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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 961986, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36262326

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms present in periodontal diseases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE (PubMed/Ovid), EMBASE, BVS, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched from January 2011 to December 2021 for observational studies which evaluated the antimicrobial resistance in periodontal diseases in permanent dentition. Studies that allowed the antimicrobial consumption until the time of sample collection, studies that used laboratory acquired strains, studies that only characterized the microbial strain present, assessment of cellular morphological changes, sequencing system validation, and time series were excluded. Six reviewers, working in pairs and independently, selected titles, abstracts, and full texts extracting data from all studies that met the eligibility criteria: characteristics of patients, diagnosis of infection, microbial species assessed, antimicrobial assessed, identification of resistance genes, and virulence factors. "The Joanna Briggs Institute" critical appraisal for case series was adapted to assess the risk of bias in the included studies. Results: Twenty-four studies (N = 2.039 patients) were included. Prevotella and Porphyromonas species were the most cited microorganisms in the included studies, and the virulence factors were related to Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial reported with the highest frequency of resistance in the included studies was ampicillin (39.5%) and ciprofloxacin showed the lowest frequency of resistance (3.4%). The most cited genes were related to macrolides. The quality of the included studies was considered critically low. Conclusion: No evidence was found regarding the profile of antimicrobial resistance in periodontal diseases, requiring further research that should focus on regional population studies to address this issue in the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance. Clinical relevance: The knowledge about the present microorganism in periodontal diseases and their respective antimicrobial resistance profiles should guide dentists in prescribing complementary therapy for these infections. Systematic review registration: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013158], identifier [CRD42018077810].

2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(12): 2077-2086, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129426

RESUMO

Rationale: Not all individuals with tobacco dependence are ready to give up smoking. Research reveals behavioral differences between adults ready to discontinue tobacco use and those who are not. Thus, the interventions applied to these populations might differ. However, the evidence of using varenicline in individuals who are not ready to discontinue tobacco use is uncertain. Objectives: To determine if, in tobacco-dependent adults who report not being ready to discontinue tobacco use, clinicians should begin treatment with varenicline or wait until subjects are ready to discontinue tobacco use. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of treatment with varenicline in tobacco-dependent adults who are not ready to discontinue tobacco use. We systematically searched the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify randomized controlled trials comparing varenicline versus placebo for individuals who were not ready to discontinue tobacco use. Outcomes of interest include point prevalence abstinence during treatment or at six months or longer, smoking reduction, motivation to quit, adverse events, and withdrawal symptoms. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed eligibility and risk of bias using a standardized data collection form. We followed the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Results: Five trials met our inclusion criteria. All 2,616 participants were adults who were not ready to discontinue tobacco use at study entry. For 7-day point prevalence abstinence at six months or longer, high-certainty evidence suggested that varenicline increased abstinence compared with placebo (relative risk, 2.00 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70-2.35]; absolute risk reduction, 173 more per 1,000 [95% CI, 121 more to 234 more]). We identified moderate-certainty evidence suggesting that varenicline increased serious adverse events (relative risk, 1.75 [95% CI, 0.98-3.13]; absolute risk reduction, 12 more per 1,000 [95% CI, 0 fewer to 35 more]). For withdrawal, low-certainty evidence suggested that varenicline treatment was associated with a lower symptom score (mean difference, 1.54 points lower; 95% CI, 2.15-0.93 points lower; low certainty) assessed using the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Conclusions: In tobacco-dependent adults who are not ready to discontinue tobacco use, initiating varenicline treatment results in a large increase in abstinence and likely results in a slight increase in serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Nicotínicos/efeitos adversos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Uso de Tabaco
3.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 164, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The judicialization of health care can be understood as a societal response to pressing healthcare needs, which probably are not being adequately addressed by the current healthcare system. This phenomenon increases the strain on service resources, both in the health sector and in the judiciary system as well, demanding an institutional reorganization to manage judicial actions. It is believed that each institution has developed strategies for coping with the problem in isolation and with little public disclosure. The purpose of this review will be to identify institutional strategies implemented and to investigate their effects in approaching the judicialization of health care. METHODS: Electronic searches will be conducted up to December 2021 on 11 databases, supplemented with gray literature and references lists of secondary studies. The descriptor "judicialization of health" will be the basis for conducting the main research. Studies describing any strategy implemented by public institutions to approach the judicialization of health care will be included. Results related to the quality of services provided by the implemented strategy reported in the studies and those that report accessibility, usability, and potential adverse effects or harms caused by the implemented strategy will be investigated. In addition, it will be explored if there have been changes related to the value or characteristics of health litigation. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, abstract data, and full-text papers. The risk of bias in each study will be appraised using a tool suggested by Cochrane Effective Practice and Care Organization Group (EPOC). Subsequently, the reviewers will also extract the data of interest and classify the findings of these studies according to their performance at the institutional level. The results obtained will be described as a narrative synthesis. DISCUSSION: This review may provide evidence on the effects of the strategies implemented to approach the judicialization of health care. It will potentially benefit health care and legal professionals, decision-makers, and researchers by identifying the types and characteristics of strategies that have the potential to improve service delivery in the future. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020160608.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Setor Público , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 894958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979464

