivity values reported among three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks. Detailed characterization of Fe(tri)2 and the Fe(tri)2(BF4) x materials via powder X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and IR and UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopies reveals that the high conductivity arises from intervalence charge transfer between mixed-valence low-spin FeII/III centers. Further, Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates the presence of a valence-delocalized FeII/III species in Fe(tri)2(BF4) x at 290 K, one of the first such observations for a metal-organic framework. The electronic structure of valence-pure Fe(tri)2 and the charge transport mechanism and electronic structure of mixed-valence Fe(tri)2(BF4) x frameworks are discussed in detail.

6.
Nat Mater ; 17(7): 625-632, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867169

RESUMO

Conductive metal-organic frameworks are an emerging class of three-dimensional architectures with degrees of modularity, synthetic flexibility and structural predictability that are unprecedented in other porous materials. However, engendering long-range charge delocalization and establishing synthetic strategies that are broadly applicable to the diverse range of structures encountered for this class of materials remain challenging. Here, we report the synthesis of K x Fe2(BDP)3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2; BDP2- = 1,4-benzenedipyrazolate), which exhibits full charge delocalization within the parent framework and charge mobilities comparable to technologically relevant polymers and ceramics. Through a battery of spectroscopic methods, computational techniques and single-microcrystal field-effect transistor measurements, we demonstrate that fractional reduction of Fe2(BDP)3 results in a metal-organic framework that displays a nearly 10,000-fold enhancement in conductivity along a single crystallographic axis. The attainment of such properties in a K x Fe2(BDP)3 field-effect transistor represents the realization of a general synthetic strategy for the creation of new porous conductor-based devices.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 56(11): 6477-6488, 2017 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509544

RESUMO

K3Fe(CN)6 reacts with the viologen 1,1'-bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium dication, (DNP)2+, to form a supramolecular complex, (DNP)3[Fe(CN)6]2·10H2O (1). The crystal structure of 1 reveals that there are two [Fe(CN)6]3- anions within an organic framework of three (DNP)2+ cations with the shortest Fe(III)···Fe(III) distances of ca. 9.8 Å, distances that minimize extensive long-range magnetic exchange coupling interactions between the [Fe(CN)6]3- anions, and, thus, 1 is paramagnetic above ca. 17 K and exhibits weak ferromagnetic coupling between 17 and 3 K and antiferromagnetic coupling between 3 and 1.8 K. The long Fe(III)···Fe(III) distances permit slow spin-spin and slow spin-lattice paramagnetic relaxation, relative to the iron-57 Larmor precession frequency, as is evidenced by the Mössbauer spectra measured between 3 and 60 K; between 85 and 295 K, rapid paramagnetic relaxation is observed. Both the slow spin-spin and slow spin-lattice relaxation are mediated by the organic, π-conjugated viologen cations. The Fe-C distances, the Mössbauer isomer shifts, the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, and the 3 K magnetization results all indicate the presence of low-spin Fe(III) ions in the [Fe(CN)6]3- anions in 1. There is no unequivocal indication of the presence of any formal electron delocalization or transfer from the [Fe(CN)6]3- anion to the (DNP)2+ cations in the results obtained from X-ray crystallography, magnetic measurements, and Mössbauer spectra. Because of enhancement of the spin-orbit coupling by the heavy-atom or -ion effect, the Fe(III) ions in the [Fe(CN)6]3- anions interact with the (DNP)2+ cations, causing them to fluoresce with increasing intensity upon cooling from 90 to 25 K when excited at 300 nm. The resulting luminescence of the viologen (DNP)2+ cation induced by the [Fe(CN)6]3- anions indicates the presence of significant mixing of the molecular orbitals derived from the [Fe(CN)6]3- anions and the molecular orbitals associated with the (DNP)2+ cations to yield bonding supramolecular orbitals in 1, a mixing that is also observed between 50 and 3 K in the temperature dependence of the isomer shift of 1.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 45(45): 18018-18044, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27801448

