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1.
Prev Med ; : 106020, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045615

RESUMO

Broader adoption of effective school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical to the success of ongoing efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. School-level barriers to adopting evidence-based interventions may be overcome by empowering school-level leaders to select appropriate intervention components. We used a quasi-experimental pragmatic trial design to evaluate a tailored obesity prevention intervention in 9 schools in a mid-sized urban school district in upstate New York from fall 2013 to spring 2016. We analyzed repeated height and weight measurements from an existing district screening system on 5882 students from intervention and control schools matched using propensity score methods. We assessed diet and physical activity changes in intervention schools using surveys and direct observation. The intervention led to a change of -0.27 (p = 0.026, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.51, -0.03) and -0.28 (p = 0.031, 95% CI: -0.54, -0.03) BMI units in spring 2014 and fall 2014, respectively. There were no significant differences between intervention and control from spring 2015 to spring 2016. Despite the lack of sustained effects on BMI, we demonstrated the potential of supporting school leaders in a low-income district to implement supportive policy and practice changes and of using an existing BMI screening system to reduce the burden of health promotion evaluation.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(25): 2440-2450, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the national obesity epidemic has been well documented, less is known about obesity at the U.S. state level. Current estimates are based on body measures reported by persons themselves that underestimate the prevalence of obesity, especially severe obesity. METHODS: We developed methods to correct for self-reporting bias and to estimate state-specific and demographic subgroup-specific trends and projections of the prevalence of categories of body-mass index (BMI). BMI data reported by 6,264,226 adults (18 years of age or older) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey (1993-1994 and 1999-2016) were obtained and corrected for quantile-specific self-reporting bias with the use of measured data from 57,131 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fitted multinomial regressions for each state and subgroup to estimate the prevalence of four BMI categories from 1990 through 2030: underweight or normal weight (BMI [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], <25), overweight (25 to <30), moderate obesity (30 to <35), and severe obesity (≥35). We evaluated the accuracy of our approach using data from 1990 through 2010 to predict 2016 outcomes. RESULTS: The findings from our approach suggest with high predictive accuracy that by 2030 nearly 1 in 2 adults will have obesity (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.7 to 50.1), and the prevalence will be higher than 50% in 29 states and not below 35% in any state. Nearly 1 in 4 adults is projected to have severe obesity by 2030 (24.2%; 95% CI, 22.9 to 25.5), and the prevalence will be higher than 25% in 25 states. We predict that, nationally, severe obesity is likely to become the most common BMI category among women (27.6%; 95% CI, 26.1 to 29.2), non-Hispanic black adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 29.9 to 33.4), and low-income adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 30.2 to 33.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that the prevalence of adult obesity and severe obesity will continue to increase nationwide, with large disparities across states and demographic subgroups. (Funded by the JPB Foundation.).


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Mórbida/etnologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(11): 1824-1831, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682510

RESUMO

An excise tax of 1 peso per liter on sugar-sweetened beverages was implemented in Mexico in 2014. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of this tax and an alternative tax scenario of 2 pesos per liter. We developed a cohort simulation model calibrated for Mexico to project the impact of the tax over ten years. The current tax is projected to prevent 239,900 cases of obesity, 39 percent of which would be among children. It could also prevent 61,340 cases of diabetes, lead to gains of 55,300 quality-adjusted life-years, and avert 5,840 disability-adjusted life-years. The tax is estimated to save $3.98 per dollar spent on its implementation. Doubling the tax to 2 pesos per liter would nearly double the cost savings and health impact. Countries with comparable conditions could benefit from implementing a similar tax.

4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(12): 2037-2045, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness and impact on childhood obesity of installation of chilled water dispensers ("water jets") on school lunch lines and to compare water jets' cost, reach, and impact on water consumption with three additional strategies. METHODS: The Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study(CHOICES) microsimulation model estimated the cost-effectiveness of water jets on US childhood obesity cases prevented in 2025. Also estimated were the cost, number of children reached, and impact on water consumption of the installation of water jets and three other strategies. RESULTS: Installing water jets on school lunch lines was projected to reach 29.6 million children (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 29.4 million-29.8 million), cost $4.25 (95% UI: $2.74-$5.69) per child, prevent 179,550 cases of childhood obesity in 2025 (95% UI: 101,970-257,870), and save $0.31 in health care costs per dollar invested (95% UI: $0.15-$0.55). In the secondary analysis, installing cup dispensers next to existing water fountains was the least costly but also had the lowest population reach. CONCLUSIONS: Installating water jet dispensers on school lunch lines could also save almost half of the dollars needed for implementation via a reduction in obesity-related health care costs. School-based interventions to promote drinking water may be relatively inexpensive strategies for improving child health.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912925, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596495

