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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504290

RESUMO

Current publicly available tools that allow rapid exploration of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers (e.g., HaploReg and LDlink) are based on whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from 2,504 individuals in the 1000 Genomes Project. Here, we present TOP-LD, an online tool to explore LD inferred with high-coverage (∼30×) WGS data from 15,578 individuals in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. TOP-LD provides a significant upgrade compared to current LD tools, as the TOPMed WGS data provide a more comprehensive representation of genetic variation than the 1000 Genomes data, particularly for rare variants and in the specific populations that we analyzed. For example, TOP-LD encompasses LD information for 150.3, 62.2, and 36.7 million variants for European, African, and East Asian ancestral samples, respectively, offering 2.6- to 9.1-fold increase in variant coverage compared to HaploReg 4.0 or LDlink. In addition, TOP-LD includes tens of thousands of structural variants (SVs). We demonstrate the value of TOP-LD in fine-mapping at the GGT1 locus associated with gamma glutamyltransferase in the African ancestry participants in UK Biobank. Beyond fine-mapping, TOP-LD can facilitate a wide range of applications that are based on summary statistics and estimates of LD. TOP-LD is freely available online.

2.
Nat Genet ; 54(3): 263-273, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256806

RESUMO

Analyses of data from genome-wide association studies on unrelated individuals have shown that, for human traits and diseases, approximately one-third to two-thirds of heritability is captured by common SNPs. However, it is not known whether the remaining heritability is due to the imperfect tagging of causal variants by common SNPs, in particular whether the causal variants are rare, or whether it is overestimated due to bias in inference from pedigree data. Here we estimated heritability for height and body mass index (BMI) from whole-genome sequence data on 25,465 unrelated individuals of European ancestry. The estimated heritability was 0.68 (standard error 0.10) for height and 0.30 (standard error 0.10) for body mass index. Low minor allele frequency variants in low linkage disequilibrium (LD) with neighboring variants were enriched for heritability, to a greater extent for protein-altering variants, consistent with negative selection. Our results imply that rare variants, in particular those in regions of low linkage disequilibrium, are a major source of the still missing heritability of complex traits and disease.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Alelos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
3.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 30(3): 221-236, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorder (ED) symptoms are prevalent in the general population, but their shared genetic underpinnings with psychiatric, metabolic, and anthropometric traits are not known. Here, we examined if polygenic scores (PGSs) of traits associated with anorexia nervosa are also associated with adolescent ED symptoms in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). METHODS: A total of 8654 participants with genotype data and at least one phenotypic measure were included from the ALSPAC study. We associated PGS from 25 traits (16 psychiatric, 4 metabolic, and 5 anthropometric) with eight ED symptoms, including behaviours such as fasting for weight loss and cognitions such as body dissatisfaction. RESULTS: Higher attention deficit hyperactivity disorder PGS and lower educational attainment PGS were associated with fasting for weight loss. Higher insomnia PGS was associated with increased body dissatisfaction. We found no evidence of an association between metabolic trait PGS and any ED symptom. Fat-free mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage PGSs, were positively associated with binge eating, excessive exercise, fasting for weight loss, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern. CONCLUSIONS: ED symptoms are genetically associated with psychiatric and anthropometric, but not with metabolic traits. Our findings provide insights for future genetic research investigating on why some individuals with ED symptoms progress to develop threshold EDs while others do not.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Herança Multifatorial
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(5): 1243-1254, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134825

RESUMO

A recent Perspective article described the "carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM)" of obesity, asserting that it "better reflects knowledge on the biology of weight control" as compared with what was described as the "dominant energy balance model (EBM)," which fails to consider "biological mechanisms that promote weight gain." Unfortunately, the Perspective conflated and confused the principle of energy balance, a law of physics that is agnostic as to obesity mechanisms, with the EBM as a theoretical model of obesity that is firmly based on biology. In doing so, the authors presented a false choice between the CIM and a caricature of the EBM that does not reflect modern obesity science. Here, we present a more accurate description of the EBM where the brain is the primary organ responsible for body weight regulation operating mainly below our conscious awareness via complex endocrine, metabolic, and nervous system signals to control food intake in response to the body's dynamic energy needs as well as environmental influences. We also describe the recent history of the CIM and show how the latest "most comprehensive formulation" abandons a formerly central feature that required fat accumulation in adipose tissue to be the primary driver of positive energy balance. As such, the new CIM can be considered a special case of the more comprehensive EBM but with a narrower focus on diets high in glycemic load as the primary factor responsible for common obesity. We review data from a wide variety of studies that address the validity of each model and demonstrate that the EBM is a more robust theory of obesity than the CIM.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(3): 250-259, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080590