RESUMO

This review deals with our long-range goal of determining why the Prussian blue pigments, typically either the "soluble" KFeIII[FeII(CN)6]·xH2O or the alternative "insoluble" Fe[FeII(CN)6]3·xH2O compounds, used by artists from shortly after the discovery of Prussian blue in 1704 and well into the early twentieth century, often fade when exposed to light. In order to achieve this goal it was decided that first, for comparison purposes, we had to prepare and fully characterize Prussian blues prepared by various, often commercially successful, synthetic methods. The characterization has employed a large variety of modern methods to determine both the stoichiometry of the Prussian blues and the arrangement of the voids found in the latter "insoluble" Prussian blues. The refinement of synchrotron radiation derived X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for a formally soluble and an insoluble Prussian blue required refinement in the Pm3[combining macron]m space group and lead to the K1.9[FeFe(CN)18]·{1.9 OH + 7.0H2O}, 1, and FeFe(CN)18·11.0H2O, 2, stoichiometries. The former compound, 1, exhibits an apparently random iron(ii) long-range void arrangement, whereas 2 exhibits a more non-random long-range arrangement, however, a pair distribution function analysis indicates a short-range ordering of the voids in both compounds. After further detailed characterization of many Prussian blue samples, painted samples on linen canvas, were subjected to accelerated light exposure for up to 800 hours either as pure Prussian blues or mixed with (PbCO3)2Pb(OH)2, ZnO or TiO2, the white pigments often used by artists to lighten the intense Prussian blue colour. The results indicate that the first two of these white pigments play a significant role in the fading of the colour of Prussian blues. In order to achieve our long-range goal, several Prussian blue samples were prepared from "ancient" recipes published in 1758 and 1779. These so-called "ancient" samples, painted in a dark and a pale blue shade, were also subjected to accelerated light exposure. The colorimetric results, in conjunction with X-ray powder diffraction refinements, pair distribution analysis and Mössbauer spectral results, indicate that, depending on the exact method of ancient preparation, the Prussian blue pigments were sometimes badly contaminated with alumina hydrate and/or ferrihydrite, a contamination which leads to extensive fading or decolourization of the Prussian blue pigments. The presence of ferrihydrite was subsequently confirmed in the study of a surface paint fragment from an eighteenth-century polychrome sculpture.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(37): 26306-26309, 2016 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711417

RESUMO

The proportionality constant, α, between the observed isomer shifts and the calculated electron probability density at the iron nucleus has been reevaluated in terms of the correct experimental isomer shifts relative to α-iron and their corresponding accuracy, which should be considered in the linear regression fit yielding α. The iron-57 excited state nuclear quadrupole moment, Q, is not a "relative" value and its widely accepted experimental value is 0.16(1) × 10-28 m2 as also confirmed by nuclear model calculations.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 55(7): 3413-8, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26998613

RESUMO

Several high-resolution Mössbauer spectra of yttrium iron garnet, Y3Fe5O12, have been fit as a function of temperature with a new model based on a detailed analysis of the spectral changes that result from a reduction from the cubic Ia3̅d space group to the trigonal R3̅ space group. These spectral fits indicate that the magnetic sextet arising from the 16a site in cubic symmetry is subdivided into three sextets arising from the 6f, the 3d, 3d, and the 1a, 1b, 2c sites in rhombohedral-axis trigonal symmetry. The 24d site in cubic Ia3̅d symmetry is subdivided into four sextets arising from four different 6f sites in R3̅ rhombohedral-axis trigonal symmetry, sites that differ only by the angles between the principal axis of the electric field gradient tensor and the magnetic hyperfine field assumed to be parallel with the magnetic easy axis. This analysis, when applied to the potential nuclear waste storage compounds Y(3-x)Ca(0.5x)Th(0.5x)Fe5O12 and Y(3-x)Ca(0.5x)Ce(0.5x)Fe5O12, indicates virtually no perturbation of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties upon substitution of small amounts of calcium(II) and thorium(IV) or cerium(IV) onto the yttrium(III) 24c site as compared with Y3Fe5O12. The observed broadening of the four different 6f sites derived from the 24d site results from the substitution of yttrium(III) with calcium(II) and thorium(IV) or cerium(IV) cations on the next-nearest neighbor 24c site. In contrast, the same analysis applied to Y(2.8)Ce(0.2)Fe5O12 indicates a local perturbation of the magnetic exchange pathways as a result of the presence of cerium(IV) in the 24c next-nearest neighbor site of the iron(III) 24d site.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(39): 12617-26, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26375161

