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1.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 55(4): 349-354, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797285

RESUMO

Clinical practice guidelines are important documents as they have the capacity to significantly influence and shape clinical practice in important areas of therapeutics. As such, they need to be developed informed by comprehensive and quality-based systematic reviews, involve consensus deliberations representative of the appropriate experts in the field and be subject to thorough critical review. A revised clinical practice guideline for the management of patients with mood disorders was recently published under the auspices of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. However, this clinical practice guideline was not developed in a manner that reflects the appropriate standards that should apply to clinical practice guideline development and it has critical flaws, especially as it pertains to the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for patients with depression. The revision of the college clinical practice guideline has explicitly removed clear and unequivocal evidence-based recommendations that were found in a previous version of the clinical practice guideline and replaced these with consensus-based recommendations. However, the consensus-based recommendations were developed without consultation of the appropriate expert body within the college and contradict the scientific literature. There is substantive and unequivocal evidence supporting the antidepressant use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of patients with depression and its use after a patient with depression has failed a limited number (typically around two) of antidepressant medication trials. Readers should refer to the college Professional Practice Guidelines for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation published in 2018 for thorough information about the use of this important new treatment.

2.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867421998785, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745287

RESUMO

The medical use of psychedelic substances (e.g. psilocybin, ayahuasca, lysergic acid diethylamide and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is attracting renewed interest, driven by a pressing need for research and development of novel therapies for psychiatric disorders, as well as promising results of contemporary studies. In this Viewpoint, we reflect upon the 'Clinical Memorandum on Psychedelics' recently released by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists and note subsequent developments including the application for down-scheduling of psilocybin and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine presently being considered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and approvals for access via the Special Access Scheme. We suggest that this field is worthy of rigorous research to assess potential benefits, address safety parameters and clarify therapeutic mechanisms. To this end, we outline recent research findings, provide an overview of current knowledge relating to mechanisms of action and discuss salient aspects of the psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy treatment model. The sum of this research points towards medicinal psychedelics as a potential new class of psychiatric treatments when used within a medically supervised framework with integrated psychotherapeutic support. However, before widespread translation into clinical use can occur, appropriately designed and sufficiently powered trials are required to detect both potential positive and negative outcomes. Unique safety and regulatory challenges also need to be addressed. As for any new medical therapy, psychedelic research needs to be conducted in a rigorous manner, through the dispassionate lens of scientific enquiry. Carte blanche availability to practitioners, without specific protocols and appropriate training, would be potentially harmful to individuals and detrimental to the field.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 285: 58-62, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636671

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the association of the anaesthesia to ECT stimulus TI (anaesthesia-ECT TI) with efficacy and cognitive outcomes after ECT treatment. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 690 patients who received ECT from July 2017 till December 2019. Generalized linear regression was utilized to analyse the association of mean anaesthesia-ECT TI (from session 2 to session 6 ECT treatment) with Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S) scores and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score after 6 ECT treatments, and with EEG quality during the treatments (post ictal suppression scores). RESULTS: The averaged TI was 106.6±20.2 (mean±SD) seconds. There was significant improvement of overall CGI-S score after ECT treatment (3.3±1.0) vs pre-ECT treatment (5.0±0.8, p<0.001) while there was no significant change of MoCA score over the course of 6 ECT (p>0.05). The anaesthesia-ECT TI had no association with post-ECT CGI-S while longer anaesthesia-ECT TI was associated with poorer post-ECT MoCA scores [adjusted ß, -0.056; 95% CI (-0.099, -0.013), p=0.011] and better EEG quality score [adjusted ß (0.001), 95% CI (0, 0.002), p=0.011]. CONCLUSION: Longer TI between anaesthesia and ECT stimulus administration resulted in higher seizure quality, suggesting more effective stimulation. This was associated with more cognitive impairment but not higher efficacy. The assessment of outcomes after only 6 ECT limited the ability to fully explore associations between the TI and clinical outcomes. This was a retrospective analysis of clinical data from a real-world treatment setting. A controlled study would provide greater potential to fully explore the association between TI and clinical outcomes.