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Past studies identified rare copy number variants (CNVs) as risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, the clinical characterization of NDD CNVs is understudied in population cohorts unselected for neuropsychiatric disorders and in cohorts of diverse ancestry. OBJECTIVE: To identify individuals harboring NDD CNVs in a multiancestry biobank and to query their enrichment for select neuropsychiatric disorders as well as association with multiple medical disorders. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a series of phenotypic enrichment and association analyses, NDD CNVs were clinically characterized among 24 877 participants in the BioMe biobank, an electronic health record-linked biobank derived from the Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York. Participants were recruited into the biobank since September 2007 across diverse ancestry and medical and neuropsychiatric specialties. For the current analyses, electronic health record data were analyzed from May 2004 through May 2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: NDD CNVs were identified using a consensus of 2 CNV calling algorithms, based on whole-exome sequencing and genotype array data, followed by novel in-silico clinical assessments. RESULTS: Of 24 877 participants, 14 586 (58.7%) were female; self-reported ancestry categories included 5965 (24.0%) who were of African ancestry, 7892 (31.7%) who were of European ancestry, and 8536 (34.3%) who were of Hispanic ancestry; and the mean (SD) age was 50.5 (17.3) years. Among 24 877 individuals, the prevalence of 64 NDD CNVs was 2.5% (n = 627), with prevalence varying by locus, corroborating the presence of some relatively highly prevalent NDD CNVs (eg, 15q11.2 deletion/duplication). An aggregate set of NDD CNVs were enriched for congenital disorders (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; P = .01) and major depressive disorder (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0; P = .01). In a meta-analysis of medical diagnoses (n = 195 hierarchically clustered diagnostic codes), NDD CNVs were significantly associated with several medical outcomes, including essential hypertension (z score = 3.6; P = 2.8 × 10-4), kidney failure (z score = 3.3; P = 1.1 × 10-3), and obstructive sleep apnea (z score = 3.4; P = 8.1 × 10-4) and, in another analysis, morbid obesity (z score = 3.8; P = 1.3 × 10-4). Further, NDD CNVs were associated with increased body mass index in a multiancestry analysis (ß = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.10-0.31; P = .003). For 36 common serum tests, there was no association with NDD CNVs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Clinical features of individuals harboring NDD CNVs were elucidated in a large-scale, multiancestry biobank, identifying enrichments for congenital disorders and major depressive disorder as well as associations with several medical outcomes, including hypertension, kidney failure, and obesity and obesity-related phenotypes, specifically obstructive sleep apnea and increased body mass index. The association between NDD CNVs and obesity outcomes indicate further potential pleiotropy of NDD CNVs beyond neurodevelopmental outcomes previously reported. Future clinical genetic investigations may lead to insights of at-risk individuals and therapeutic strategies targeting specific genetic variants. The importance of diverse inclusion within biobanks and considering the effect of rare genetic variants in a multiancestry context is evident.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Insuficiência Renal , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Obesidade
6.
JAMA ; 327(4): 350-359, 2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076666

