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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068051

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: • Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin have consistently demonstrated to be effective for the prevention of HF hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. The specifically listed agents are recommended. • Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, already receiving guideline-directed medical therapy, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945600

RESUMO

Self-care is essential in the long-term management of chronic heart failure. Heart failure guidelines stress the importance of patient education on treatment adherence, lifestyle changes, symptom monitoring and adequate response to possible deterioration. Self-care is related to medical and person-centred outcomes in patients with heart failure such as better quality of life as well as lower mortality and readmission rates. Although guidelines give general direction for self-care advice, health care professionals working with patients with heart failure need more specific recommendations. The aim of the management recommendations in this paper is to provide practical advice for health professionals delivering care to patients with heart failure. Recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, medication adherence, psychological status, sleep, leisure and travel, smoking, immunization and preventing infections, symptom monitoring, and symptom management are consistent with information from guidelines, expert consensus documents, recent evidence and expert opinion.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1495-1503, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618086

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with a poor prognosis, despite advances in treatment. Over the last decade cardiovascular outcome trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated beneficial effects for three SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) in reducing hospitalisations for HF. More recently, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of additional trials in HF patients with reduced and/or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction are ongoing and/or about to be reported. The present position paper summarises recent clinical trial evidence and discusses the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, pending the results of ongoing trials in different populations of patients with HF.

6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 873-877, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352242

RESUMO

The "Heart failure specialists of Tomorrow" (HoT) group gathers young researchers, physicians, basic scientists, nurses and many other professions under the auspices of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. After its foundation in 2014, it has quickly grown to a large group of currently 925 members. Membership in this growing community offers many advantages during, before, and after the 'Heart Failure and World Congress on Acute Heart Failure'. These include: eligibility to receive travel grants, participation in moderated poster sessions and young researcher and clinical case sessions, the HoT walk, the career café, access to the networking opportunities, and interaction with a large and cohesive international community that constantly seeks multinational collaborations.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 763-774, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187429

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is the major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Given its rising prevalence, the costs of HF care can be expected to increase. Multidisciplinary management of HF can improve quality of care and survival. However, specialized HF programmes are not widely available in most European countries. These circumstances underlie the suggestion of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for the development of quality of care centres (QCCs). These are defined as health care institutions that provide multidisciplinary HF management at all levels of care (primary, secondary and tertiary), are accredited by the HFA/ESC and are implemented into existing health care systems. Their major goals are to unify and improve the quality of HF care, and to promote collaboration in education and research activities. Three types of QCC are suggested: community QCCs (primary care facilities able to provide non-invasive assessment and optimal therapy); specialized QCCs (district hospitals with intensive care units, able to provide cardiac catheterization and device implantation services), and advanced QCCs (national reference centres able to deliver advanced and innovative HF care and research). QCC accreditation will require compliance with general and specific HFA/ESC accreditation standards. General requirements include confirmation of the centre's existence, commitment to QCC implementation, and collaboration with other QCCs. Specific requirements include validation of the centre's level of care, service portfolio, facilities and equipment, management, human resources, process measures, quality indicators and outcome measures. Audit and recertification at 4-6-year intervals are also required. The implementation of QCCs will evolve gradually, following a pilot phase in selected countries. The present document summarizes the definition, major goals, development, classification and crucial aspects of the accreditation process of the HFA/ESC QCC Programme.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(4): 638-645, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125085

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) constitutes the growing cardiovascular burden and the major public health issue, but comprehensive statistics on HF epidemiology and related management in Europe are missing. The Heart Failure Association (HFA) Atlas has been initiated in 2016 in order to close this gap, representing the continuity directly rooted in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas of Cardiology. The major aim of the HFA Atlas is to establish a contemporary dataset on HF epidemiology, resources and reimbursement policies for HF management, organization of the National Heart Failure Societies (NHFS) and their major activities, including education and HF awareness. These data are gathered in collaboration with the network of NHFS of the ESC member and ESC affiliated countries. The dataset will be continuously improved and advanced based on the experience and enhanced understanding of data collection in the forthcoming years. This will enable revealing trends, disparities and gaps in knowledge on epidemiology and management of HF. Such data are highly needed by the clinicians of different specialties (aside from cardiologists and cardiac surgeons), researchers, healthcare policy makers, as well as HF patients and their caregivers. It will also allow to map the snapshot of realities in HF care, as well as to provide insights for evidence-based health care policy in contemporary management of HF. Such data will support the ESC/HFA efforts to improve HF management ant outcomes through stronger recommendations and calls for action. This will likely influence the allocation of funds for the prevention, treatment, education and research in HF.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 196-213, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816162

