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1.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic regions associated with anorexia nervosa. No genome-wide studies of other eating disorders, such as bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, have been performed, despite their substantial heritability. Exploratively, we aimed to identify traits that are genetically associated with binge-type eating disorders. METHOD: We calculated genome-wide polygenic scores for 269 trait and disease outcomes using PRSice v2.2 and their association with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder in up to 640 cases and 17,050 controls from the UK Biobank. Significant associations were tested for replication in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (up to 217 cases and 3,018 controls). RESULTS: Individuals with binge-type eating disorders had higher polygenic scores than controls for other psychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and higher polygenic scores for body mass index. DISCUSSION: Our findings replicate some of the known comorbidities of eating disorders on a genomic level and motivate a deeper investigation of shared and unique genomic factors across the three primary eating disorders.

2.
Nat Metab ; 3(2): 228-243, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619380

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of individuals with obesity do not suffer cardiometabolic comorbidities. The mechanisms that uncouple adiposity from its cardiometabolic complications are not fully understood. Here, we identify 62 loci of which the same allele is significantly associated with both higher adiposity and lower cardiometabolic risk. Functional analyses show that the 62 loci are enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue, and for regulatory variants that influence nearby genes that affect adipocyte differentiation. Genes prioritized in each locus support a key role of fat distribution (FAM13A, IRS1 and PPARG) and adipocyte function (ALDH2, CCDC92, DNAH10, ESR1, FAM13A, MTOR, PIK3R1 and VEGFB). Several additional mechanisms are involved as well, such as insulin-glucose signalling (ADCY5, ARAP1, CREBBP, FAM13A, MTOR, PEPD, RAC1 and SH2B3), energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation (IGF2BP2), browning of white adipose tissue (CSK, VEGFA, VEGFB and SLC22A3) and inflammation (SH2B3, DAGLB and ADCY9). Some of these genes may represent therapeutic targets to reduce cardiometabolic risk linked to excess adiposity.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data have reported that being overweight or obese, compared to being normal weight, is associated with a lower risk for death - the "obesity paradox". We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal effects of body mass index (BMI) on mortality risks in people with coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or malignancy in whom this paradox has been often reported. METHODS: We studied 457,746 White British UK Biobank participants including three subgroups with T2DM (n = 19,737), CHD (n = 21,925) or cancer (n = 42,612) at baseline and used multivariable-adjusted Cox models and MR approaches to describe relationships between BMI and mortality risk. RESULTS: Observational Cox models showed J-shaped relationships between BMI and mortality risk including within disease subgroups in which the BMI values associated with minimum mortality risk were within overweight/obese ranges (26.5-32.5 kg/m2). In all participants, MR analyses showed a positive linear causal effect of BMI on mortality risk (HR for mortality per unit higher BMI: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.08), also evident in people with CHD (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14). Point estimates for hazard ratios across all BMI values in participants with T2DM and cancer were consistent with overall positive linear effects but confidence intervals included the null. CONCLUSION: These data support the idea that population efforts to promote intentional weight loss towards the normal BMI range would reduce, not enhance, mortality risk in the general population including, importantly, individuals with CHD.

5.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 17, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based genomic screening has the predicted ability to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with medically actionable conditions. However, much research is needed to develop standards for genomic screening and to understand the perspectives of people offered this new testing modality. This is particularly true for non-European ancestry populations who are vastly underrepresented in genomic medicine research. Therefore, we implemented a pilot genomic screening program in the BioMe Biobank in New York City, where the majority of participants are of non-European ancestry. METHODS: We initiated genomic screening for well-established genes associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), Lynch syndrome (LS), and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We evaluated and included an additional gene (TTR) associated with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR), which has a common founder variant in African ancestry populations. We evaluated the characteristics of 74 participants who received results associated with these conditions. We also assessed the preferences of 7461 newly enrolled BioMe participants to receive genomic results. RESULTS: In the pilot genomic screening program, 74 consented participants received results related to HBOC (N = 26), LS (N = 6), FH (N = 8), and hATTR (N = 34). Thirty-three of 34 (97.1%) participants who received a result related to hATTR were self-reported African American/African (AA) or Hispanic/Latinx (HL), compared to 14 of 40 (35.0%) participants who received a result related to HBOC, LS, or FH. Among the 7461 participants enrolled after the BioMe protocol modification to allow the return of genomic results, 93.4% indicated that they would want to receive results. Younger participants, women, and HL participants were more likely to opt to receive results. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of TTR to a pilot genomic screening program meant that we returned results to a higher proportion of AA and HL participants, in comparison with genes traditionally included in genomic screening programs in the USA. We found that the majority of participants in a multi-ethnic biobank are interested in receiving genomic results for medically actionable conditions. These findings increase knowledge about the perspectives of diverse research participants on receiving genomic results and inform the broader implementation of genomic medicine in underrepresented patient populations.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(576)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441424