RESUMO

Importance: Population-based assessment of disease risk associated with gene variants informs clinical decisions and risk stratification approaches. Objective: To evaluate the population-based disease risk of clinical variants in known disease predisposition genes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 72 434 individuals with 37 780 clinical variants who were enrolled in the BioMe Biobank from 2007 onwards with follow-up until December 2020 and the UK Biobank from 2006 to 2010 with follow-up until June 2020. Participants had linked exome and electronic health record data, were older than 20 years, and were of diverse ancestral backgrounds. Exposures: Variants previously reported as pathogenic or predicted to cause a loss of protein function by bioinformatic algorithms (pathogenic/loss-of-function variants). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the disease risk associated with clinical variants. The risk difference (RD) between the prevalence of disease in individuals with a variant allele (penetrance) vs in individuals with a normal allele was measured. Results: Among 72 434 study participants, 43 395 were from the UK Biobank (mean [SD] age, 57 [8.0] years; 24 065 [55%] women; 2948 [7%] non-European) and 29 039 were from the BioMe Biobank (mean [SD] age, 56 [16] years; 17 355 [60%] women; 19 663 [68%] non-European). Of 5360 pathogenic/loss-of-function variants, 4795 (89%) were associated with an RD less than or equal to 0.05. Mean penetrance was 6.9% (95% CI, 6.0%-7.8%) for pathogenic variants and 0.85% (95% CI, 0.76%-0.95%) for benign variants reported in ClinVar (difference, 6.0 [95% CI, 5.6-6.4] percentage points), with a median of 0% for both groups due to large numbers of nonpenetrant variants. Penetrance of pathogenic/loss-of-function variants for late-onset diseases was modified by age: mean penetrance was 10.3% (95% CI, 9.0%-11.6%) in individuals 70 years or older and 8.5% (95% CI, 7.9%-9.1%) in individuals 20 years or older (difference, 1.8 [95% CI, 0.40-3.3] percentage points). Penetrance of pathogenic/loss-of-function variants was heterogeneous even in known disease predisposition genes, including BRCA1 (mean [range], 38% [0%-100%]), BRCA2 (mean [range], 38% [0%-100%]), and PALB2 (mean [range], 26% [0%-100%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In 2 large biobank cohorts, the estimated penetrance of pathogenic/loss-of-function variants was variable but generally low. Further research of population-based penetrance is needed to refine variant interpretation and clinical evaluation of individuals with these variant alleles.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Penetrância , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Reino Unido
7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(3): 347-361, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553764

RESUMO

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing (WGS) from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet-related disorder genes influencing variation in platelet traits in TOPMed cohorts (not enriched for blood disorders). For example, association of GP9 with lower PLT and higher MPV was partly driven by a pathogenic Bernard-Soulier syndrome variant (rs5030764, p.Asn61Ser), and the signals at TUBB1 and CD36 were partly driven by loss of function variants not annotated as pathogenic in ClinVar (rs199948010 and rs571975065). However, residual signal remained for these gene-based signals after adjusting for lead variants, suggesting that additional variants in Mendelian genes with impacts in general population cohorts remain to be identified. Gene-based signals were also identified at several genome-wide association study identified loci for genes not annotated for Mendelian platelet disorders (PTPRH, TET2, CHEK2), with somatic variation driving the result at TET2. These results highlight the value of WGS in populations of diverse genetic ancestry to identify novel regulatory and coding signals, even for well-studied traits like platelet traits.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicina de Precisão , Plaquetas , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Estados Unidos
8.
Stroke ; 53(3): 875-885, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Previous genome-wide association studies identified 51 loci associated with stroke (mostly ischemic) and its subtypes among predominantly European populations. Using whole-genome sequencing in ancestrally diverse populations from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program, we aimed to identify novel variants, especially low-frequency or ancestry-specific variants, associated with all stroke, ischemic stroke and its subtypes (large artery, cardioembolic, and small vessel), and hemorrhagic stroke and its subtypes (intracerebral and subarachnoid). METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing data were available for 6833 stroke cases and 27 116 controls, including 22 315 European, 7877 Black, 2616 Hispanic/Latino, 850 Asian, 54 Native American, and 237 other ancestry participants. In TOPMed, we performed single variant association analysis examining 40 million common variants and aggregated association analysis focusing on rare variants. We also combined TOPMed European populations with over 28 000 additional European participants from the UK BioBank genome-wide array data through meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the single variant association analysis in TOPMed, we identified one novel locus 13q33 for large artery at whole-genome-wide significance (P<5.00×10-9) and 4 novel loci at genome-wide significance (P<5.00×10-8), all of which need confirmation in independent studies. Lead variants in all 5 loci are low-frequency but are more common in non-European populations. An aggregation of synonymous rare variants within the gene C6orf26 demonstrated suggestive evidence of association for hemorrhagic stroke (P<3.11×10-6). By meta-analyzing European ancestry samples in TOPMed and UK BioBank, we replicated several previously reported stroke loci including PITX2, HDAC9, ZFHX3, and LRCH1. CONCLUSIONS: We represent the first association analysis for stroke and its subtypes using whole-genome sequencing data from ancestrally diverse populations. While our findings suggest the potential benefits of combining whole-genome sequencing data with populations of diverse genetic backgrounds to identify possible low-frequency or ancestry-specific variants, they also highlight the need to increase genome coverage and sample sizes.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Genet Epidemiol ; 46(1): 3-16, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779012

