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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802954

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are a key component of an innate immune system. They are important not only in initiating, but also in augmenting adaptive immune responses. NK cell activation is mediated by a carefully orchestrated balance between the signals from inhibitory and activating NK cell receptors. NK cells are potent producers of proinflammatory cytokines and are also able to elicit strong antitumor responses through secretion of perforin and granzyme B. Tumors can develop many mechanisms to evade NK cell antitumor responses, such as upregulating ligands for inhibitory receptors, secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines and recruiting immunosuppressive cells. Enhancing NK cell responses will likely augment the effectiveness of immunotherapies, and strategies to accomplish this are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. A comprehensive understanding of NK cell biology will likely provide additional opportunities to further leverage the antitumor effects of NK cells. In this review, we therefore sought to highlight NK cell biology, tumor evasion of NK cells and clinical trials that target NK cells.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 51-57, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with synchronous clinical stage III melanoma can present with primary melanoma lesions, locally recurrent melanoma or in-transit metastases. Neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab induces high pathologic response rates and an impressive relapse-free survival in patients with nodal macroscopic stage III melanoma. Whether primary site melanoma and in-transit metastases respond similarly to lymph node metastases with neoadjuvant immunotherapy is largely unknown. Such data would clarify whether surgical excision of these melanoma lesions should be performed before neoadjuvant therapy or whether it could be deferred and performed in conjunction with lymphadenectomy following neoadjuvant immunotherapy. PATIENTS: Patients with synchronous clinical stage III melanoma were identified from the OpACIN, OpACIN-neo and PRADO neoadjuvant trials, where all patients were treated with ipilimumab plus nivolumab. An additional case treated outside those clinical trials was included. RESULTS: Seven patients were identified; six patients had a concordant response in primary site melanoma lesions or in-transit metastasis and the lymph node metastases. One patient had concordant progression in both the primary and nodal tumour lesions and developed stage IV disease during neoadjuvant treatment, and thus, no resection was performed. CONCLUSION: Pathologic response following neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab in primary site melanoma lesions or in-transit metastasis is concordant with a response in the lymph node metastases, indicating that there may be no need to perform upfront surgery to these melanoma lesions prior to neoadjuvant treatment.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 61-75, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a known predictive and prognostic factor for a poor outcome in patients with metastatic melanoma. It is unclear whether first-line targeted therapy (TT) or immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) is more beneficial in melanoma patients with elevated LDH because prospective studies in this area are lacking. METHODS: This multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted at 25 melanoma centres worldwide to analyse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among melanoma patients with elevated LDH. The role of confounders was addressed by using inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS: Among 173 BRAFV600-mutant patients, PFS at 12 months in the TT group was 22% compared with 52% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 group (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-1.0, p = 0.07) and 18% in the anti-PD-1 monotherapy group (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, p = 0.003). Twelve months' OS was 48% in the TT group compared with 83% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 group (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p = 0.03) and 50% in the anti-PD-1 monotherapy group (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-2.0, p = 0.37). The ORR in the TT group was 63%, compared with 55% and 20% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monotherapy group, respectively. Among 314 patients receiving ICI first-line, PFS at 12 months was 33% in the anti-PD-1 group versus 38% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 group (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.0; p = 0.07). OS at 12 months was 54% in the anti-PD-1 group versus 66% in the combined ICI group (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0; p = 0.03). The ORR was 30% in the anti-PD-1 monotherapy group and 43% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 group. Results from multivariate analysis confirmed the absence of qualitative confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Among BRAF-mutant patients with elevated LDH, combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 blockade seems to be associated with prolonged OS compared with first-line TT. Among patients receiving ICI as a first-line treatment, OS appears to be longer for the combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 than for anti-PD-1 alone.