RESUMO

The ability of a benzoquinonoid bridging ligand to mediate double-exchange coupling in a mixed-valence Fe2 complex is demonstrated. Metalation of the bridging ligand 2,5-di(2,6-dimethylanilino)-3,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (LH2) with Fe(II) in the presence of the capping ligand tris((6-methyl-2-pyridyl)methyl)amine (Me3TPyA) affords the dinuclear complex [(Me3TPyA)2Fe(II)2(L)](2+). The dc magnetic measurements, in conjunction with X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy, reveal the presence of weak ferromagnetic superexchange coupling between Fe(II) centers through the diamagnetic bridging ligand to give an S = 4 ground state. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements, collected in a small dc field, show this complex to behave as a single-molecule magnet with a relaxation barrier of U(eff) = 14(1) cm(-1). The slow magnetic relaxation in the Fe(II)2 complex can be switched off through one-electron oxidation to the mixed-valence congener [(Me3TPyA)2Fe2(L)](3+), where X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate a metal-centered oxidation. The dc magnetic measurements show an S = 9/2 ground state for the mixed-valence complex, stemming from strong ferromagnetic exchange coupling that is best described considering electron hopping through a double-exchange coupling mechanism, with a double-exchange parameter of B = 69(4) cm(-1). In accordance with double-exchange, an intense feature is observed in the near-infrared region and is assigned as an intervalence charge-transfer band. The rate of intervalence electron hopping is comparable to that of the Mössbauer time scale, such that variable-temperature Mössbauer spectra reveal a thermally activated transition from a valence-trapped to detrapped state and provide an activation energy for electron hopping of 63(8) cm(-1). These results demonstrate the ability of quinonoid ligands to mediate electron hopping between high-spin metal centers, by providing the first example of an Fe complex that exhibits double-exchange through an organic bridging ligand and the largest metal-metal separation yet observed in any metal complex with double-exchange coupling.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(44): 12914-7, 2015 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332337

RESUMO

The characterization of the unstable Ni(II) bis(silylamide) Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (1), its THF complex Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (THF) (2), and the stable bis(pyridine) derivative trans-Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (py)2 (3), is described. Both 1 and 2 decompose at ca. 25 °C to a tetrameric Ni(I) species, [Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }]4 (4), also obtainable from LiN(SiMe3 )2 and NiCl2 (DME). Experimental and computational data indicate that the instability of 1 is likely due to ease of reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(I) and the stabilization of 4 through dispersion forces.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 54(18): 8914-22, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26331405

RESUMO

The bis(µ-oxo) dimeric complexes {Ar(iPr8)OM(µ-O)}2 (Ar(iPr8) = C6H-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-(i)Pr3)2-3,5-(i)Pr2; M = Fe (1), Co (2)) were prepared by oxidation of the M(I) half-sandwich complexes {Ar(iPr8)M(η(6)-arene)} (arene = benzene or toluene). Iron species 1 was prepared by reacting {Ar(iPr8)Fe(η(6)-benzene)} with N2O or O2, and cobalt species 2 was prepared by reacting {Ar(iPr8)Co(η(6)-toluene)} with O2. Both 1 and 2 were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and, in the case of 1, Mössbauer spectroscopy. The solid-state structures of both compounds reveal unique M2(µ-O)2 (M = Fe (1), Co(2)) cores with formally three-coordinate metal ions. The Fe···Fe separation in 1 bears a resemblance to that in the Fe2(µ-O)2 diamond core proposed for the methane monooxygenase intermediate Q. The structural differences between 1 and 2 are reflected in rather differing magnetic behavior. Compound 2 is thermally unstable, and its decomposition at room temperature resulted in the oxidation of the Ar(iPr8) ligand via oxygen insertion and addition to the central aryl ring of the terphenyl ligand to produce the 5,5'-peroxy-bis[4,6-(i)Pr2-3,7-bis(2,4,6-(i)Pr3-phenyl)oxepin-2(5H)-one] (3). The structure of the oxidized terphenyl species is closely related to that of a key intermediate proposed for the oxidation of benzene.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 54(17): 8415-22, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267610