RESUMO

Importance: Eating disorders (EDs) are common psychiatric disorders associated with high mortality. However, data on ED disease dynamics and treatment coverage are sparse. Objectives: To model the individual-level disease dynamics of ED from birth to age 40 years and to estimate the association of increased treatment coverage with ED-related mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this decision analytical model study, an individual-level Markov state transition model was empirically calibrated in April 2019 using a Bayesian approach to synthesize available clinical and epidemiologic ED data. The simulation model was calibrated to nationally representative US survey data from 2007 and 2011. A virtual cohort of 100 000 individuals (50 000 [50%] male) was modeled from birth to age 40 years for 4 ED diagnoses: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding and eating disorders. Exposures: Age-specific ED incidence and mortality rates and background (all-cause) mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were age-specific 12-month and lifetime ED prevalence and number of deaths per 100 000 general population individuals by age 40 years. The mean and 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) of 1000 simulations, accounting for stochastic and parameter uncertainty, are reported. Results: The highest estimated mean annual prevalence of ED occurred at approximately age 21 years for both male individuals (7.4%; 95% UI, 3.5%-11.5%) and female individuals (10.3%; 95% UI, 7.0%-14.2%), with lifetime mean prevalence estimates increasing to 14.3% (95% UI, 9.7%-19.0%) for male individuals and 19.7% (95% UI, 15.8%-23.9%) for female individuals by age 40 years. Ninety-five percent of first-time cases occurred by age 25 years. Current treatment coverage averts an estimated mean of 41.7 deaths per 100 000 people (95% UI, 13.0-82.0 deaths per 100 000 people) by age 40 years, whereas increasing treatment coverage for all patients with ED could avert an estimated mean of 70.5 deaths per 100 000 people by age 40 years (95% UI, 26.0-143.0 deaths per 100 000 people). Conclusions and Relevance: In this simulation modeling study, the estimated lifetime prevalence of ED was high, with approximately 1 in 7 male and 1 in 5 female individuals having an ED by age 40 years. The initial onset of EDs was highly concentrated during adolescence and young adulthood, suggesting that this is a critical period for prevention efforts. However, the high estimated prevalence of recurring ED later in life highlights the importance of identification and treatment of ED at older ages as well. These findings suggest that increasing treatment coverage could substantially reduce ED-related mortality.

6.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(10): 1177-1187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of and stakeholder perspectives on a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) policy that would not allow SSB purchases in Maine, US. DESIGN: A cost-effectiveness simulation model combined with stakeholder interviews. SETTING: Maine, US. PARTICIPANTS: Microsimulation of the Maine population in 2015 and interviews with stakeholders (n = 14). Study conducted from 2013 to 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health care cost savings, net costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from 2017 to 2027. Stakeholder positions on policies. Retail SSB cost and implementation cost data were collected. ANALYSIS: Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost-Effectiveness Study project microsimulation model with uncertainty analysis to estimate cost-effectiveness. Thematic stakeholder interview coding. RESULTS: Over 10 years, the SSB and SNAP policies were projected to reduce health care costs by $78.3 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], $31.7 million-$185 million) and $15.3 million (95% UI, $8.32 million-$23.9 million), respectively. The SSB and SNAP policies were projected to save 3,560 QALYs (95% UI, 1,447-8,361) and 749 QALYs (95% UI, 415-1,168), respectively. Stakeholders were more supportive of SSB taxes than the SNAP policy because of equity concerns associated with the SNAP policy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Cost-effectiveness analysis provided evidence of potential health improvement and cost savings to state-level stakeholders weighing broader implementation considerations.