4.
Ann Oncol ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with resected stage III and IV melanoma have a high risk of recurrence. As the outcomes for patients with metastatic disease have improved dramatically over the last decade due to systemic therapy, more recently have the outcomes of patients improved with resected stage III and IV melanoma with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy and targeted therapy in the adjuvant setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review outlines the latest clinical trial data, the current adjuvant treatment landscape and its application to clinical practice, and expected future progress for the management of early stage melanoma. RESULTS: Anti-PD1 monotherapy and BRAF/MEK inhibitors are currently deemed standard-of-care for resected stage III melanoma. For patients with stage IIIB (AJCCv7) melanoma, 2-year and 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) is approximately 72% and 65% for nivolumab, 70% and 65.7% for pembrolizumab and 68% and 60% for dabrafenib/trametinib, respectively. For stage IIIC (AJCCv7) melanoma, 2-year and 3-year RFS is 60% and 53.5% for nivolumab, 60% and 54.3% for pembrolizumab and 59% and 47% for dabrafenib/trametinib, respectively. Adjuvant treatment is recommended for patients with stage IIIB-IIID (AJCCv8), and may be considered for patients with IIIA melanoma. For resected stage IV, nivolumab is the only approved agent; however, recent results from a phase II clinical trial show promising efficacy for combined ipilimumab and nivolumab as well. Long-term data is required to determine which therapy has the greatest impact on overall survival. Schedules, delivery and toxicity are also important factors to consider when selecting adjuvant treatment. CONCLUSION: Randomized studies of patients with resected high-risk melanoma have shown that immunotherapy or targeted therapy improve recurrence-free survival compared with placebo/ipilimumab. In order to optimize these treatments, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as well as strategies to reduce treatment-related toxicities and overcome resistance are required.

5.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764387

RESUMO

Importance: Agents targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) improve long-term survival across many advanced cancers and are now used as adjuvant therapy for resected stage III and IV melanomas. The incidence and spectrum of chronic immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have not been well defined. Objective: To determine the incidence, time course, spectrum, and associations of chronic irAEs arising from adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted between 2015 and 2020 across 8 academic medical centers in the United States and Australia. Patients with stage III to IV melanomas treated with anti-PD-1 in the adjuvant setting were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence, types, and time course of chronic irAEs (defined as irAEs persisting at least 12 weeks after therapy cessation). Results: Among 387 patients, the median (range) age was 63 (17-88) years, and 235 (60.7%) were male. Of these patients, 267 (69.0%) had any acute irAE, defined as those arising during treatment with anti-PD-1, including 52 (19.5%) with grades 3 through 5 events; 1 patient each had fatal myocarditis and neurotoxicity. Chronic irAEs, defined as those that persisted beyond 12 weeks of anti-PD-1 discontinuation, developed in 167 (43.2%) patients, of which most (n = 161; 96.4%) were mild (grade 1 or 2) and most persisted until last available follow-up (n = 143; 85.6%). Endocrinopathies (73 of 88; 83.0%), arthritis (22 of 45; 48.9%), xerostomia (9 of 17; 52.9%), neurotoxicities (11 of 15; 73.3%), and ocular events (5 of 8; 62.5%) were particularly likely to become chronic. In contrast, irAEs affecting visceral organs (liver, colon, lungs, kidneys) had much lower rates of becoming chronic irAEs; for example, colitis became chronic in 6 of 44 (13.6%) cases, of which 4 of 6 (66.7%) resolved with prolonged follow-up. Age, gender, time of onset, and need for steroids were not associated with the likelihood of chronicity of irAEs. Conclusion and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study, chronic irAEs associated with anti-PD-1 therapy appear to be more common than previously recognized and frequently persisted even with prolonged follow-up, although most were low grade. The risks of chronic irAEs should be integrated into treatment decision-making.