RESUMO

More than 800 million people in the world suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of loci where genetic variants are associated with kidney function; however, causal genes and pathways for CKD remain unknown. Here, we performed integration of kidney function GWAS and human kidney-specific expression quantitative trait analysis and identified that the expression of beta-mannosidase (MANBA) was lower in kidneys of subjects with CKD risk genotype. We also show an increased incidence of renal failure in subjects with rare heterozygous loss-of-function coding variants in MANBA using phenome-wide association analysis of 40,963 subjects with exome sequencing data. MANBA is a lysosomal gene highly expressed in kidney tubule cells. Deep phenotyping revealed structural and functional lysosomal alterations in human kidneys from subjects with CKD risk alleles and mice with genetic deletion of Manba Manba heterozygous and knockout mice developed more severe kidney fibrosis when subjected to toxic injury induced by cisplatin or folic acid. Manba loss altered multiple pathways, including endocytosis and autophagy. In the absence of Manba, toxic acute tubule injury induced inflammasome activation and fibrosis. Together, these results illustrate the convergence of common noncoding and rare coding variants in MANBA in kidney disease development and demonstrate the role of the endolysosomal system in kidney disease development.

7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432183

RESUMO

Eating behaviours may be expressions of genetic risk for obesity and are potential antecedents of later eating disorders. However, childhood eating behaviours are heterogeneous and transient. Here we show associations between polygenic scores for body mass index (BMI-PGS) and anorexia nervosa (AN-PGS) with eating behaviour trajectories during the first 10 years of life using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), n = 7,825. Results indicated that 1 s.d. increase in the BMI-PGS was associated with a 30-37% increased risk for early- and mid-childhood overeating. In contrast, 1 s.d. increase in BMI-PGS was associated with a 20% decrease in risk of persistent high levels of undereating and a 15% decrease in risk of persistent fussy eating. There was no evidence for a significant association between AN-PGS and eating behaviour trajectories. Our results support the notion that child eating behaviours share common genetic variants associated with BMI.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 194-201, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357513

RESUMO

Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, investigations into host susceptibility to infectious diseases and downstream sequelae have never been more relevant. Pneumonia is a lung disease that can cause respiratory failure and hypoxia and is a common complication of infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Few genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of host susceptibility and severity of pneumonia have been conducted. We performed GWASs of pneumonia susceptibility and severity in the Vanderbilt University biobank (BioVU) with linked electronic health records (EHRs), including Illumina Expanded Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGAEX)-genotyped European ancestry (EA, n= 69,819) and African ancestry (AA, n = 15,603) individuals. Two regions of large effect were identified: the CFTR locus in EA (rs113827944; OR = 1.84, p value = 1.2 × 10-36) and HBB in AA (rs334 [p.Glu7Val]; OR = 1.63, p value = 3.5 × 10-13). Mutations in these genes cause cystic fibrosis (CF) and sickle cell disease (SCD), respectively. After removing individuals diagnosed with CF and SCD, we assessed heterozygosity effects at our lead variants. Further GWASs after removing individuals with CF uncovered an additional association in R3HCC1L (rs10786398; OR = 1.22, p value = 3.5 × 10-8), which was replicated in two independent datasets: UK Biobank (n = 459,741) and 7,985 non-overlapping BioVU subjects, who are genotyped on arrays other than MEGAEX. This variant was also validated in GWASs of COVID-19 hospitalization and lung function. Our results highlight the importance of the host genome in infectious disease susceptibility and severity and offer crucial insight into genetic effects that could potentially influence severity of COVID-19 sequelae.