RESUMO

Objectives: To identify evidence-based strategies to improve adherence to the preventive measures against the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at the community level. Method: This is an evidence brief for policy, combining research evidence specific to contextual knowledge from stakeholders. A systematic search was performed in 18 electronic databases, gray literature, and a handle search, including only secondary and tertiary studies that focused on the adherence of the general population to COVID-19 preventive measures in the community. Two reviewers, independently, performed the study selection, data extraction, and assessment of the quality of the studies. Relevant evidence has been synthesized to draft evidence-based strategies to improve adherence. These strategies were circulated for external endorsement by stakeholders and final refinement. Endorsement rates >80%, 60-80% and <60% were considered high, moderate, and low respectively. Results: Eleven studies, with varying methodological qualities were included: high (n = 3), moderate (n = 3), low (n = 1), and critically low (n = 4). Three evidence based strategies were identified: i. Risk communication; ii. Health education to the general public, and iii. Financial support and access to essential supplies and services. The rates of endorsement were: 83% for risk communication, 83% for health education, and 92% for financial support and access to essential supplies and services. The evidence showed that an increase in knowledge, transparent communication, and public awareness about the risks of COVID-19 and the benefits of adopting preventive measures results in changes in people's attitudes and behavior, which can increase adherence. In addition, the guarantee of support and assistance provides conditions for people to adopt and sustain such measures. Conclusions: These strategies can guide future actions and the formulation of public policies to improve adherence to preventive measures in the community during the current COVID-19 pandemic and other epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Humanos , Políticas
5.
Int J Dent ; 2022: 6570812, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685911