RESUMO

Hematological measures are important intermediate clinical phenotypes for many acute and chronic diseases and are highly heritable. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci containing trait-associated variants, the causal genes underlying these associations are often uncertain. To better understand the underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to systematically investigate the association between genetically predicted gene expression and hematological measures in 54,542 Europeans from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging cohort. We found 239 significant gene-trait associations with hematological measures; we replicated 71 associations at p < 0.05 in a TWAS meta-analysis consisting of up to 35,900 Europeans from the Women's Health Initiative, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and BioMe Biobank. Additionally, we attempted to refine this list of candidate genes by performing conditional analyses, adjusting for individual variants previously associated with hematological measures, and performed further fine-mapping of TWAS loci. To facilitate interpretation of our findings, we designed an R Shiny application to interactively visualize our TWAS results by integrating them with additional genetic data sources (GWAS, TWAS from multiple reference panels, conditional analyses, known GWAS variants, etc.). Our results and application highlight frequently overlooked TWAS challenges and illustrate the complexity of TWAS fine-mapping.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transcriptoma , Células Sanguíneas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
10.
Nat Rev Genet ; 23(2): 120-133, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556834

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity has tripled over the past four decades, imposing an enormous burden on people's health. Polygenic (or common) obesity and rare, severe, early-onset monogenic obesity are often polarized as distinct diseases. However, gene discovery studies for both forms of obesity show that they have shared genetic and biological underpinnings, pointing to a key role for the brain in the control of body weight. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with increasing sample sizes and advances in sequencing technology are the main drivers behind a recent flurry of new discoveries. However, it is the post-GWAS, cross-disciplinary collaborations, which combine new omics technologies and analytical approaches, that have started to facilitate translation of genetic loci into meaningful biology and new avenues for treatment.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Sobrepeso/genética
11.
Diabetes Care ; 45(3): 674-683, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has heterogeneous patient clinical characteristics and outcomes. In previous work, we investigated the genetic basis of this heterogeneity by clustering 94 T2D genetic loci using their associations with 47 diabetes-related traits and identified five clusters, termed ß-cell, proinsulin, obesity, lipodystrophy, and liver/lipid. The relationship between these clusters and individual-level metabolic disease outcomes has not been assessed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Here we constructed individual-level partitioned polygenic scores (pPS) for these five clusters in 12 studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank (n = 454,193) and tested for cross-sectional association with T2D-related outcomes, including blood pressure, renal function, insulin use, age at T2D diagnosis, and coronary artery disease (CAD). RESULTS: Despite all clusters containing T2D risk-increasing alleles, they had differential associations with metabolic outcomes. Increased obesity and lipodystrophy cluster pPS, which had opposite directions of association with measures of adiposity, were both significantly associated with increased blood pressure and hypertension. The lipodystrophy and liver/lipid cluster pPS were each associated with CAD, with increasing and decreasing effects, respectively. An increased liver/lipid cluster pPS was also significantly associated with reduced renal function. The liver/lipid cluster includes known loci linked to liver lipid metabolism (e.g., GCKR, PNPLA3, and TM6SF2), and these findings suggest that cardiovascular disease risk and renal function may be impacted by these loci through their shared disease pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that genetically driven pathways leading to T2D also predispose differentially to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Alelos , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Obesidade/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
12.
Diabetologia ; 65(3): 477-489, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951656

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is a growing global public health challenge. Investigating quantitative traits, including fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HbA1c, that serve as early markers of type 2 diabetes progression may lead to a deeper understanding of the genetic aetiology of type 2 diabetes development. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 500 loci associated with type 2 diabetes, glycaemic traits and insulin-related traits. However, most of these findings were based only on populations of European ancestry. To address this research gap, we examined the genetic basis of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HbA1c in participants of the diverse Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study. METHODS: We conducted a GWAS of fasting glucose (n = 52,267), fasting insulin (n = 48,395) and HbA1c (n = 23,357) in participants without diabetes from the diverse PAGE Study (23% self-reported African American, 46% Hispanic/Latino, 40% European, 4% Asian, 3% Native Hawaiian, 0.8% Native American), performing transethnic and population-specific GWAS meta-analyses, followed by fine-mapping to identify and characterise novel loci and independent secondary signals in known loci. RESULTS: Four novel associations were identified (p < 5 × 10-9), including three loci associated with fasting insulin, and a novel, low-frequency African American-specific locus associated with fasting glucose. Additionally, seven secondary signals were identified, including novel independent secondary signals for fasting glucose at the known GCK locus and for fasting insulin at the known PPP1R3B locus in transethnic meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of glycaemic traits and highlight the continued importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations. DATA AVAILABILITY: Full summary statistics from each of the population-specific and transethnic results are available at NHGRI-EBI GWAS catalog ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/gwas/downloads/summary-statistics ).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(45): e27785, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766590