4.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(3): 819-837, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549501

RESUMO

As the field of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) expands, there is a growing need for comprehensive guidelines on training practitioners in the safe and effective administration of NIBS techniques in their various research and clinical applications. This article provides recommendations on the structure and content of this training. Three different types of practitioners are considered (Technicians, Clinicians, and Scientists), to attempt to cover the range of education and responsibilities of practitioners in NIBS from the laboratory to the clinic. Basic or core competencies and more advanced knowledge and skills are discussed, and recommendations offered regarding didactic and practical curricular components. We encourage individual licensing and governing bodies to implement these guidelines.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 284: 1-8, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with cognitive deficits across multiple domains, including working memory. The n-back task, a convenient psychometric tool capable of computerised delivery and concurrent use with neuroimaging, can provide enhanced insight into working memory dysfunction in depression. This meta-analysis sought to investigate the n-back task under varying cognitive load conditions (i.e. different levels of 'n') to clarify the pattern of working memory deficits in depression. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies involving unipolar depressed participants and matched controls utilising the n-back task. Meta-analyses were performed for accuracy and response times at four levels of cognitive load (0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-back). RESULTS: 31 studies (total 1,666 participants) met inclusion criteria and were included for quantitative analyses. Depressed individuals had significantly reduced accuracy compared to controls for 1-, 2-, and 3-back tasks, but not the attentional 0-back task. Likewise, response latencies were prolonged for all task levels (0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-back). Additional meta-regression analyses indicated that participant age and clinical status (i.e. inpatient/outpatient) may exacerbate working memory deficits associated with depression. LIMITATIONS: Our results indicate high levels of heterogeneity between studies, particularly for response times. CONCLUSIONS: Accuracy impairments were worse at higher levels of n, with the largest effect size obtained on the 2-back task, suggesting deficits to higher executive functions. Response times were consistently prolonged at all cognitive loads in agreement with a pattern of generalised psychomotor retardation.

6.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 62, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antidepressant medicines are used to manage symptoms of low back pain. The efficacy, acceptability, and safety of antidepressant medicines for low back pain (LBP) are not clear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy, acceptability, and safety of antidepressant medicines for LBP. METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov , the EU Clinical Trials Register, and the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform from inception to May 2020. We included published and trial registry reports of RCTs that allocated adult participants with LBP to receive an antidepressant medicine or a placebo medicine. Pairs of authors independently extracted data in duplicate. We extracted participant characteristics, study sample size, outcome values, and measures of variance for each outcome. We data using random-effects meta-analysis models and calculated estimates of effects and heterogeneity for each outcome. We formed judgments of confidence in the evidence in accordance with GRADE. We report our findings in accordance with the PRISMA statement. We prespecified all outcomes in a prospectively registered protocol. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and acceptability. We measured pain intensity at end-of-treatment on a 0-100 point scale and considered 10 points the minimal clinically important difference. We defined acceptability as the odds of stopping treatment for any reason. RESULTS: We included 23 RCTs in this review. Data were available for pain in 17 trials and acceptability in 14 trials. Treatment with antidepressants decreased pain intensity by 4.33  points (95% CI - 6.15 to - 2.50) on a 0-100 scale, compared to placebo. Treatment with antidepressants increased the odds of stopping treatment for any reason (OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.03 to 1.56]), compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of LBP with antidepressants is associated with small reductions in pain intensity and increased odds of stopping treatment for any reason, compared to placebo. The effect on pain is not clinically important. The effect on acceptability warrants consideration. These findings provide Level I evidence to guide clinicians in their use of antidepressants to treat LBP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: We prospectively registered the protocol for this systematic review on PROSPERO ( CRD42020149275 ).