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people worldwide, including the scientific community, were insecure and fearful. The lack of vaccines at the beginning of the pandemic and the high mortality rate led to a search for alternative treatments for COVID-19. Among these proposals, a postulated activity of azithromycin was frequently studied in early treatment. In view of this, many countries saw an increase in the consumption of this antibiotic. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate, in Brazil, whether there was an increase in azithromycin prescriptions made by dentists, as they may have been prescribing this antibiotic as a probable treatment for COVID-19. This is an interrupted time series that analyzed antimicrobial prescriptions data between January 2014 and July 2021. The data were taken from the National System of Controlled Products Management, and pre- and postpandemic periods were compared. To assess changes in azithromycin consumption, Joinpoint regression and analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's test, were used. More than 38 million prescriptions written during the period were analyzed. Amoxicillin (72.3%), azithromycin (18.0%), cephalexin (6.1%), and metronidazole (3.58%) were the most prescribed antibiotics. At the beginning of the pandemic, there was a drop in amoxicillin prescriptions motivated by a decrease in consultations, but conversely, in less than three months, azithromycin prescriptions grew by more than 100%. The exaggerated use of this antibiotic during the pandemic will certainly have consequences in the short and medium term on indicators of bacterial resistance. The use of guidelines and respect for the therapeutic protocols of government agencies should be fundamental for collective and strategic action in the fight against health emergencies.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(25): e29499, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ABCDE (Awakening and Breathing Coordination of daily sedation and ventilator removal trials, Delirium monitoring and management, and Early mobility and exercise) and ABCDEF (Assessment, prevent and manage pain, Both spontaneous awakening and spontaneous breathing trials, Choice of analgesia and sedation, assess, prevent and manage Delirium, Early mobility and exercise, Family engagement) care bundles consist of small sets of evidence-based interventions and are part of the science behind Intensive Care Unit (ICU) liberation. This review sought to analyse the process of implementation of ABCDE and ABCDEF care bundles in ICUs, identifying barriers, facilitators and changes in perception and attitudes of healthcare professionals; and to estimate care bundle effectiveness and safety. METHODS: We selected qualitative and quantitative studies addressing the implementation of ABCDE and ABCDEF bundles in the ICU, identified on MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Epistemonikos, PsycINFO, Virtual Health Library and Open Grey, without restriction on language or date of publication, up to June 2018. The outcomes measured were ICU and hospital length of stay; mechanical ventilation time; incidence and prevalence of delirium or coma; level of agitation and sedation; early mobilization; mortality in ICU and hospital; change in perception, attitude or behaviour of the stakeholders; and change in knowledge of health professionals. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, performed data extraction, and assessed risk of bias and methodological quality. A meta-analysis of random effects was performed. RESULTS: Twenty studies were included, 13 of which had a predominantly qualitative and 7 a quantitative design (31,604 participants). The implementation strategies were categorized according to the taxonomy developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group and eighty strategies were identified. The meta-analysis results showed that implementation of the bundles may reduce length of ICU stay, mechanical ventilation time, delirium, ICU and hospital mortality, and promoted early mobilization in critically-ill patients. CONCLUSIONS: : This study can contribute to the planning and execution of the implementation process of ABCDE and ABCDEF care bundles in ICUs. However, the effectiveness and safety of these bundles need to be corroborated by further studies with greater methodological rigor. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019121307.


Assuntos
Delírio , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and describe approaches to prioritise primary research topics in any health-related area. METHODS: We searched Medline and CINAHL databases and Google Scholar. Teams of two reviewers screened studies and extracted data in duplicate and independently. We synthesised the information across the included approaches by developing common categorisation of relevant concepts. RESULTS: Of 44 392 citations, 30 articles reporting on 25 approaches were included, addressing the following fields: health in general (n=9), clinical (n=10), health policy and systems (n=10), public health (n=6) and health service research (n=5) (10 addressed more than 1 field). The approaches proposed the following aspects to be addressed in the prioritisation process: situation analysis/ environmental scan, methods for generation of initial list of topics, use of prioritisation criteria, stakeholder engagement, ranking process/technique, dissemination and implementation, revision and appeal mechanism, and monitoring and evaluation. Twenty-two approaches proposed involving stakeholders in the priority setting process. The most commonly proposed stakeholder category was 'researchers/academia' (n=17, 77%) followed by 'healthcare providers' (n=16, 73%). Fifteen of the approaches proposed a list of criteria for determining research priorities. We developed a common framework of 28 prioritisation criteria clustered into nine domains. The criterion most frequently mentioned by the identified approaches was 'health burden' (n=12, 80%), followed by 'availability of resources' (n=11, 73%). CONCLUSION: We identified and described 25 prioritisation approaches for primary research topics in any health-related area. Findings highlight the need for greater participation of potential users (eg, policy-makers and the general public) and incorporation of equity as part of the prioritisation process. Findings can guide the work of researchers, policy-makers and funders seeking to conduct or fund primary health research. More importantly, the findings should be used to enhance a more coordinated approach to prioritising health research to inform decision making at all levels.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Atenção à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Participação dos Interessados
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 844818, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387351