7.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(17): 3281-3287, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether school-level participation in the federal Community Eligibility Provision (CEP), which provides free school lunch to all students, is associated with school meal participation rates. Participation in school meals is important for decreasing food insecurity and improving child health and well-being. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental evaluation using negative binomial regression to predict meal count rates per student-year overall and by reimbursement level adjusted for proportion eligible for free and reduced-price lunch (FR eligibility) and operating days. SETTING: Schools (grades kindergarten to 12th) participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in Maryland and Pennsylvania, USA, from the 2013-2015 (n 1762) and 2016-2017 (n 2379) school years. PARTICIPANTS: Administrative, school-level data on school lunch counts and student enrolment. RESULTS: CEP was associated with a non-significant 6 % higher total NSLP meal count adjusting for FR eligibility, enrolment and operating days (rate ratio = 1·06, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·14). After controlling for participation rates in the year prior to CEP implementation, the programme was associated with a significant 8 % increase in meal counts (rate ratio = 1·08, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·12). In both analyses, CEP was associated with lower FR meal participation and substantial increases in paid meal participation. CONCLUSIONS: School-level implementation of CEP is associated with increases in total school meal participation. Current funding structures may prevent broader adoption of the programme by schools with fewer students eligible for FR meals.

8.
Pediatrics ; 143(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of the 2009 changes to the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package and childhood obesity trends. We hypothesized that the food package change reduced obesity among children participating in WIC, a population that has been especially vulnerable to the childhood obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used an interrupted time-series design with repeated cross-sectional measurements of state-specific obesity prevalence among WIC-participating 2- to 4-year-old children from 2000 to 2014. We used multilevel linear regression models to estimate the trend in obesity prevalence for states before the WIC package revision and to test whether the trend in obesity prevalence changed after the 2009 WIC package revision, adjusting for changes in demographics. In a secondary analysis, we adjusted for changes in macrosomia and high prepregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Before the 2009 WIC food package change, the prevalence of obesity across states among 2- to 4-year-old WIC participants was increasing by 0.23 percentage points annually (95% confidence interval: 0.17 to 0.29; P < .001). After 2009, the trend was reversed (-0.34 percentage points per year; 95% confidence interval: -0.42 to -0.25; P < .001). Changes in sociodemographic and other obesity risk factors did not account for this change in the trend in obesity prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 WIC food package change may have helped to reverse the rapid increase in obesity prevalence among WIC participants observed before the food package change.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/tendências , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/tendências , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Sch Nurs ; 35(1): 61-76, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798692

RESUMO

School telehealth is an alternative delivery model to increase student health-care access with minimal evaluation to aid decision makers in the adoption or expansion of programs. This systematic review assesses school-based telehealth programs using a dissemination and implementation (D&I) framework to inform practitioners and decision makers of the value of school telehealth. We assessed findings from 20 studies on telehealth published between January 2006 and June 2018 and summarized program evaluation on a range of D&I constructs. The sample population included children in school- or center-based early childhood education under age 22 and included parents, providers, and school personnel across urban and suburban locations. There is some evidence that school telehealth can reduce emergency department visits and improve health status for children with chronic and acute illnesses. Future research should report on barriers and facilitators of implementation of programs, including costs related to application of telehealth services and utilization rates.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sleep Med Rev ; 42: 3-9, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177247