6.
Eur J Cancer ; 147: 170-181, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706206

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the increasing use of checkpoint inhibitors, rare immune-related adverse events (irAE) are being identified. Haematological irAE (hem-irAE) are difficult to treat and have shown high mortality rates. In order to improve side-effect management for these potentially life-threatening events, we analysed frequency, severity and outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who developed hem-irAE while being treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) therapy were retrospectively identified from 18 international cancer centres. RESULTS: In total, more than 7626 patients treated with ICI were screened, and 50 patients with hem-irAE identified. The calculated incidence amounts to 0.6% and median onset was 6 weeks after the ICI initiation (range 1-128 weeks). Thrombocytopenia and leucopaenia were the most frequent hem-irAE with 34% (17/50) and 34% (17/50), respectively, followed by anaemia 28% (14/50), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (4% (2/50)), aplastic anaemia (2% (1/50)), acquired haemophilia A (2% (1/50)) and coagulation deficiency (2% (1/50)). Simultaneous thrombocytopenia and neutropenia occurred in two patients, concurrent anaemia and thrombocytopenia in one patient. Other than cessation of ICI (in 60%) and corticosteroids (in 78%), treatment included second-line immunosuppression in 24% of cases. Events resolved in 78% (39/50), while 18% (9/50) had persistent changes, and 2% (1/50) had fatal outcomes (agranulocytosis). CONCLUSION: Hem-irAE can affect all haematopoietic blood cell lineages and may persist or even be fatal. Management may require immunosuppression beyond corticosteroids. Although these irAE are rare, treating physicians should be aware, monitor blood counts regularly and promptly act upon detection.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: G9a histone methyltransferase exerts oncogenic effects in several tumor types and its inhibition promotes anticancer effects. However, the impact on checkpoint inhibitor blockade response and the utility of G9a or its target genes as a biomarker is poorly studied. We aimed to examine whether G9a inhibition can augment the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor blockade and whether LC3B, a G9a target gene, can predict treatment response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Clinical potential of LC3B as a biomarker of checkpoint inhibitor blockade was assessed using patient samples including tumor biopsies and circulating tumor cells from liquid biopsies. Efficacy of G9a inhibition to enhance checkpoint inhibitor blockade was examined using a mouse model. RESULTS: Patients with melanoma who responded to checkpoint inhibitor blockade were associated with not only a higher level of tumor LC3B but also a higher proportion of cells expressing LC3B. A higher expression of MAP1LC3B or LC3B protein was associated with longer survival and lower incidence of acquired resistance to checkpoint inhibitor blockade, suggesting LC3B as a potential predictive biomarker. We demonstrate that G9a histone methyltransferase inhibition is able to not only robustly induce LC3B level to augment the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor blockade, but also induces melanoma cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Checkpoint inhibitor blockade response is limited to a subset of the patient population. These results have implications for the development of LC3B as a predictive biomarker of checkpoint inhibitor blockade to guide patient selection, as well as G9a inhibition as a strategy to extend the proportion of patients responding to immunotherapy.

8.
Cancer Cell ; 39(2): 151-153, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561397

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition has revolutionized the treatment of many cancers, including melanoma. However, primary and acquired resistance remain key challenges for the field. Promising results from a phase I clinical trial recently published in Science highlight the potential of modulating the microbiome via fecal transplant to overcome resistance to immunotherapy.

9.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 301-309, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558722

RESUMO

The association among pathological response, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) with neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we pooled data from six clinical trials of anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy or BRAF/MEK targeted therapy. In total, 192 patients were included; 141 received immunotherapy (104, combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab; 37, anti-PD-1 monotherapy), and 51 received targeted therapy. A pathological complete response (pCR) occurred in 40% of patients: 47% with targeted therapy and 33% with immunotherapy (43% combination and 20% monotherapy). pCR correlated with improved RFS (pCR 2-year 89% versus no pCR 50%, P < 0.001) and OS (pCR 2-year OS 95% versus no pCR 83%, P = 0.027). In patients with pCR, near pCR or partial pathological response with immunotherapy, very few relapses were seen (2-year RFS 96%), and, at this writing, no patient has died from melanoma, whereas, even with pCR from targeted therapy, the 2-year RFS was only 79%, and OS was only 91%. Pathological response should be an early surrogate endpoint for clinical trials and a new benchmark for development and approval in melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1875639, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628621