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have recently occurred in the treatment of T2DM, with evidence of several new glucose-lowering medications showing either neutral or beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, some of these agents have safety characteristics with strong practical implications in HF [i.e. dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors]. Regarding safety of DPP-4 inhibitors, saxagliptin is not recommended in HF because of a greater risk of HF hospitalisation. There is no compelling evidence of excess HF risk with the other DPP-4 inhibitors. GLP-1 RAs have an overall neutral effect on HF outcomes. However, a signal of harm suggested in two small trials of liraglutide in patients with reduced ejection fraction indicates that their role remains to be defined in established HF. SGLT-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) have shown a consistent reduction in the risk of HF hospitalisation regardless of baseline cardiovascular risk or history of HF. Accordingly, SGLT-2 inhibitors could be recommended to prevent HF hospitalisation in patients with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease or with multiple risk factors. The recently completed trial with dapagliflozin has shown a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality and HF events in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, with or without T2DM. Several ongoing trials will assess whether the results observed with dapagliflozin could be extended to other SGLT-2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence of T2DM. This position paper aims to summarise relevant clinical trial evidence concerning the role and safety of new glucose-lowering therapies in patients with HF.

10.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 39-44, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178223

RESUMO

Abnormalities of myocardial energy metabolism appear as a common background of the two major cardiac disorders: ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF). Myocardial ischemia has been recently conceived as a multifaceted syndrome that can be precipitated by a number of mechanisms including metabolic abnormalities. HF is a progressive disorder characterised by a complex interaction of haemodynamic, neurohormonal and metabolic disturbances. HF may further promote metabolic changes, generating a vicious cycle. Thus, targeting cardiac metabolism in IHD patients may prevent the deterioration of left ventricular function, stopping the progression to HF. For these reasons, several studies have explored the potential benefits of trimetazidine (TMZ), an inhibitor of free fatty acids oxidation that shifts cardiac and muscle metabolism to glucose utilization. Because of its mechanism of action, TMZ has been found to provide a cardioprotective effect in patients with angina, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and those undergoing revascularization procedures, without relevant side effects. In addition, the lack of interference with heart rate, arterial pressure, and most of frequent comorbidities, makes TMZ an attractive option for patients and clinicians as well. The impact of TMZ on long term mortality and morbidity in ischemic syndromes and in heart failure need to be conclusively confirmed in properly designed RCT.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

12.
Card Fail Rev ; 4(1): 9-13, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892469

RESUMO

The introduction of heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) as a distinct phenotype has achieved its aim of stimulating research into the underlying characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction of 40-49 %. Comparison of clinical characteristics, comorbidities, outcomes and prognosis among patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction, HFmrEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction allowed consideration of HFmrEF as an intermediate phenotype, which often resembles HF with reduced ejection fraction more than HF with preserved ejection fraction. The latest findings suggest that patients with HFmrEF seem to benefit from therapies that have been shown to improve outcomes in HF with reduced ejection fraction.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 260: 113-117, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is an opportunity to optimize heart failure (HF) therapy. As optimal treatment for hospitalized HF patients in sinus rhythm with heart rate≥70bpm is unclear, we investigated the impact of combined beta-blocker (BB) and ivabradine versus BBs alone on short and longer term mortality and rehospitalization. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 370 hospitalized HF patients with heart rate≥70bpm (150 BB+ivabradine, 220 BB alone) in the Optimize Heart Failure Care Program in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, from October 2015 to April 2016. RESULTS: At 1month, 3months, 6months and 12months, there were fewer deaths, HF hospitalizations and overall hospitalizations in patients on BB+ivabradine vs BBs alone. At 12months, all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization was significantly lower with BB+ivabradine than BBs (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32-0.64, P<0.0001). Significantly greater improvement was seen in quality of life (QOL) from admission to 12months with BB+ivabradine vs BBs alone (P=0.0001). With BB+ivabradine, significantly more patients achieved ≥50% target doses of BBs at 12months than on admission (82.0% vs 66.6%, P=0.0001), but the effect was non-significant with BBs alone. CONCLUSIONS: Heart rate lowering therapy with BB+ivabradine started in hospitalized HF patients (heart rate≥70bpm) is associated with reduced overall mortality and re-hospitalization over the subsequent 12months. A prospective randomized trial is needed to confirm the advantages of this strategy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Benzazepinas/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hospitalização/tendências , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ivabradina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(5): 853-872, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520964

RESUMO

The coexistence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF), either with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is frequent (30-40% of patients) and associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The most important causes of HF in T2DM are coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and a direct detrimental effect of T2DM on the myocardium. T2DM is often unrecognized in HF patients, and vice versa, which emphasizes the importance of an active search for both disorders in the clinical practice. There are no specific limitations to HF treatment in T2DM. Subanalyses of trials addressing HF treatment in the general population have shown that all HF therapies are similarly effective regardless of T2DM. Concerning T2DM treatment in HF patients, most guidelines currently recommend metformin as the first-line choice. Sulphonylureas and insulin have been the traditional second- and third-line therapies although their safety in HF is equivocal. Neither glucagon-like preptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, nor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors reduce the risk for HF hospitalization. Indeed, a DPP4 inhibitor, saxagliptin, has been associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization. Thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) are contraindicated in patients with (or at risk of) HF. In recent trials, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, empagliflozin and canagliflozin, have both shown a significant reduction in HF hospitalization in patients with established CV disease or at risk of CV disease. Several ongoing trials should provide an insight into the effectiveness of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with HFrEF and HFpEF in the absence of T2DM.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas , Comorbidade/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Saúde Global , Humanos , Prevalência , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 236: 340-344, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28214078