RESUMO

From disaster related stress causing insomnia, to poor air quality causing sleep related breathing problems, climate change poses a potentially serious threat to human sleep. We conducted a systematic review evaluating the relationship between climate change and human sleep in the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from 1980 through 2017 following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Inclusion criteria included epidemiologic studies published in English that reported observational population data on human sleep and its relationship to climate change, temperature, extreme weather events and climate related disasters (e.g. hurricanes, floods, and wildfires). We excluded non-human studies, laboratory or experimental physiology studies, commentaries or letters, review articles, and articles on wind turbines. Using a systematic search strategy, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies related to the effects of rising temperature, seven studies related to extreme weather events, and three studies related to floods or wildfires. Diminished total sleep times and sleep disruption were most commonly reported, especially among the most vulnerable populations including the elderly and low-income; however, the body of evidence was limited and further well-designed human studies are clearly needed. We present a conceptual framework for identifying the emerging threats of climate change and understanding their respective effects on human sleep.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Inundações , Humanos
12.
J Sch Health ; 88(9): 651-659, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the critical role of educators as gatekeepers for school mental health services, they receive limited training to support student mental health. We report findings from a trial of an online mental health role-play simulation for elementary school teachers on changes in attitudes and self-reported helping behaviors for students experiencing psychological distress. METHODS: We randomly assigned 18,896 elementary school teachers to wait-list control or intervention conditions in which they received the 45- to 90-minute online role-play simulation. We administered a version of the validated Gatekeeper Behavior Scale at baseline and postintervention, which measures attitudinal dimensions shown to predict teacher helping behavior change. Self-reported helping behaviors were collected at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Outcomes were compared between the intervention follow-up and control group baseline measures. RESULTS: The intervention group posttraining scores were significantly higher (p < .001) than the control group for all the preparedness, likelihood, and self-efficacy Gatekeeper Behavior subscales. All 5 helping behaviors were significantly higher among the intervention group at follow-up compared to the control group at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: We found that a brief online role-play simulation was an effective strategy for improving teacher attitudes and behaviors needed to perform a positive mental health gatekeeper role in schools.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes
13.
Am J Health Promot ; 32(1): 72-74, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed public support for required water access in schools and parks and perceived safety and taste of water in these settings to inform efforts to increase access to and consumption of tap water. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of the US public collected from August to November 2011. SETTING: Random digit-dialed telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n = 1218) aged 17 and older from 1055 US counties in 46 states. MEASURES: Perceived safety and taste of water in schools and parks as well as support for required access to water in these settings. ANALYSIS: Survey-adjusted perceived safety and taste as well as support for required access were estimated. RESULTS: There was broad support for required access to water throughout the day in schools (96%) and parks (89%). Few participants believed water was unsafe in schools (10%) or parks (18%). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of public support for efforts to increase access to drinking water in schools and parks and documents overall high levels of perceived taste and safety of water provided in these settings.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Parques Recreativos/normas , Opinião Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
N Engl J Med ; 377(22): 2145-2153, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the current obesity epidemic has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about long-term risks of adult obesity for a given child at his or her present age and weight. We developed a simulation model to estimate the risk of adult obesity at the age of 35 years for the current population of children in the United States. METHODS: We pooled height and weight data from five nationally representative longitudinal studies totaling 176,720 observations from 41,567 children and adults. We simulated growth trajectories across the life course and adjusted for secular trends. We created 1000 virtual populations of 1 million children through the age of 19 years that were representative of the 2016 population of the United States and projected their trajectories in height and weight up to the age of 35 years. Severe obesity was defined as a body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 35 or higher in adults and 120% or more of the 95th percentile in children. RESULTS: Given the current level of childhood obesity, the models predicted that a majority of today's children (57.3%; 95% uncertainly interval [UI], 55.2 to 60.0) will be obese at the age of 35 years, and roughly half of the projected prevalence will occur during childhood. Our simulations indicated that the relative risk of adult obesity increased with age and BMI, from 1.17 (95% UI, 1.09 to 1.29) for overweight 2-year-olds to 3.10 (95% UI, 2.43 to 3.65) for 19-year-olds with severe obesity. For children with severe obesity, the chance they will no longer be obese at the age of 35 years fell from 21.0% (95% UI, 7.3 to 47.3) at the age of 2 years to 6.1% (95% UI, 2.1 to 9.9) at the age of 19 years. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our simulation models, childhood obesity and overweight will continue to be a major health problem in the United States. Early development of obesity predicted obesity in adulthood, especially for children who were severely obese. (Funded by the JPB Foundation and others.).


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Crescimento , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatrics ; 140(5)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness and population impact of the national implementation of the Study of Technology to Accelerate Research (STAR) intervention for childhood obesity. METHODS: In the STAR cluster-randomized trial, 6- to 12-year-old children with obesity seen at pediatric practices with electronic health record (EHR)-based decision support for primary care providers and self-guided behavior-change support for parents had significantly smaller increases in BMI than children who received usual care. We used a microsimulation model of a national implementation of STAR from 2015 to 2025 among all pediatric primary care providers in the United States with fully functional EHRs to estimate cost, impact on obesity prevalence, and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The expected population reach of a 10-year national implementation is ∼2 million children, with intervention costs of $119 per child and $237 per BMI unit reduced. At 10 years, assuming maintenance of effect, the intervention is expected to avert 43 000 cases and 226 000 life-years with obesity at a net cost of $4085 per case and $774 per life-year with obesity averted. Limiting implementation to large practices and using higher estimates of EHR adoption improved both cost-effectiveness and reach, whereas decreasing the maintenance of the intervention's effect worsened the former. CONCLUSIONS: A childhood obesity intervention with electronic decision support for clinicians and self-guided behavior-change support for parents may be more cost-effective than previous clinical interventions. Effective and efficient interventions that target children with obesity are necessary and could work in synergy with population-level prevention strategies to accelerate progress in reducing obesity prevalence.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Intervenção Médica Precoce/economia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício/tendências , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Public Health ; 107(9): 1387-1394, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether differences in tap water and other beverage intake explain differences in inadequate hydration among US adults by race/ethnicity and income. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of inadequate hydration (urine osmolality ≥ 800 mOsm/kg) by race/ethnicity and income of 8258 participants aged 20 to 74 years in the 2009 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable regression models, we estimated associations between demographic variables, tap water intake, and inadequate hydration. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hydration among US adults was 29.5%. Non-Hispanic Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17, 1.76) and Hispanics (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.67) had a higher risk of inadequate hydration than did non-Hispanic Whites. Lower-income adults had a higher risk of inadequate hydration than did higher-income adults (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.45). Differences in tap water intake partially attenuated racial/ethnic differences in hydration status. Differences in total beverage and other fluid intake further attenuated sociodemographic disparities. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in inadequate hydration among US adults are related to differences in tap water and other beverage intake. Policy action is needed to ensure equitable access to healthy beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Líquidos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
17.
Prev Med ; 95 Suppl: S17-S27, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773710