RESUMO

The iron-57 Mössbauer spectra of the eight-coordinate complex, [Fe(L(N4))2](BF4)2, where L(N4) is the tetradentate N(1)(E),N(2)(E)-bis[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methylene]-1,2-benzenediimine ligand, have been measured between 4.2 and 295 K and fit with a quadrupole doublet. The fit at 4.2 K yields an isomer shift, δ(Fe), of 1.260(1) mm/s and a quadrupole splitting, ΔE(Q), of 3.854(2) mm/s, values that are typical of a high-spin iron(II) complex. The temperature dependence of the isomer shift yields a Mössbauer temperature, Θ(M), of 319(27) K and the temperature dependence of the logarithm of the Mössbauer spectral absorption area yields a Debye temperature, Θ(D), of 131(6) K, values that are indicative of high-spin iron(II). Nonrelativistic single point density functional calculations with the B3LYP functional, the full 6-311++G(d,p) basis set, and the known X-ray structures for [Mn(L(N4))2](2+), [Mn(L(N4))2](ClO4)2, 1, [Fe(L(N4))2](2+), and [Fe(L(N4))2](BF4)2, 2, yield small electric field gradients for the manganese(II) complexes and electric field gradients and s-electron densities at the iron-57 nuclide that are in good to excellent agreement with the Mössbauer spectral parameters. The structure of 2 with a distorted square-antiprism C1 iron(II) coordination symmetry exhibits four different Fe-N(imid) bonds to the imidazole nitrogens with an average bond distance of 2.253(2) Å and four different Fe-N(imine) bonds to the benzenediimine nitrogens, with an average bond distance of 2.432(2) Å; this large difference yields the large observed ΔE(Q). An optimization of the [Fe(L(N4))2](2+) structure leads to a highly symmetric eight-coordination environment with S4 symmetry and four equivalent Fe-N(imid) bond distances of 2.301(2) Å and four equivalent Fe-N(imine) bond distances of 2.487(2) Å. In contrast, an optimization of the [Mn(LN4)2](2+) structure leads to an eight-coordination manganese(II) environment with D(2d) symmetry and four equivalent Mn-N(imid) bond distances of 2.350(3) Å and four equivalent Mn-N(imine) bond distances of 2.565(3) Å.

15.
Dalton Trans ; 44(24): 11202-11, 2015 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26006177

RESUMO

The 2 to 300 K magnetic susceptibilities of Fe{N(SiMe2Ph)2}2, 1, Fe{N(SiMePh2)2}2, 2, and the diaryl complex Fe(Ar(Pr(i)4))2, 3, where Ar(Pr(i)4) is C6H3-2,6(C6H3-2,6-Pr(i)2)2 have been measured. Initial fits of these properties in the absence of an independent knowledge of their ligand field splitting have proven problematic. Ab initio calculations of the CASSCF/RASSI/SINGLE-ANISO type have indicated that the orbital energies of the complexes, as well as those of Fe(Ar(Me6))2, 4, where Ar(Me6) is C6H3-2,6(C6H2-2,4,6-Me3)2), are in the order d(xy)≈ d(x(2)-y(2)) < d(xz) ≈ d(yz) < d(z(2)), and the iron(II) complexes in this ligand field have the (d(xy), d(x(2)-y(2)))(3)(d(xz), d(yz))(2)(d(z(2)))(1) ground electronic configuration with a substantial orbital contribution to their effective magnetic moments. An ab initio-derived ligand field and spin-orbit model is found to yield an excellent simulation of the observed magnetic properties of 1-3. The calculated ligand field strengths of these ligands are placed in the broader context of common coordination ligands in hypothetical two-coordinate linear iron(ii) complexes. This yields the ordering I(-) < H(-) < Br(-)≈ PMe3 < CH3(-) < Cl(-)≈ C(SiMe3)3(-) < CN(-)≈ SAr(Pr(i)6-) < Ar(Pr(i)4-) < Ar(Me6-)≈ N3(-) < NCS(-)≈ NCSe(-)≈ NCBH3(-)≈ MeCN ≈ H2O ≈ NH3 < NO3(-)≈ THF ≈ CO ≈ N(SiMe2Ph)2(-)≈ N(SiMePh2)2(-) < F(-)≈ N(H)Ar(Pr(i)6-)≈ N(SiMe3)Dipp(-) < OAr(Pr(i)4-). The magnetic susceptibility of the bridged dimer, [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2]2, 5, has also been measured between 2 and 300 K and a fit of χMT with the isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian, H = -2JS1·S2 yields an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant, J, of -131(2) cm(-1).