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) predispose patients to immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Although hepatitis is a potentially lethal toxicity, the timing and outcomes have not been well described. In this retrospective study, patients from six international institutions were included if they were treated with ICIs and developed immune-related hepatitis. Patient and tumor characteristics, and hepatitis management and outcomes were evaluated. Of the 164 patients included, most were male (53.7%) with a median age of 63.0 years. Most patients had melanoma (83.5%) and stage IV disease (86.0%). Median follow-up was 585 days; median OS and PFS were not reached. The initial grade of hepatitis was most often grade 2 (30.5%) or 3 (45.7%) with a median time to onset of 61 days. Patients were most commonly asymptomatic (46.2%), but flu-like symptoms, including fatigue/anorexia (17.1%), nausea/emesis (14.0%), abdominal/back pain (11.6%), and arthralgias/myalgias (8.5%) occurred. Most patients received glucocorticoids (92.1%); the median time to improvement by one grade was 13.0 days, and the median time to complete resolution was 52.0 days. Second-line immunosuppression was required in 37 patients (22.6%), and steroid-dose re-escalation in 45 patients (27.4%). Five patients (3%) died of ICI-hepatitis or complications of hepatitis treatment. Ninety-one patients (58.6%) did not resume ICI; of 66 patients (40 grade 1/2, 26 grade 3/4) that were rechallenged, only 25.8% (n = 17) had recurrence. In this multi-institutional cohort, immune-related hepatitis was associated with excellent outcomes but frequently required therapy discontinuation, high-dose steroids, and second-line immunosuppression. Rechallenge was associated with a modest rate of hepatitis recurrence.

11.
Melanoma Res ; 31(2): 181-185, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625104

RESUMO

Nearly 10% of patients with high-risk early-stage melanoma will develop satellite or in-transit metastases (ITM), classified as stage III disease similar to lymph node metastases. The pivotal registration trials of the CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab, and the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab, also included patients with unresectable stage III disease. However, there has been no analysis of patients with ITM, and anecdotal retrospective small series have indicated a potential lesser effect. This study aimed to identify patients with unresectable ITM within the randomized trials, and to determine response, progression-free survival and overall survival. The pivotal phase III randomized intervention trials that included melanoma patients with ITM, with or without nodal metastasis, and were treated with ipilimumab, nivolumab or pembrolizumab was identified. The datasets from each trial were then searched to identify the specific details of the investigated patient population for a pooled analysis. The primary endpoint was complete response rate. Seven trials that included stage III patients, and with accessible datasets, were identified. There was a total of 4711 patients, however, no patients with ITM could be identified, as this data was not captured by the case report forms. Evidence from prospective clinical trials on the use of immunotherapy in patients with ITM is lacking. We recommend pooling data from multiple institutions to examine efficacy of available drug therapies in this patient population, but more importantly, prospective clinical trials of locoregional treatments with or without systemic drug therapies are required.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1137, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602918