Assuntos
/complicações , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Bronquite/genética , /fisiopatologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5900, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214558
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17475, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060734

RESUMO

Observational studies have found associations between urinary sodium (UNa) with obesity, body shape and composition; but the findings may be biased by residual confounding. The objective of this two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was to analyze their causal associations in both sex-combined and sex-specific models. Genome-wide association studies of UNa, body mass index (BMI), BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat (BF) percentage and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were identified. We initially extracted fifty SNPs associated with UNa at significance level of 5 × 10-8, but further removed those SNPs with potential horizontal pleiotropy. Univariable and multivariable MR with adjustment for eGFR were performed. Inverse-variance weighted MR was performed as the primary analysis, with MR-Egger methods as sensitivity analysis. The potential bidirectional association between BMI and UNa was investigated. All exposure and outcomes were continuous, and the effect measure was regression coefficients (beta) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The total sample size was up to 322 154. UNa was causally associated with increased BMI in both men [eGFR-adjusted beta 0.443 (0.163-0.724)] and women [0.594 (0.333-0.855)]. UNa caused BF percentage increase in men [0.622 (0.268-0.976)] and women [0.334 (0.007-0.662)]. UNa significantly elevated BMI-adjusted WHR in men [0.321 (0.094-0.548)], but not in women [0.170 (- 0.052 to 0.391)]. Additionally, we found that BMI causally increased UNa [0.043 (0.023-0.063)]. UNa increased BMI and BF percentage. Salt intake affects male body shape by increasing BMI-adjusted WHR, but showed no effects on female body shape. The bidirectional association between BMI and UNa suggested that salt reduction measures and weight reduction measures should be implemented simultaneously to break the vicious cycle and gain more health benefits.

12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989287

RESUMO

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (rG = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.

13.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003196, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency, caused by mutations in MC4R, is the most common cause of monogenic forms of obesity. However, these mutations have often been identified in small-scale, case-focused studies. Here, we assess the penetrance of previously reported MC4R mutations at a population level. Furthermore, we examine why some carriers of pathogenic mutations remain of normal weight, to gain insight into the mechanisms that control body weight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 59 known obesity-increasing mutations in MC4R from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and Clinvar. We assessed their penetrance and effect on obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) in >450,000 individuals (age 40-69 years) of the UK Biobank, a population-based cohort study. Of these 59 mutations, only 11 had moderate-to-high penetrance and increased the odds of obesity by more than 2-fold. We subsequently focused on these 11 mutations and examined differences between carriers of normal weight and carriers with obesity. Twenty-eight of the 182 carriers of these 11 mutations were of normal weight. Body composition of carriers of normal weight was similar to noncarriers of normal weight, whereas among individuals with obesity, carriers had a somewhat higher BMI than noncarriers (1.44 ± 0.07 standard deviation scores [SDSs] ± standard error [SE] versus 1.29 ± 0.001, P = 0.03), because of greater lean mass (1.44 ± 0.09 versus 1.15 ± 0.002, P = 0.002). Carriers of normal weight more often reported that, already at age 10 years, their body size was below average or average (72%) compared with carriers with obesity (48%) (P = 0.01). To assess the polygenic contribution to body weight in carriers of normal weight and carriers with obesity, we calculated a genome-wide polygenic risk score for BMI (PRSBMI). The PRSBMI of carriers of normal weight (PRSBMI = -0.64 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than of carriers with obesity (0.40 ± 0.11; P = 1.7 × 10-6), and tended to be lower than that of noncarriers of normal weight (-0.29 ± 0.003; P = 0.05). Among carriers, those with a low PRSBMI (bottom quartile) have an approximately 5-kg/m2 lower BMI (approximately 14 kg of body weight for a 1.7-m-tall person) than those with a high PRS (top quartile). Because the UK Biobank population is healthier than the general population in the United Kingdom, penetrance may have been somewhat underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that large-scale data are needed to validate the impact of mutations observed in small-scale and case-focused studies. Furthermore, we observed that despite the key role of MC4R in obesity, the effects of pathogenic MC4R mutations may be countered, at least in part, by a low polygenic risk potentially representing other innate mechanisms implicated in body weight regulation.