RESUMO

Participation in recommended levels of physical activity promotes a healthy body weight and reduced chronic disease risk. To inform investment in prevention initiatives, we simulate the national implementation, impact on physical activity and childhood obesity and associated cost-effectiveness (versus the status quo) of six recommended strategies that can be applied throughout childhood to increase physical activity in US school, afterschool and childcare settings. In 2016, the Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) systematic review process identified six interventions for study. A microsimulation model estimated intervention outcomes 2015-2025 including changes in mean MET-hours/day, intervention reach and cost per person, cost per MET-hour change, ten-year net costs to society and cases of childhood obesity prevented. First year reach of the interventions ranged from 90,000 youth attending a Healthy Afterschool Program to 31.3 million youth reached by Active School Day policies. Mean MET-hour/day/person increases ranged from 0.05 MET-hour/day/person for Active PE and Healthy Afterschool to 1.29 MET-hour/day/person for the implementation of New Afterschool Programs. Cost per MET-hour change ranged from cost saving to $3.14. Approximately 2500 to 110,000 cases of children with obesity could be prevented depending on the intervention implemented. All of the six interventions are estimated to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents in the US population and prevent cases of childhood obesity. Results do not include other impacts of increased physical activity, including cognitive and behavioral effects. Decision-makers can use these methods to inform prioritization of physical activity promotion and obesity prevention on policy agendas.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 13: E97, 2016 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine collection, analysis, and reporting of data on child height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), particularly at the state and local levels, are needed to monitor the childhood obesity epidemic, plan intervention strategies, and evaluate the impact of interventions. Child BMI surveillance systems operated by the US government do not provide state or local data on children across a range of ages. The objective of this study was to describe the extent to which state governments conduct child BMI surveillance. METHODS: From August through December 2014, we conducted a structured telephone survey with state government administrators to learn about state surveillance of child BMI. We also searched websites of state health and education agencies for information about state surveillance. RESULTS: State agency administrators in 48 states and Washington, DC, completed telephone interviews (96% response rate). Based on our interviews and Internet research, we determined that 14 states collect child BMI data in a manner consistent with standard definitions of public health surveillance. CONCLUSION: The absence of child BMI surveillance systems in most states limits the ability of public health practitioners and policymakers to develop and evaluate responses to the childhood obesity epidemic. Greater investment in surveillance is needed to identify the most effective and cost-effective childhood obesity interventions.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Governo Estadual , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Empregados do Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Telefone , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0150735, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26954566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. METHODS: Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 16,924). We validated our national estimates against NHANES and estimated bias-corrected state-specific prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30) and severe obesity (BMI≥35). We compared these results with previous adjustment methods. RESULTS: Compared to NHANES, self-reported BRFSS data underestimated national prevalence of obesity by 16% (28.67% vs 34.01%), and severe obesity by 23% (11.03% vs 14.26%). Our method was not significantly different from NHANES for obesity or severe obesity, while previous methods underestimated both. Only four states had a corrected obesity prevalence below 30%, with four exceeding 40%-in contrast, most states were below 30% in CDC maps. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve million adults with obesity (including 6.7 million with severe obesity) were misclassified by CDC state-level estimates. Previous bias-correction methods also resulted in underestimates. Accurate state-level estimates are necessary to plan for resources to address the obesity epidemic.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Índice de Massa Corporal , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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