RESUMO

Adjuvant systemic therapies are now routinely used following resection of stage III melanoma, however accurate prognostic information is needed to better stratify patients. We use differential expression analyses of primary tumours from 204 RNA-sequenced melanomas within a large adjuvant trial, identifying a 121 metastasis-associated gene signature. This signature strongly associated with progression-free (HR = 1.63, p = 5.24 × 10-5) and overall survival (HR = 1.61, p = 1.67 × 10-4), was validated in 175 regional lymph nodes metastasis as well as two externally ascertained datasets. The machine learning classification models trained using the signature genes performed significantly better in predicting metastases than models trained with clinical covariates (pAUROC = 7.03 × 10-4), or published prognostic signatures (pAUROC < 0.05). The signature score negatively correlated with measures of immune cell infiltration (ρ = -0.75, p < 2.2 × 10-16), with a higher score representing reduced lymphocyte infiltration and a higher 5-year risk of death in stage II melanoma. Our expression signature identifies melanoma patients at higher risk of metastases and warrants further evaluation in adjuvant clinical trials.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(3): 370-380, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma lacks validated blood-based biomarkers for monitoring and predicting treatment efficacy. Cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is a promising biomarker; however, various detection methods have been used, and, to date, no large studies have examined the association between serial changes in ctDNA and survival after BRAF, MEK, or BRAF plus MEK inhibitor therapy. We aimed to evaluate whether baseline ctDNA concentrations and kinetics could predict survival outcomes. METHODS: In this clinical validation study, we used analytically validated droplet digital PCR assays to measure BRAFV600-mutant ctDNA in pretreatment and on-treatment plasma samples from patients aged 18 years or older enrolled in two clinical trials. COMBI-d (NCT01584648) was a double-blind, randomised phase 3 study of dabrafenib plus trametinib versus dabrafenib plus placebo in previously untreated patients with BRAFV600 mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. COMBI-MB (NCT02039947) was an open-label, non-randomised, phase 2 study evaluating dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with BRAFV600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma and brain metastases. Patients in cohort A of COMBI-MB had asymptomatic brain metastases, no previous local brain-directed therapy, and an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Biomarker analysis was a prespecified exploratory endpoint in both trials and performed in the intention-to-treat populations in COMBI-d and COMBI-MB. We investigated the association between mutant copy number (baseline or week 4 or zero conversion status) and efficacy endpoints (progression-free survival, overall survival, and best overall response). We used Cox models, Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests to explore the association of pretreatment ctDNA concentrations with progression-free survival and overall survival. The effect of additional prognostic variables such as lactate dehydrogenase was also investigated in addition to the mutant copy number. FINDINGS: In COMBI-d, pretreatment plasma samples were available from 345 (82%) of 423 patients and on-treatment (week 4) plasma samples were available from 224 (53%) of 423 patients. In cohort A of COMBI-MB, pretreatment and on-treatment samples were available from 38 (50%) of 76 patients with intracranial and extracranial metastatic melanoma. ctDNA was detected in pretreatment samples from 320 (93%) of 345 patients (COMBI-d) and 34 (89%) of 38 patients (COMBI-MB). When assessed as a continuous variable, elevated baseline BRAFV600 mutation-positive ctDNA concentration was associated with worse overall survival outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 1·13 [95% CI 1·09-1·18], p<0·0001 by univariate analysis), independent of treatment group and baseline lactate dehydrogenase concentrations (1·08 [1·03-1·13], p=0·0020), in COMBI-d. A ctDNA cutoff point of 64 copies per mL of plasma stratified patients enrolled in COMBI-d as high risk or low risk with respect to survival outcomes (HR 1·74 [95% CI 1·37-2·21], p<0·0001 for progression-free survival; 2·23 [1·73-2·87], p<0·0001 for overall survival) and was validated in the COMBI-MB cohort (3·20 [1·39-7·34], p=0·0047 for progression-free survival; 2·94 [1·18-7·32], p=0·016 for overall survival). In COMBI-d, undetectable ctDNA at week 4 was significantly associated with extended progression-free and overall survival, particularly in patients with elevated lactate dehydrogenase concentrations (HR 1·99 [95% CI 1·08-3·64], p=0·027 for progression-free survival; 2·38 [1·24-4·54], p=0·0089 for overall survival). INTERPRETATION: Pretreatment and on-treatment BRAFV600-mutant ctDNA measurements could serve as independent, predictive biomarkers of clinical outcome with targeted therapy. FUNDING: Novartis.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Exp Dermatol ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455025

RESUMO

Non-cutaneous melanomas most frequently involve the uveal tract and mucosal membranes, including the conjunctiva. In contrast to cutaneous melanoma, they often present at an advanced clinical stage, are associated with worse clinical outcomes and show poorer responses to immunotherapy. The mutational load within most non-cutaneous melanomas reflects their lower ultraviolet light (UV) exposure. The genetic drivers within non-cutaneous melanomas are heterogeneous. Within ocular melanomas, posterior uveal tract melanomas typically harbour one of two distinct, sets of driver mutations and alterations of clinical and biological significance. In contrast to posterior uveal tract melanomas, anterior uveal tract melanomas of the iris and conjunctival melanomas frequently carry both a higher mutational burden and specific mutations linked with UV exposure. The genetic drivers in iris melanomas more closely resemble those of the posterior uveal tract, whereas conjunctival melanomas harbour similar genetic driver mutations to cutaneous melanomas. Mucosal melanomas occur in sun-shielded sites including sinonasal and oral cavities, nasopharynx, oesophagus, genitalia, anus and rectum, and their mutational landscape is frequently associated with a dominant process of spontaneous deamination and infrequent presence of UV mutation signatures. Genetic drivers of mucosal melanomas are diverse and vary with anatomic location. Further understanding of the causes of already identified recurrent molecular events in non-cutaneous melanomas, identification of additional drivers in specific subtypes, integrative multi-omics analyses and analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment will expand knowledge in this field. Furthermore, such data will likely uncover new therapeutic strategies which will lead to improved clinical outcomes in non-cutaneous melanoma patients.