RESUMO

Background: In 2019, a new type of coronavirus emerged and spread to the rest of the world. Numerous drugs were identified as possible treatments. Among the candidates for possible treatment was azithromycin alone or in combination with other drugs. As a result, many clinicians in Brazil have prescribed azithromycin in an attempt to combat or minimize the effects of COVID19. Aim: This study analyzed the sales data of the main antibiotics prescribed in Brazil to verify the change in consumption trends of these drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is an interrupted time series that analyzed antimicrobial sales data between January 2014 and July 2021, publicly accessible information obtained from the Brazilian government's website. Monthly means of "defined daily doses of DDDs" (DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day) of antibiotics were compared by analysis of variance, followed by the Dunnett Multiple Comparisons Test. Monthly trend changes in antibiotic use were verified using Joinpoint regression. Results: Amoxicillin (31.97%), azithromycin (18.33%), and cefalexin (16.61%) were the most sold antibiotics in Brazil during the evaluation period. Azithromycin consumption rose from 1.40 DDDs in February 2020 to 3.53 DDDs in July 2020. Azithromycin sales showed a significant increase in the pandemic period [Monthly Percent Change (MPC) 5.83%, 95% 1.80; 10.00], whereas there was a fall in amoxicillin sales (MPC -9.00%, 95% CI -14.70; -2.90) and cefalexin [MPC-2.70%, 95% (CI -6.30; -1.10)] in this same period. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic changed the pattern of antibiotic consumption in Brazil, with a decrease in the use of amoxicillin and cefalexin and an increase in the consumption of azithromycin.

10.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e052767, 2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an instrument to measure Brazilian healthcare professionals' perceptions, behaviour, self-efficacy and attitudes towards evidence-based health practice. DESIGN: Validation of an instrument using the Delphi method to ensure content validity and data from a cross-sectional survey to evaluate psychometric characteristics (psychometric sensitivity, factorial validity and reliability). SETTING: National Register of Health Establishments database. PARTICIPANTS: We included clinical health professionals who were working in the Brazilian public health system. RESULTS: The Instrument to assess Evidence-Based Health (I-SABE) was constructed with five domains: self-efficacy; behaviour; attitude; results/benefits and knowledge/skills. Content validity was done by 10-12 experts (three rounds). We applied I-SABE to 217 health professionals. Bartlett's sphericity test and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index were adequate (χ2=1455.810, p<0.001; KMO=0.847). Considering the factorial loads of the items and the convergence between the Scree Plot and the Kaiser criterion the four domains tested in this analysis, explaining 59.2% of the total variance. The internal consistency varied between the domains: self-efficacy (α=0.76), behaviour (α=0.30), attitudes (α=0.644), results/benefits to the patient (α=0.835). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the psychometric analysis of the I-SABE confirm the good quality of this tool. The I-SABE can be used both in educational activities as well as an assessment tool among healthcare professionals in the Brazilian public health settings.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoeficácia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(8): 1390-1403, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254966

RESUMO

Rationale: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) developed a clinical practice guideline on initiating pharmacologic treatment in tobacco-dependent adults. Controller pharmacotherapies treat tobacco dependence effectively when taken as prescribed, but relapse after pharmacologic discontinuation is common. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of initiating controller for an extended (>12 wk) versus a standard duration (6-12 wk) in tobacco-dependent adults. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception to December 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials comparing extended versus standard duration of controllers for tobacco-dependent adults. We conducted meta-analyses using the Mantel-Haenszel method with random effects model. Outcomes of interest include point-prevalent abstinence at 1-year follow-up or longer, relapse, adverse events, quality of life, and withdrawal symptoms. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to types of treatment and duration of extended therapy when feasible. We assessed the certainty of the estimate following the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation methodology. Results: We included 13 randomized controlled trials including 8,695 participants that directly compared extended- (>12 wk) versus standard-duration controller therapy with varenicline, bupropion, or nicotine replacement therapy. Compared with standard-duration controller therapy, extended-duration controller therapy probably increased abstinence at 1-year follow-up, measured as 7-day point-prevalence abstinence (relative risk, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.33; moderate certainty). Extended-duration controller therapy probably reduced relapse compared with standard-duration controller therapy, assessed at 12-18 months after initiation of therapy (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29-0.64; moderate certainty). Moderate certainty evidence also suggested that extended-duration controller therapy probably did not increase risk of serious adverse events (relative risk, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.79-2.36). Conclusions: This systematic review supported the recommendation for extended-duration therapy with controllers. Further studies on optimal extended duration are warranted.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Humanos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Tabagismo/tratamento farmacológico
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e057094, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210346