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: While increased obesity prevalence among persons of African ancestry (AAs) compared to persons of European ancestry (EAs) is linked to social, environmental and behavioral factors, there are no gene variants that are common and significantly associated with obesity in AA populations. We sought to explore the association between ancestry specific renal risk variants in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene with obesity related traits in AAs.We conducted a genotype-phenotype association study from 3 electronic medical record linked cohorts (BioMe Biobank, BioVU, nuGENE); randomized controlled trials (genetic testing to understand and address renal disease disparities) and prospective cohort study (Jackson Heart Study). We analyzed association of APOL1 renal risk variants with cross-sectional measures of obesity (average body mass index (BMI), and proportion of overweight and obesity) and with measures of body composition (in Jackson Heart Study).We had data on 11,930 self-reported AA adults. Across cohorts, mean age was from 42 to 49 years and percentage female from 58% to 75.3%. Individuals who have 2 APOL1 risk alleles (14% of AAs) have 30% higher obesity odds compared to others (recessive model adjusted odds ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.41; P = 2.75 × 10-6). An additive model better fit the association, in which each allele (47% of AAs) increases obesity odds by 1.13-fold (adjusted odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.19; P = 3.07 × 10-6) and increases BMI by 0.36 kg/m2 (∼1 kg, for 1.7 m height; P = 2 × 10-4). APOL1 alleles are not associated with refined body composition traits overall but are significantly associated with fat free mass index in women [0.30 kg/m2 increment per allele; P = .03].Thus, renal risk variants in the APOL1 gene, found in nearly half of AAs, are associated with BMI and obesity in an additive manner. These variants could, either on their own or interacting with environmental factors, explain a proportion of ethnic disparities in obesity.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Apolipoproteína L1 , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Apolipoproteínas/genética , Composição Corporal/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(11): 1258-1269, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586374

RESUMO

Importance: Most previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression have used data from individuals of European descent. This limits the understanding of the underlying biology of depression and raises questions about the transferability of findings between populations. Objective: To investigate the genetics of depression among individuals of East Asian and European descent living in different geographic locations, and with different outcome definitions for depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: Genome-wide association analyses followed by meta-analysis, which included data from 9 cohort and case-control data sets comprising individuals with depression and control individuals of East Asian descent. This study was conducted between January 2019 and May 2021. Exposures: Associations of genetic variants with depression risk were assessed using generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression. The results were combined across studies using fixed-effects meta-analyses. These were subsequently also meta-analyzed with the largest published GWAS for depression among individuals of European descent. Additional meta-analyses were carried out separately by outcome definition (clinical depression vs symptom-based depression) and region (East Asian countries vs Western countries) for East Asian ancestry cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depression status was defined based on health records and self-report questionnaires. Results: There were a total of 194 548 study participants (approximate mean age, 51.3 years; 62.8% women). Participants included 15 771 individuals with depression and 178 777 control individuals of East Asian descent. Five novel associations were identified, including 1 in the meta-analysis for broad depression among those of East Asian descent: rs4656484 (ß = -0.018, SE = 0.003, P = 4.43x10-8) at 1q24.1. Another locus at 7p21.2 was associated in a meta-analysis restricted to geographically East Asian studies (ß = 0.028, SE = 0.005, P = 6.48x10-9 for rs10240457). The lead variants of these 2 novel loci were not associated with depression risk in European ancestry cohorts (ß = -0.003, SE = 0.005, P = .53 for rs4656484 and ß = -0.005, SE = 0.004, P = .28 for rs10240457). Only 11% of depression loci previously identified in individuals of European descent reached nominal significance levels in the individuals of East Asian descent. The transancestry genetic correlation between cohorts of East Asian and European descent for clinical depression was r = 0.413 (SE = 0.159). Clinical depression risk was negatively genetically correlated with body mass index in individuals of East Asian descent (r = -0.212, SE = 0.084), contrary to findings for individuals of European descent. Conclusions and Relevance: These results support caution against generalizing findings about depression risk factors across populations and highlight the need to increase the ancestral and geographic diversity of samples with consistent phenotyping.