16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer who are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are more likely to develop severe illness and die compared with those without cancer. The impact of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) on the severity of COVID-19 illness is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICI confers an additional risk for severe COVID-19 in patients with cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from 110 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 while on treatment with ICI without chemotherapy in 19 hospitals in North America, Europe and Australia. The primary objective was to describe the clinical course and to identify factors associated with hospital and intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality. FINDINGS: Thirty-five (32%) patients were admitted to hospital and 18 (16%) died. All patients who died had advanced cancer, and only four were admitted to ICU. COVID-19 was the primary cause of death in 8 (7%) patients. Factors independently associated with an increased risk for hospital admission were ECOG ≥2 (OR 39.25, 95% CI 4.17 to 369.2, p=0.0013), treatment with combination ICI (OR 5.68, 95% CI 1.58 to 20.36, p=0.0273) and presence of COVID-19 symptoms (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.57 to 17.89, p=0.0073). Seventy-six (73%) patients interrupted ICI due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, 43 (57%) of whom had resumed at data cut-off. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19-related mortality in the ICI-treated population does not appear to be higher than previously published mortality rates for patients with cancer. Inpatient mortality of patients with cancer treated with ICI was high in comparison with previously reported rates for hospitalized patients with cancer and was due to COVID-19 in almost half of the cases. We identified factors associated with adverse outcomes in ICI-treated patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , /isolamento & purificação
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(21): 3578-3587, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410475

RESUMO

Germline genetic variants have been identified, which predispose individuals and families to develop melanoma. Tumor thickness is the strongest predictor of outcome for clinically localized primary melanoma patients. We sought to determine whether there is a heritable genetic contribution to variation in tumor thickness. If confirmed, this will justify the search for specific genetic variants influencing tumor thickness. To address this, we estimated the proportion of variation in tumor thickness attributable to genome-wide genetic variation (variant-based heritability) using unrelated patients with measured primary cutaneous melanoma thickness. As a secondary analysis, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of tumor thickness. The analyses utilized 10 604 individuals with primary cutaneous melanoma drawn from nine GWAS datasets from eight cohorts recruited from the general population, primary care and melanoma treatment centers. Following quality control and filtering to unrelated individuals with study phenotypes, 8125 patients were used in the primary analysis to test whether tumor thickness is heritable. An expanded set of 8505 individuals (47.6% female) were analyzed for the secondary GWAS meta-analysis. Analyses were adjusted for participant age, sex, cohort and ancestry. We found that 26.6% (SE 11.9%, P = 0.0128) of variation in tumor thickness is attributable to genome-wide genetic variation. While requiring replication, a chromosome 11 locus was associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with tumor thickness. Our work indicates that sufficiently large datasets will enable the discovery of genetic variants associated with greater tumor thickness, and this will lead to the identification of host biological processes influencing melanoma growth and invasion.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(7): 1904-1911, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this first-in-human phase I study (NCT02132754), we explored MK-4166 [humanized IgG1 agonist mAb targeting glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR)] with and without pembrolizumab in advanced solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MK-4166 was tested alone (0.0015-900 mg i.v. every 3 weeks for four doses) or with pembrolizumab (200 mg i.v. every 3 weeks for ≤35 doses) in patients with metastatic solid tumors (dose escalation/confirmation) and advanced melanoma (expansion). Primary objectives were to evaluate the safety and tolerability and establish the MTD of MK-4166. Exploratory endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) and T cell-inflamed gene expression profile (GEP) analysis using RNA from baseline tumor samples. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients were enrolled [monotherapy, n = 48; combination therapy, n = 65 (20 in the expansion)]. Forty-six patients (40.7%) had grade ≥3 adverse events, 9 (8.0%) of which were treatment related. No treatment-related deaths were observed. One dose-limiting toxicity event with monotherapy (bladder perforation in patient with neobladder) was considered related to study drug. MTD was not reached. MK-4166 pharmacodynamics showed decreased GITR availability on circulating T cells with increasing doses. One objective response (ORR, 2.2%) was achieved with combination therapy in the dose escalation/confirmation (n = 45). In the expansion, 8 of 13 patients with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-naïve melanoma achieved a response (ORR, 62%; 95% confidence interval, 32-86; 5 complete responses and 3 partial responses). None of the ICI-pretreated patients (n = 7) responded. High response rates were observed in ICI-naïve patients irrespective of GEP status. CONCLUSIONS: MK-4166 900 mg i.v. every 3 weeks as monotherapy and with pembrolizumab was tolerable. Responses were observed with combination therapy, mostly in patients with ICI-naïve melanoma.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 144: 182-191, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Long-term safety of pembrolizumab in melanoma was analyzed in KEYNOTE-001, KEYNOTE-002, and KEYNOTE-006. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Analysis involved patients who received ≥1 pembrolizumab dose. Lead-time bias was addressed via landmark analyses in patients who were progression-free before day 147. RESULTS: Adverse events (AEs) were analyzed for 1567 patients (median follow-up, 42.4 months). Most AEs were mild/moderate; grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs occurred in 17.7% of patients. Two pembrolizumab-related deaths occurred. Any-grade immune-mediated AEs (imAEs) occurred in 23.0%, most commonly hypothyroidism (9.1%), pneumonitis (3.3%), and hyperthyroidism (3.0%); grade 3/4 imAEs occurred in 6.9% of patients. Most imAEs occurred within 16 weeks of treatment. In landmark analysis, patients who did (n = 79) versus did not (n = 384) develop imAEs had similar objective response rates (ORRs) (64.6% versus 63.0%); median time to response (TTR), 5.6 months for both; median duration of response (DOR), 20.0 versus 25.3 months; median progression-free survival (PFS), 17.0 versus 17.7 months; median overall survival (OS), not reached (NR) versus 43 months (p = 0.1104). Patients who did (n = 17) versus did not (n = 62) receive systemic corticosteroids had similar ORRs (70.6% vs. 62.9%) and median TTR (6.4 vs. 5.6 months) but numerically shorter median PFS (9.9 vs. 17.0 months); median DOR, 14.2 months versus NR; median OS, NR for both. CONCLUSIONS: These results enhance the knowledge base for pembrolizumab in advanced melanoma, with no new toxicity signals after lengthy follow-up of a large population. In landmark analyses, pembrolizumab efficacy was similar regardless of imAEs or systemic corticosteroid use. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: NCT01295827, NCT01704287, NCT01866319.