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered the most effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In recent years, the pursuit of the neurobiological mechanisms of ECT action has generated a significant amount of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we integrated all fMRI research in patients with MDD receiving ECT and, importantly, evaluated the level of convergence and replicability across multiple fMRI metrics. RESULTS: While according to most studies changes in patients with MDD after ECT appear to be widely distributed across the brain, our multimetric review revealed specific changes involving functional connectivity increases in the superior and middle frontal gyri as the most replicated and across-modality convergent findings. Although this modulation of prefrontal connectivity was associated to ECT outcome, we also identified fMRI measurements of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex as the fMRI signals most significantly linked to clinical response. CONCLUSION: We identified specific prefrontal and cingulate territories which activity and connectivity with other brain regions is modulated by ECT, critically accounting for its mechanism of action.

8.
Brain Stimul ; 13(6): 1644-1654, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance for ECT practitioners in utilising the ictal EEG to inform treatment decisions. METHODS: A systematic review of studies examining the ictal EEG, treatment technique, seizure threshold and treatment outcomes was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched up to July 31, 2019. Studies were included if they examined the use of ECT in human subjects and compared an ictal EEG analysis (either quantitative or manually rated) with either: a) clinical outcomes, b) seizure threshold/threshold change, c) ECT dosing decisions, or d) different aspects of ECT technique (comparison of different electrode placements, pulse widths, waveforms, or dose/dose relative to seizure threshold). RESULTS: A total of 853 studies were identified, with 44 meeting inclusion criteria. A qualitative review revealed ictal EEG indices have been linked to therapeutic outcome, though the strength of this relationship appears modest. Ictal EEG features are influenced by variations in ECT treatment technique. Serial ictal EEG monitoring can detect changes in seizure threshold across an ECT course for right unilateral brief and ultrabrief pulse ECT. CONCLUSION: While there is some relationship between ictal EEG manifestation and treatment outcomes, the primary utility of ictal EEG monitoring during an ECT course may lie in the capacity to detect changes in seizure threshold and adjust dosing accordingly. Prospective validation of a dosing regime informed by serial ictal EEG monitoring is warranted.

9.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 304: 111157, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799057

RESUMO

Electrode placement in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has a major impact on treatment efficacy and cognitive side effects. Left Anterior Right Temporal (LART) is a lesser utilised bilateral montage which may produce more optimal clinical outcomes relative to standard bitemporal ECT. In this study we used computational modelling to explore how stimulation effects from LART and two novel variants (LART - F3 and LART - Frontal) compared to the more common bilateral placements of bitemporal and bifrontal ECT. High resolution finite element human head models were generated from MRI scans of three subjects with Major Depressive Disorder. Differences in regional stimulation were examined through parametric tests for regions of interest and subtraction maps. Compared to bitemporal ECT, LART - Original resulted in significantly greater stimulation of the left cingulate gyrus (hypothesised to be associated with treatment efficacy), and relatively reduced stimulation of the bilateral hippocampi (potentially associated with cognitive side effects). No additional clinical benefit was suggested with the novel LART placements compared to the original LART. The original LART placement is a promising montage for further clinical investigation.

10.
BJPsych Bull ; : 1-4, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811589

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an essential treatment for severe mental illnesses such as depression with suicidality and catatonia. However, its availability is being threatened by resource limitations and infection concerns due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This may necessitate the triage of patients for ECT but there is no established ethical framework to prioritise patients. We offer an application of an ethical framework for use of scare medical resources in the ECT setting.