RESUMO

Hospitalization for heart failure (HF) places a major burden on healthcare services worldwide, and is a strong predictor of increased mortality especially in the first three months after discharge. Though undesirable, hospitalization is an opportunity to optimize HF therapy and advise clinicians and patients about the importance of continued adherence to HF medication and regular monitoring. The Optimize Heart Failure Care Program (www.optimize-hf.com), which has been implemented in 45 countries, is designed to improve outcomes following HF hospitalization through inexpensive initiatives to improve prescription of appropriate drug therapies, patient education and engagement, and post-discharge planning. It includes best practice clinical protocols for local adaptation, pre- and post-discharge checklists, and 'My HF Passport', a printed and smart phone application to improve patient understanding of HF and encourage involvement in care and treatment adherence. Early experience of the Program suggests that factors leading to successful implementation include support from HF specialists or 'local leaders', regular educational meetings for participating healthcare professionals, multidisciplinary collaboration, and full integration of pre- and post-hospital discharge checklists across care services. The Program is helping to raise awareness of HF and generate useful data on current practice. It is showing how good evidence-based care can be achieved through the use of simple clinician and patient-focused tools. Preliminary results suggest that optimization of HF pharmacological therapy is achievable through the Program, with little new investment. Further data collection will lead to a greater understanding of the impact of the Program on HF care and key indicators of success.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/tendências , Lista de Checagem/normas , Saúde Global/normas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Alta do Paciente/normas , Alta do Paciente/tendências
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 224: 145-148, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27657463

RESUMO

Treatment of hypertensive patients with beta-blockers decreases central blood pressure (CBP) less than other antihypertensive drugs, which is believed to account for their lesser cardiovascular protection in this setting. Some authors have suggested that decreasing heart rate (HR) with beta-blockers would increase CBP. In contrast to beta-blockers, the anti-anginal agent ivabradine reduces HR without other hemodynamic effects, and represents an attractive tool for exploring the direct relationship between HR and CBP. Here, we review the available clinical data assessing the effect of selective HR reduction with ivabradine on CBP in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We collected data from five studies which report either increase, decrease, or neutral effects of ivabradine on CBP. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact role of ivabradine on CBP. However, as supported by its pharmacodynamic effect in patients with stable CAD, available evidence to date suggests that ivabradine does not negatively impact CBP when associated with beta-blocker. HR reduction with both beta-blockers and ivabradine remains well-established treatments for the symptomatic treatment of angina patients.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ivabradina , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Card Fail Rev ; 2(2): 123-129, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785466

RESUMO

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing, representing a major cause of death and disability, and a growing financial burden on healthcare systems. Despite the use of effective treatments with both drugs and devices, mortality remains high. There is therefore a need for new and effective therapeutic agents. Ivabradine is a specific sinus node inhibiting agent that was approved in 2005 by the European Medicines Agency, alone or in combination with a beta-blocker. Trimetazidine is a cytoprotective, anti-ischaemic agent established in the treatment of angina pectoris. In the 2012 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of HF, ivabradine was recommended in symptomatic HF patients who are in sinus rhythm with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35 % and heart rate higher than 70 beats per minute, despite optimal medical therapy, including maximally tolerated dose of beta-blocker. The role of trimetazidine in this setting was not mentioned. In the 2016 ESC guidelines, recommendations for ivabradine are unchanged but trimetazidine is included for the treatment of angina pectoris with HF. This article discusses the need for new therapeutic options in HF and reviews clinical evidence in support of these two therapeutic options.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 203: 909-15, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26618252

RESUMO

Heart failure is a systemic and multiorgan syndrome with metabolic failure as a fundamental mechanism. As a consequence of its impaired metabolism, other processes are activated in the failing heart, further exacerbating the progression of heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that modulating cardiac energy metabolism by reducing fatty acid oxidation and/or increasing glucose oxidation represents a promising approach to the treatment of patients with heart failure. Clinical trials have demonstrated that the adjunct of trimetazidine to the conventional medical therapy improves symptoms, cardiac function and prognosis in patients with heart failure without exerting negative hemodynamic effects. This review focuses on the rationale and clinical benefits of trimetazidine by acting on cardiac metabolism in heart failure, and aims to draw attention to the readiness of this agent to be included in all the major guidelines dealing with heart failure.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Trimetazidina/farmacocinética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/farmacocinética
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