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS is associated with adverse events (AEs). However, little is known about the differences in the risk of AEs between women and men living with HIV/AIDS. This study aims to determine (1) whether there are sex differences in the risk of AEs in people with HIV/AIDS treated with ART and (2) the prevalence of AEs to the reproductive system and bone mineral density in women. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review (SR) will include randomised trials evaluating ART in people living with HIV/AIDS with at least 12 weeks of duration follow-up. Searches will be conducted in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos, Lilacs, trial registries and grey literature databases, without restriction on publication status, year of publication and language. The primary outcome will be the risk of ART discontinuation or drop-outs/withdrawals of ART due to AEs and the number of any treatment-emergent AE. The secondary outcomes are the incidence of serious clinic or laboratory (grade 3 and/or 4) treatment-emergent AEs, hospitalisation, death and AEs specific to the reproductive system and bone mineral density (osteoporosis, osteopenia and fractures) of women. Selection, data extraction and quality assessment will be performed by pairs of reviewers. Cochrane collaboration tools will be used to assess the risk of bias. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be conducted to synthesise results. The overall quality of the evidence for each outcome will be determined by the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results of this SR will assist the formulation of public policies aimed at the management and monitoring of AEs of ART in people living with HIV/AIDS. A deliberative dialogue will be scheduled with the Department of Chronic Conditions and Sexually Transmitted Infections of Brazil's Ministry of Health to align the project with policymakers' interests. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021251051.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Viés , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Caracteres Sexuais , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
Burns ; 48(3): 568-576, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanocrystalline silver dressings can reduce the number of changes, facilitating burn wound management. However, the evidence regarding their efficacy and cost-consequences compared to well-established treatments, such as 1% silver sulfadiazine, is still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy, safety, and costs of nanocrystalline silver dressings compared to 1% silver sulfadiazine dressings to treat adult patients with burns. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, single-center, single-blind trial conducted at a referral hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 100 adult patients were randomized 1:1 to nanocrystalline silver (n = 50) or 1% silver sulfadiazine (n = 50). The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with complete re-epithelization at day 15 after randomization. Secondary outcomes included the number of dressing changes, direct medical costs (in international dollars, I$), pain intensity, the incidence of infections, number of patients undergoing surgery, and adverse events. RESULTS: On day 15, the proportion of patients who reached the primary outcome did not differ significantly between participants treated with nanocrystalline silver dressings (24 [48%]) and those treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine dressings (26 [52%]); risk difference of -4.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -17 to 9; P = 0.56). The number of patients undergoing surgical intervention was similar between groups (6% vs. 6%), and no local or serious adverse events were reported. The mean (standard deviation, SD) number of dressing changes in the nanocrystalline silver group was 4.1 (2.3), and the corresponding estimate in the 1% silver sulfadiazine group was 9.6 (6.7); mean difference of -5.56 (95% CI), -7.57 to -3.55, P < 0.001). Treatment with nanocrystalline silver dressing incurred significant cost reductions in medical materials, human resources, and administrative labor. However, the mean total cost with nanocrystalline silver dressing was higher compared to 1% silver sulfadiazine dressings: I$496.37 (445.90) vs. I$274.73 (182.76); mean difference = 221.63 (95% CI, 89.04 to 354.23, P = 0.001). The main driver of higher mean total costs among nanocrystalline silver-treated participants was the purchase cost of the dressings, representing 79.3% of the total cost in the nanocrystalline silver group but only 15.2% in the 1% silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of a difference between nanocrystalline silver and 1% silver sulfadiazine dressings regarding efficacy and safety outcomes. Nanocrystalline silver dressings were associated with an increase in the total costs, but they could result in important savings for an institution (less changes of dressings, reducing human resources burden), especially if acquisition costs can be decreased. Additional cost-effectiveness studies are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02108535.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Queimaduras , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bandagens , Brasil , Queimaduras/complicações , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prata/uso terapêutico , Sulfadiazina de Prata/uso terapêutico , Método Simples-Cego
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e044312, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deprescribing is the planned and supervised process of dose reduction or stopping of medication that might be causing harm, or no longer be of benefit. It is an activity that should be a normal part of care/the prescribing cycle. Although now broadly recognised, there are still challenges in its effective implementation. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an instrument to measure Brazilian healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards deprescribing. METHODS: This study will include the following steps: (1) development of the preliminary instrument; (2) content validation; (3) pilot study; (4) evaluation of psychometric characteristics. After the elaboration of items of the instrument through the literature review, we will use a hybrid Delphi method to develop and establish the content validity of the instrument. Further, a pilot survey will be performed with 30 healthcare professionals. Finally, for the evaluation of psychometric characteristics, a cross-sectional study will be accomplished with a representative sample of different healthcare professionals from different Brazilian states using respondent-driven sampling. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis will be performed. For assessing the model fit, we will use the ratio of χ2 and df (χ2/df), comparative fit index, the goodness of fit index and root mean square error of approximation. In addition, the reliability of the instrument will be estimated by test-retest reproducibility and Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committee for Research at the University of Sorocaba (ethics approval number: 3.848.916) approved the study. Study findings will be circulated to healthcare professionals and scientists in the field through publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044357, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of evidence about the use of local anaesthetics (LAs) in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in dental procedures. Thus, this study evaluated the safety of using LA with vasoconstrictor to determine the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with CVD. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We have searched in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), Healthstar (via Ovid), CINAHL, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) up to January 2020. We have included RCTs involving adults with CVD within two groups: intervention group with LA with vasoconstrictor and control group with LA without vasoconstrictor. The primary outcomes assessed were death, mortality by a specific cause, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, hospitalisation, pain, bleeding and arrhythmias. The secondary outcomes were ST segment depression, anxiety, adverse effects and changes in haemodynamic parameters. The data were pooled using random effects meta-analyses and the confidence in the estimates was verified using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: Ten RCTs (n=478 participants) were included. Most of them had a high risk of bias. There were more cases of pain and bleeding in groups without vasoconstrictor. Meta-analysis demonstrated a decrease in the systolic blood pressure with the use of LA with vasoconstrictor (standard mean difference -0.95, 95% CI -1.35 to -0.55) after procedure. Overall, for the other outcomes assessed there was no statistical difference. The quality of evidence was considered low according to the GRADE profile. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the use of LA with vasoconstrictors (epinephrine in low doses) is safe in patients with some types of CVD. However, the low quality of evidence demonstrated that literature needs further studies in order to confirm these results. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42016045421).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Infarto do Miocárdio , Adulto , Anestesia Local , Anestésicos Locais , Humanos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
16.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3339, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105332