11.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(4): 403-419, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132110

RESUMO

Current first-line treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, one-third of depressed patients do not achieve remission after multiple medication trials, and psychotherapy can be costly and time-consuming. Although non-implantable neuromodulation (NIN) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy, and magnetic seizure therapy are gaining momentum for treating MDD, the efficacy of non-convulsive techniques is still modest, whereas use of convulsive modalities is limited by their cognitive side effects. In this context, we propose that NIN techniques could benefit from a precision-oriented approach. In this review, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in implementing such a framework, focusing on enhancing NIN effects via a combination of individualized cognitive interventions, using closed-loop approaches, identifying multimodal biomarkers, using computer electric field modeling to guide targeting and quantify dosage, and using machine learning algorithms to integrate data collected at multiple biological levels and identify clinical responders. Though promising, this framework is currently limited, as previous studies have employed small samples and did not sufficiently explore pathophysiological mechanisms associated with NIN response and side effects. Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses have not been performed. Nevertheless, further advancements in clinical trials of NIN could shift the field toward a more "precision-oriented" practice.

12.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 54(9): 867-873, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review brief cognitive screening instruments for routine clinical monitoring in electroconvulsive therapy. METHODS: Brief cognitive screening instruments specifically developed for electroconvulsive therapy and commonly used brief generalised cognitive screening instruments were reviewed with relative advantages and disadvantages highlighted. RESULTS: Several brief cognitive screening tests designed for use in electroconvulsive therapy have been found sensitive for monitoring electroconvulsive therapy-related cognitive side effects. The choice of a brief generalised cognitive screening instrument for use in an electroconvulsive therapy clinical context comes with several pertinent considerations. CONCLUSION: Electroconvulsive therapy is a highly effective treatment for pharmacoresistant and severe neuropsychiatric illness although cognitive side effects can be a barrier for treatment. Routine monitoring using brief cognitive screening instruments has advantages in busy clinical settings and can assist with optimising patient outcomes. More detailed neuropsychological assessment is recommended if the results from brief cognitive screening raise concerns.

13.
Brain Stimul ; 13(4): 1124-1149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has broadly disrupted biomedical treatment and research including non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). Moreover, the rapid onset of societal disruption and evolving regulatory restrictions may not have allowed for systematic planning of how clinical and research work may continue throughout the pandemic or be restarted as restrictions are abated. The urgency to provide and develop NIBS as an intervention for diverse neurological and mental health indications, and as a catalyst of fundamental brain research, is not dampened by the parallel efforts to address the most life-threatening aspects of COVID-19; rather in many cases the need for NIBS is heightened including the potential to mitigate mental health consequences related to COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To facilitate the re-establishment of access to NIBS clinical services and research operations during the current COVID-19 pandemic and possible future outbreaks, we develop and discuss a framework for balancing the importance of NIBS operations with safety considerations, while addressing the needs of all stakeholders. We focus on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and low intensity transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) - including transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS). METHODS: The present consensus paper provides guidelines and good practices for managing and reopening NIBS clinics and laboratories through the immediate and ongoing stages of COVID-19. The document reflects the analysis of experts with domain-relevant expertise spanning NIBS technology, clinical services, and basic and clinical research - with an international perspective. We outline regulatory aspects, human resources, NIBS optimization, as well as accommodations for specific demographics. RESULTS: A model based on three phases (early COVID-19 impact, current practices, and future preparation) with an 11-step checklist (spanning removing or streamlining in-person protocols, incorporating telemedicine, and addressing COVID-19-associated adverse events) is proposed. Recommendations on implementing social distancing and sterilization of NIBS related equipment, specific considerations of COVID-19 positive populations including mental health comorbidities, as well as considerations regarding regulatory and human resource in the era of COVID-19 are outlined. We discuss COVID-19 considerations specifically for clinical (sub-)populations including pediatric, stroke, addiction, and the elderly. Numerous case-examples across the world are described. CONCLUSION: There is an evident, and in cases urgent, need to maintain NIBS operations through the COVID-19 pandemic, including anticipating future pandemic waves and addressing effects of COVID-19 on brain and mind. The proposed robust and structured strategy aims to address the current and anticipated future challenges while maintaining scientific rigor and managing risk.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Idoso , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
14.
J ECT ; 36(4): 260-264, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive side effects are a common unintended outcome of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Routine cognitive assessment is important for monitoring patient outcomes, although it can pose challenges in busy clinical settings. Computerized cognitive testing has advantages that can facilitate routine monitoring. This study explored the construct and criterion validity of computerized cognitive testing compared with standard pen-and-paper tests for monitoring cognition in ECT patients. METHODS: The study included 24 participants with major depression who received an acute course of ECT. Cognition was assessed at pretreatment and at posttreatment with 3 computerized tests from the CogState battery (International Shopping List task, One-Card Learning, and One-Back Task) and 3 conceptually matched pen-and-paper-administered neuropsychological tests. RESULTS: At pretreatment, only performance on the computer-administered test of verbal anterograde memory (International Shopping List task) was significantly correlated with the analogous pen-and-paper measure, whereas the other computerized tests were not. Of the computerized measures, only the International Shopping List task showed significant changes from pretreatment to posttreatment (P < 0.01, Cohen d > 1.0). In contrast, all the pen-and-paper-administered tests showed significant changes from pretreatment to posttreatment (P < 0.01, Cohen d range, 0.8-1.2). Pretreatment to posttreatment cognitive changes on the computerized measures were not correlated with changes on the pen-and-paper-administered tests. CONCLUSION: Construct and criterion validity and tolerability varied between the computerized measures. The results highlighted potentially important issues related to the interpretation and utility of computerized tests in this patient population.