Assuntos
Mutação , Obesidade/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Composição Corporal/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Reino Unido
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12681, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728164

RESUMO

We investigated the heritability of educational attainment and how it differed between birth cohorts and cultural-geographic regions. A classical twin design was applied to pooled data from 28 cohorts representing 16 countries and including 193,518 twins with information on educational attainment at 25 years of age or older. Genetic factors explained the major part of individual differences in educational attainment (heritability: a2 = 0.43; 0.41-0.44), but also environmental variation shared by co-twins was substantial (c2 = 0.31; 0.30-0.33). The proportions of educational variation explained by genetic and shared environmental factors did not differ between Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia. When restricted to twins 30 years or older to confirm finalized education, the heritability was higher in the older cohorts born in 1900-1949 (a2 = 0.44; 0.41-0.46) than in the later cohorts born in 1950-1989 (a2 = 0.38; 0.36-0.40), with a corresponding lower influence of common environmental factors (c2 = 0.31; 0.29-0.33 and c2 = 0.34; 0.32-0.36, respectively). In conclusion, both genetic and environmental factors shared by co-twins have an important influence on individual differences in educational attainment. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.

15.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511564

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Preliminary reports indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 patients and is associated with worse outcomes. AKI in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United States is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To provide information about frequency, outcomes and recovery associated with AKI and dialysis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective study. SETTING: Admitted to hospital between February 27 and April 15, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥18 years with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 Exposures: AKI (peak serum creatinine increase of 0.3 mg/dL or 50% above baseline). Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequency of AKI and dialysis requirement, AKI recovery, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with mortality. We also trained and tested a machine learning model for predicting dialysis requirement with independent validation. RESULTS: A total of 3,235 hospitalized patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. AKI occurred in 1406 (46%) patients overall and 280 (20%) with AKI required renal replacement therapy. The incidence of AKI (admission plus new cases) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit was 68% (553 of 815). In the entire cohort, the proportion with stages 1, 2, and 3 AKI were 35%, 20%, 45%, respectively. In those needing intensive care, the respective proportions were 20%, 17%, 63%, and 34% received acute renal replacement therapy. Independent predictors of severe AKI were chronic kidney disease, systolic blood pressure, and potassium at baseline. In-hospital mortality in patients with AKI was 41% overall and 52% in intensive care. The aOR for mortality associated with AKI was 9.6 (95% CI 7.4-12.3) overall and 20.9 (95% CI 11.7-37.3) in patients receiving intensive care. 56% of patients with AKI who were discharged alive recovered kidney function back to baseline. The area under the curve (AUC) for the machine learned predictive model using baseline features for dialysis requirement was 0.79 in a validation test. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: AKI is common in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, associated with worse mortality, and the majority of patients that survive do not recover kidney function. A machine-learned model using admission features had good performance for dialysis prediction and could be used for resource allocation.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(22): 2769-2780, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) identify high-risk individuals more likely to benefit from primary prevention statin therapy. Whether polygenic CAD risk is captured by conventional paradigms for assessing clinical cardiovascular risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to intersect polygenic risk with guideline-based recommendations and management patterns for CAD primary prevention. METHODS: A genome-wide CAD PRS was applied to 47,108 individuals across 3 U.S. health care systems. The authors then assessed whether primary prevention patients at high polygenic risk might be distinguished on the basis of greater guideline-recommended statin eligibility and higher rates of statin therapy. RESULTS: Of 47,108 study participants, the mean age was 60 years, and 11,020 (23.4%) had CAD. The CAD PRS strongly associated with prevalent CAD (odds ratio: 1.4 per SD increase in PRS; p < 0.0001). High polygenic risk (top 20% of PRS) conferred 1.9-fold odds of developing CAD (p < 0.0001). However, among primary prevention patients (n = 33,251), high polygenic risk did not correspond with increased recommendations for statin therapy per the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (46.2% for those with high PRS vs. 46.8% for all others, p = 0.54) or U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (43.7% vs. 43.7%, p = 0.99) or higher rates of statin prescriptions (25.0% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.04). An additional 4.1% of primary prevention patients may be recommended for statin therapy if high CAD PRS were considered a guideline-based risk-enhancing factor. CONCLUSIONS: Current paradigms for primary cardiovascular prevention incompletely capture a polygenic susceptibility to CAD. An opportunity may exist to improve CAD prevention efforts by integrating both genetic and clinical risk.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7974, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409744