20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The profound disparity in response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) by cutaneous melanoma (CM) and uveal melanoma (UM) patients is not well understood. Therefore, we characterized metastases of CM and UM from the same metastatic site (liver), in order to dissect the potential underlying mechanism in differential response on ICB. METHODS: Tumor liver samples from CM (n=38) and UM (n=28) patients were analyzed at the genomic (whole exome sequencing), transcriptional (RNA sequencing) and protein (immunohistochemistry and GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiling) level. RESULTS: Comparison of CM and UM metastases from the same metastatic site revealed that, although originating from the same melanocyte lineage, CM and UM differed in somatic mutation profile, copy number profile, tumor mutational burden (TMB) and consequently predicted neoantigens. A higher melanin content and higher expression of the melanoma differentiation antigen MelanA was observed in liver metastases of UM patients. No difference in B2M and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression was observed. A higher expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) was found in CM compared with UM liver metastases, although the majority of CM and UM liver metastases lacked PD-L1 expression. There was no difference in the extent of immune infiltration observed between CM and UM metastases, with the exception of a higher expression of CD163 (p<0.0001) in CM liver samples. While the extent of immune infiltration was similar for CM and UM metastases, the ratio of exhausted CD8 T cells to cytotoxic T cells, to total CD8 T cells and to Th1 cells, was significantly higher in UM metastases. CONCLUSIONS: While TMB was different between CM and UM metastases, tumor immune infiltration was similar. The greater dependency on PD-L1 as an immune checkpoint in CM and the identification of higher exhaustion ratios in UM may both serve as explanations for the difference in response to ICB. Consequently, in order to improve current treatment for metastatic UM, reversal of T cell exhaustion beyond programmed cell death 1 blockade should be considered.

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