15.
Neuropsychology ; 34(6): 726-734, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is commonly associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. However, there remains substantial heterogeneity between patients and inconsistent findings regarding the magnitude and prevalence of specific neurocognitive deficits. This study aimed to investigate the potential for different neurocognitive subgroups in patients diagnosed with MDD. METHOD: Data were pooled from 4 different clinical trials that involved adults diagnosed with MDD. Neurocognitive outcomes included measures of verbal learning and memory, executive function, attention, and processing speed. Latent class analysis was conducted to examine for different subgroups based on neurocognitive profiles of performance across outcome measures. Subgroups were compared to a separate sample of age-matched adult healthy controls, across illness factors, and individual mood items on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). RESULTS: Within the MDD cohort (N = 149), 45% of participants were considered relatively "cognitively preserved," with the remainder "cognitively reduced" (39%) or "cognitively impaired" (16%). Verbal memory performance was significantly poorer compared to attention and processing speed only in the "cognitively impaired" subgroup. There was no association between subgroup membership and relevant illness factors, including ratings on individual MADRS items. LIMITATIONS: Data were pooled from several studies that included different neurocognitive measures and cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of MDD participants had no or minimal objective cognitive difficulties, and neurocognitive functioning was found generally unrelated to illness factors. Future longitudinal research is warranted to determine whether the people who are relatively cognitively impaired are at increased risk for further cognitive decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

16.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-23, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114899

RESUMO

Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to facilitate working memory in normal adults. There is some evidence in people with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) but overall evidence is mixed. This study aimed to address shortcomings of prior study designs in TBI to examine whether a single dose of tDCS would lead to benefits in working memory. Thirty people with severe, chronic TBI were administered a single session of either anodal tDCS (2 mA for 20 min) or sham tDCS (2 mA for 30 s), in a counterbalanced order, over the left parietal cortex while performing 1-back and 2-back working memory tasks. Skin conductance levels were examined as a measure of task activated arousal, a possible functional analogue of cortical excitability. We found that tDCS led to no improvements in accuracy on the working memory tasks. A slight increase in variability and reaction time with tDCS was related to decreased task activated arousal. Overall, this study yielded no evidence that a single session of tDCS can facilitate working memory for people with TBI.