16.
Inorg Chem ; 53(17): 9400-6, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25119436

RESUMO

Three potassium crown ether salts, [K(Et2O)2(18-crown-6)][Fe{N(SiMe3)Dipp}2] (1a; Dipp = C6H3-2,6-Pr(i)2), [K(18-crown-6)][Fe{N(SiMe3)Dipp}2]·0.5PhMe (1b), and [K(18-crown-6)][M{N(SiMe3)Dipp}2] (M = Co, 2; M = Ni, 3), of the two-coordinate linear or near-linear bis-amido monoanions [M{N(SiMe3)Dipp}2](-) (M = Fe, Co, Ni) were synthesized by one-electron reduction of the neutral precursors M{N(SiMe3)Dipp}2 with KC8 in the presence of 18-crown-6. They were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and magnetic measurements. The anions feature lengthened M-N bonds in comparison with their neutral precursors, with slightly bent coordination (N-Fe-N = ca. 172°) for the iron(I) complex, but linear coordination for the cobalt(I) and nickel(I) complexes. Fits of the temperature dependence of χMT of 1 and 2 reveal that the iron(I) and cobalt(I) complexes have large negative D zero-field splittings and a substantial orbital contribution to their magnetic moments with L = 2, whereas the nickel(I) complex has at most a small orbital contribution to its magnetic moment. The magnetic results have been used to propose an ordering of the 3d orbitals in each of the complexes.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 53(18): 9785-99, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25170649

RESUMO

The 3,5-dichlorobenzoate anion, L(-), serves as a bridging ligand and 2,2'-bipyridine, bipy, as a terminal bidentate ligand to yield, through hydrothermal syntheses, the tetranuclear clusters Dy2Co2L10(bipy)2, 1, and Ln2Ni2L10(bipy)2, where Ln is the trivalent La, 2, Gd, 3, Tb, 4, Dy, 5, or Ho, 6, ion. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the six complexes are all isomorphous with the monoclinic P21/c space group and with lattice parameters that decrease with the lanthanide contraction. The two cobalt(II) or nickel(II) and two Ln(III) cations are linked by the 10 L(-) anions to generate Dy2Co2 or Ln2Ni2 3d-4f cationic heteronuclear clusters with a slightly bent Co···Dy···Dy···Co or Ni···Ln···Ln···Ni arrangement. Direct current magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that the complexes are essentially paramagnetic, with room-temperature χ(M)T values close to the expected values for two cobalt(II) or nickel(II) and two Ln(III) cations. The temperature dependence of χ(M)T for 1 and 5 is well reproduced by ab initio calculations with the inclusion of weak magnetic exchange between the cobalt(II) or nickel(II) and a dysprosium(III) and between two dysprosium(III) ions. The calculated magnetic exchange parameters are J(Dy-Co) = 0.2 cm(-1) and J(Dy-Dy) = 0.02 cm(-1) for 1 and J(Dy-Ni) = -0.2 cm(-1) and J(Dy-Dy) = 0.03 cm(-1) for 5. Alternating current magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that 1 and 5 exhibit slow magnetic relaxation with effective energy barriers, Ueff, for the reversal of the magnetization for 1 of 82(2) cm(-1) in a 0 Oe dc bias field and 79.4(5) cm(-1) in a 1000 Oe dc bias field and, for 5, 73(1) cm(-1) in a 0 dc bias field; the calculated energies of 66.1(1) and 61.0(1) cm(-1) for the first excited spin-orbit state of dysprosium(III) in 1 and 5 agree rather well with these effective energy barriers. The entire Arrhenius plots of the logarithm of τ, the relaxation rate of the magnetization in 1 and 5, have been fit with contributions from quantum tunneling, direct Raman scattering, and Orbach thermal processes. The observation of a low-temperature magnetization reversal mechanism in 5 but not in 1 may be understood through the calculated exchange energy spectrum in their ground state.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 53(5): 2692-8, 2014 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24533728