RESUMO

Genetic factors explain a major proportion of human height variation, but differences in mean stature have also been found between socio-economic categories suggesting a possible effect of environment. By utilizing a classical twin design which allows decomposing the variation of height into genetic and environmental components, we tested the hypothesis that environmental variation in height is greater in offspring of lower educated parents. Twin data from 29 cohorts including 65,978 complete twin pairs with information on height at ages 1 to 69 years and on parental education were pooled allowing the analyses at different ages and in three geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia). Parental education mostly showed a positive association with offspring height, with significant associations in mid-childhood and from adolescence onwards. In variance decomposition modeling, the genetic and environmental variance components of height did not show a consistent relation to parental education. A random-effects meta-regression analysis of the aggregate-level data showed a trend towards greater shared environmental variation of height in low parental education families. In conclusion, in our very large dataset from twin cohorts around the globe, these results provide only weak evidence for the study hypothesis.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
19.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(8): 1766-1775, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child eating behaviors are highly heterogeneous and their longitudinal impact on childhood weight is unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize eating behaviors during the first 10 years of life and evaluate associations with BMI at age 11 years. METHOD: Data were parental reports of eating behaviors from 15 months to age 10 years (n = 12,048) and standardized body mass index (zBMI) at age 11 years (n = 4884) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Latent class growth analysis was used to derive latent classes of over-, under-, and fussy-eating. Linear regression models for zBMI at 11 years on each set of classes were fitted to assess associations with eating behavior trajectories. RESULTS: We identified four classes of overeating; "low stable" (70%), "low transient" (15%), "late increasing" (11%), and "early increasing" (6%). The "early increasing" class was associated with higher zBMI (boys: ß = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.02; girls: ß = 1.1; 0.92, 1.28) compared with "low stable." Six classes were found for undereating; "low stable" (25%), "low transient" (37%), "low decreasing" (21%), "high transient" (11%), "high decreasing" (4%), and "high stable" (2%). The latter was associated with lower zBMI (boys: ß = -0.79; -1.15, -0.42; girls: ß = -0.76; -1.06, -0.45). Six classes were found for fussy eating; "low stable" (23%), "low transient" (15%), "low increasing" (28%), "high decreasing" (14%), "low increasing" (13%), and "high stable" (8%). The "high stable" class was associated with lower zBMI (boys: ß = -0.49; -0.68-0.30; girls: ß = -0.35; -0.52, -0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Early increasing overeating during childhood is associated with higher zBMI at age 11. High persistent levels of undereating and fussy eating are associated with lower zBMI. Longitudinal trajectories of eating behaviors may help identify children potentially at risk of adverse weight outcomes.

20.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 869-877, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461697

RESUMO

Human genetic variants predicted to cause loss-of-function of protein-coding genes (pLoF variants) provide natural in vivo models of human gene inactivation and can be valuable indicators of gene function and the potential toxicity of therapeutic inhibitors targeting these genes1,2. Gain-of-kinase-function variants in LRRK2 are known to significantly increase the risk of Parkinson's disease3,4, suggesting that inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity is a promising therapeutic strategy. While preclinical studies in model organisms have raised some on-target toxicity concerns5-8, the biological consequences of LRRK2 inhibition have not been well characterized in humans. Here, we systematically analyze pLoF variants in LRRK2 observed across 141,456 individuals sequenced in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD)9, 49,960 exome-sequenced individuals from the UK Biobank and over 4 million participants in the 23andMe genotyped dataset. After stringent variant curation, we identify 1,455 individuals with high-confidence pLoF variants in LRRK2. Experimental validation of three variants, combined with previous work10, confirmed reduced protein levels in 82.5% of our cohort. We show that heterozygous pLoF variants in LRRK2 reduce LRRK2 protein levels but that these are not strongly associated with any specific phenotype or disease state. Our results demonstrate the value of large-scale genomic databases and phenotyping of human loss-of-function carriers for target validation in drug discovery.


Assuntos
Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Linhagem Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/metabolismo , Longevidade/genética , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Fenótipo
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