17.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(4): 403-419, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187319

RESUMO

Current first-line treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, one-third of depressed patients do not achieve remission after multiple medication trials, and psychotherapy can be costly and time-consuming. Although non-implantable neuromodulation (NIN) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy, and magnetic seizure therapy are gaining momentum for treating MDD, the efficacy of non-convulsive techniques is still modest, whereas use of convulsive modalities is limited by their cognitive side effects. In this context, we propose that NIN techniques could benefit from a precision-oriented approach. In this review, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in implementing such a framework, focusing on enhancing NIN effects via a combination of individualized cognitive interventions, using closed-loop approaches, identifying multimodal biomarkers, using computer electric field modeling to guide targeting and quantify dosage, and using machine learning algorithms to integrate data collected at multiple biological levels and identify clinical responders. Though promising, this framework is currently limited, as previous studies have employed small samples and did not sufficiently explore pathophysiological mechanisms associated with NIN response and side effects. Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses have not been performed. Nevertheless, further advancements in clinical trials of NIN could shift the field toward a more "precision-oriented" practice.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/reabilitação , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Encéfalo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078034

RESUMO

We aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of arketamine, the R(-)-enantiomer of ketamine, for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in humans. Open-label pilot trial, seven subjects with TRD received a single intravenous infusion of arketamine (0.5 mg/kg); primary outcome was change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) 24 h after. Mean MADRS dropped from 30.7 before infusion to 10.4 after one day, a mean difference of 20.3 points [CI 95% 13.6-27.0; p < 0.001]; dissociation was nearly absent. Arketamine might produce fast-onset and sustained antidepressant effects in humans with favorable safety profile, like previously reported with animals; further controlled-trials are needed.

19.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 151-157, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for severe mental illness but access is limited for patients lacking consent capacity. We aimed to compare the symptomatic, cognitive, quality of life (QOL) and functional outcomes of patients with and without capacity receiving ECT for schizophrenia, depression or mania. METHODS: Patients prescribed ECT in a single center had their clinical outcomes pre and post ECT compared with repeated measures ANOVAs. Differences in demographic, clinical characteristics and ECT treatment between the group lacking and having capacity were examined using independent t-tests for continuous variables and chi-squared tests for categorical variables. RESULTS: 75.1% of 175 patients lacked capacity. The group lacking capacity had overall poorer cognitive and global functioning pre ECT but higher QOL. Objective psychiatric symptom ratings after ECT improved similarly between groups. Mood, cognition, QOL and function improved in both groups, with more improvement in mood and function in the group lacking capacity and a trend towards greater cognitive improvement (p = 0.051). LIMITATIONS: Subgroup analysis by diagnosis was not done due to smaller sample sizes in each group. Cognition was assessed with a general screening instrument not a full neuropsychological assessment. CONCLUSIONS: ECT is a safe and effective treatment for schizophrenia, bipolar mania and depression, and may provide similar or greater benefits in patients lacking capacity to consent, compared to those with capacity. These results support the provision of a framework for substitute decision making in the patients' best interests for ECT in patients unable to provide their own consent.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 615-620, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, no specific, systematic assessment tool for the monitoring and reporting of ketamine-related side effects exists. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive Ketamine Side Effect Tool (KSET) to capture acute and longer-term side effects associated with repeated ketamine treatments. METHODS: Informed by systematic review data and clinical research, we drafted a list of the most commonly reported side effects. Face and content validation were obtained via feedback from collaborators with expertise in psychiatry and anaesthetics, clinical trial piloting and a modified Delphi Technique involving ten international experts. RESULTS: The final version consisted of four forms that collect information at time points: screening, baseline, immediately after a single treatment, and longer-term follow-up. Instructions were developed to guide users and promote consistent utilisation. LIMITATIONS: Further evaluation of feasibility, construct validity and reliability is required, and is planned across multiple international sites. CONCLUSIONS: The structured Ketamine Side Effect Tool (KSET) was developed, with confirmation of content and face validity via a Delphi consensus process. This tool is timely, given the paucity of data regarding ketamine's safety, tolerability and abuse potential over the longer term, and its recent adoption internationally as a clinical treatment for depression. Although based on data from depression studies, the KSET has potential applicability for ketamine (or derivatives) used in other medical disorders, including chronic pain. We recommend its utilisation for both research and clinical scenarios, including data registries.

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