Assuntos
/genética , Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Depressão/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /genética
16.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1576-1581, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489608

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) summarize genetic liability to a disease at the individual level, and the aim is to use them as biomarkers of disease and poor outcomes in real-world clinical practice. To date, few studies have assessed the prognostic value of PRS relative to standards of care. Schizophrenia (SCZ), the archetypal psychotic illness, is an ideal test case for this because the predictive power of the SCZ PRS exceeds that of most other common diseases. Here, we analyzed clinical and genetic data from two multi-ethnic cohorts totaling 8,541 adults with SCZ and related psychotic disorders, to assess whether the SCZ PRS improves the prediction of poor outcomes relative to clinical features captured in a standard psychiatric interview. For all outcomes investigated, the SCZ PRS did not improve the performance of predictive models, an observation that was generally robust to divergent case ascertainment strategies and the ancestral background of the study participants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/patologia
17.
Horm Behav ; 136: 105054, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488063

RESUMO

Comparing twins from same- and opposite-sex pairs can provide information on potential sex differences in a variety of outcomes, including socioeconomic-related outcomes such as educational attainment. It has been suggested that this design can be applied to examine the putative role of intrauterine exposure to testosterone for educational attainment, but the evidence is still disputed. Thus, we established an international database of twin data from 11 countries with 88,290 individual dizygotic twins born over 100 years and tested for differences between twins from same- and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs in educational attainment. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by linear regression models after adjusting for birth year and twin study cohort. In contrast to the hypothesis, no difference was found in women (ß = -0.05 educational years, 95% CI -0.11, 0.02). However, men with a same-sex co-twin were slightly more educated than men having an opposite-sex co-twin (ß = 0.14 educational years, 95% CI 0.07, 0.21). No consistent differences in effect sizes were found between individual twin study cohorts representing Europe, the USA, and Australia or over the cohorts born during the 20th century, during which period the sex differences in education reversed favoring women in the latest birth cohorts. Further, no interaction was found with maternal or paternal education. Our results contradict the hypothesis that there would be differences in the intrauterine testosterone levels between same-sex and opposite-sex female twins affecting education. Our findings in men may point to social dynamics within same-sex twin pairs that may benefit men in their educational careers.


Assuntos
Testosterona , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1064, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518635

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for a wide range of cardiometabolic diseases, however the impact of specific aspects of body morphology remains poorly understood. We combined the GWAS summary statistics of fourteen anthropometric traits from UK Biobank through principal component analysis to reveal four major independent axes: body size, adiposity, predisposition to abdominal fat deposition, and lean mass. Mendelian randomization analysis showed that although body size and adiposity both contribute to the consequences of BMI, many of their effects are distinct, such as body size increasing the risk of cardiac arrhythmia (b = 0.06, p = 4.2 ∗ 10-17) while adiposity instead increased that of ischemic heart disease (b = 0.079, p = 8.2 ∗ 10-21). The body mass-neutral component predisposing to abdominal fat deposition, likely reflecting a shift from subcutaneous to visceral fat, exhibited health effects that were weaker but specifically linked to lipotoxicity, such as ischemic heart disease (b = 0.067, p = 9.4 ∗ 10-14) and diabetes (b = 0.082, p = 5.9 ∗ 10-19). Combining their independent predicted effects significantly improved the prediction of obesity-related diseases (p < 10-10). The presented decomposition approach sheds light on the biological mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of body morphology and its consequences on health and lifestyle.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Estilo de Vida , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Somatotipos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thousands of genetic variants have been associated with hematological traits, though target genes remain unknown at most loci. Moreover, limited analyses have been conducted in African ancestry and Hispanic/Latino populations; hematological trait associated variants more common in these populations have likely been missed. METHODS: To derive gene expression prediction models, we used ancestry-stratified datasets from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, including n = 229 African American and n = 381 Hispanic/Latino participants, monocytes) and the Depression Genes and Networks study (DGN, n = 922 European ancestry participants, whole blood). We then performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for platelet count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count in African (n = 27,955) and Hispanic/Latino (n = 28,324) ancestry participants. RESULTS: Our results revealed 24 suggestive signals (p < 1 × 10-4) that were conditionally distinct from known GWAS identified variants and successfully replicated these signals in European ancestry subjects from UK Biobank. We found modestly improved correlation of predicted and measured gene expression in an independent African American cohort (the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study (n = 802), lymphoblastoid cell lines) using the larger DGN reference panel; however, some genes were well predicted using MESA but not DGN. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses demonstrate the importance of performing TWAS and other genetic analyses across diverse populations and of balancing sample size and ancestry background matching when selecting a TWAS reference panel.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , /genética
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