RESUMO

Treatment of the cobalt(II) amide, [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2]2, with four equivalents of the sterically crowded terphenyl phenols, HOAr(Me6) (Ar(Me6) = C6H3-2,6(C6H2-2,4,6-Me3)2) or HOAr(iPr4) (Ar(iPr4) = C6H3-2,6(C6H3-2,6-Pr(i)2)2), produced the first well-characterized, monomeric two-coordinate cobalt(II) bisaryloxides, Co(OAr(Me6))2 (1) and Co(OAr(iPr4))2 (2a and 2b), as red solids in good yields with elimination of HN(SiMe3)2. The compounds were characterized by electronic spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and direct current magnetization measurements. The O-Co-O interligand angles in 2a and 2b are 180°, whereas the O-Co-O angle in 1 is bent at 130.12(8)° and its cobalt(II) ion has a highly distorted pseudotetrahedral geometry with close interactions to the ipso-carbons of the two flanking aryl rings. The Co-O distances in 1, 2a, and 2b are 1.858(2), 1.841(1), and 1.836(2) Å respectively. Structural refinement revealed that 1, 2a, and 2b have different fractional occupations of the cobalt site in their crystal structures: 1, 95.0%, 2a, 93.5%, and 2b, 84.6%. Correction of the magnetic data for the different cobalt(II) occupancies showed that the magnetization of 2a and 2b was virtually identical. The effective magnetic moments for 1, 2a, and 2b, 5.646(5), 5.754(5), and 5.636(3) µB respectively, were indicative of significant spin-orbit coupling. The differences in magnetic properties between 1 and 2a/2b are attributed to their different cobalt coordination geometries.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 52(24): 14216-23, 2013 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24266522

RESUMO

The titanium bisamido complex Ti{N(H)Ar(iPr6)}2 (Ar(iPr6) = C6H3-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-(i)Pr3)2 (2), along with its three-coordinate titanium(III) precursor, TiCl{N(H)Ar(iPr6)}2 (1), have been synthesized and characterized. Compound 1 was obtained via the stoichiometric reaction of LiN(H)Ar(iPr6) with the Ti(III) complex TiCl3·2NMe3 in trimethylamine. Reduction of 1 with 1 equiv of KC8 afforded Ti{N(H)Ar(iPr6)}2 (2) in moderate yield. Both 1 and 2 were characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR, and IR spectroscopy, magnetic studies, and by density functional theory (DFT) computations. The precursor 1 has quasi-four-coordinate coordination at the titanium atom, with bonding to two amido nitrogens and a chlorine as well as a secondary interaction to a flanking aryl ring of a terphenyl substituent. Compound 2 displays a very distorted four-coordinate metal environment in which the titanium atom is bound to two amido nitrogens and to two carbons from a terphenyl aryl ring. This structure is in sharp contrast to the expected two-coordinate linear structure that was observed in its first row metal (V-Ni) analogues. Magnetic studies confirm a d(1) electron configuration for 1 but indicate that Ti{N(H)Ar(iPr6)}2 (2) is diamagnetic at ambient temperature consistent with the oxidation of titanium to Ti(IV). The different structure of 2 is attributed to the high reducing tendency of the Ti(II) in comparison to the other metals.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 52(22): 13123-31, 2013 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24175913

RESUMO

The iron-57 Mössbauer spectra of the linear, two-coordinate complexes, [K(crypt-222)][Fe(C(SiMe3)3)2], 1, and Fe(C(SiMe3)3)2, 2, were measured between 5 and 295 K under zero applied direct current (dc) field. These spectra were analyzed with a relaxation profile that models the relaxation of the hyperfine field associated with the inversion of the iron cation spin. Because of the lifetime of the measurement (10(-8) to 10(-9) s), iron-57 Mössbauer spectroscopy yielded the magnetization dynamics of 1 and 2 on a significantly faster time scale than was previously possible with alternating current (ac) magnetometry. From the modeling of the Mössbauer spectral profiles, Arrhenius plots between 5 and 295 K were obtained for both 1 and 2. The high-temperature regimes revealed Orbach relaxation processes with U(eff) = 246(3) and 178(9) cm(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively, effective relaxation barriers which are in agreement with magnetic measurements and supporting ab initio calculations. In 1, two distinct high-temperature regimes of magnetic relaxation are observed with mechanisms that correspond to two distinct single-excitation Orbach processes within the ground-state spin-orbit coupled manifold of the iron(I) ion. For 2, Mössbauer spectroscopy yields the temperature dependence of the magnetic relaxation in zero applied dc field, a relaxation that could not be observed with zero-field ac magnetometry. The ab initio calculated Mössbauer hyperfine parameters of both 1 and 2 are in excellent agreement with the observed hyperfine parameters.

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