RESUMO

In order to compile an inventory of national data sources for drug utilization research (DUR) in Argentina and to verify publicly available data sources, we performed a cross-sectional study that sought to identify national and provincial databases of drug use. In July 2020, we searched the websites of government institutions, carried out a systematic query of bibliographic databases for "drug utilization research" conducted in Argentina, and conducted a survey with local experts. Data collected included: the institution responsible for the database, population covered, accessibility, source of the data, healthcare setting, geographic information, and whether data were individual or aggregated. Descriptive analyses were then performed. We identified 31 data sources for DUR; only one was publicly and conveniently accessible. Five published aggregated data and provide more detailed access by formal request. Only seven sources (23%) reported national data, and most (n=29) included only data from the public healthcare sector. Although data sources for DUR have been found in Argentina, limited access by researchers and policymakers is still an significant obstacle. Increasing health data transparency by making data sources publicly available for the purpose of analyzing public health information is crucial for building a stronger health system.


Para realizar un inventario de fuentes de datos nacionales sobre utilización de medicamentos en Argentina y verificar las fuentes de datos disponibles públicamente, llevamos a cabo un estudio transversal que investiga la existencia de bases de datos nacionales y provinciales sobre utilización de medicamentos. En julio de 2020, realizamos una búsqueda en sitios web de instituciones gubernamentales, una búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos bibliográficas sobre "drug utilization research" en Argentina y una encuesta de expertos. Se identificaron 31 fuentes de datos de utilización de medicamentos, solo una era de acceso público y conveniente, cinco publicaban datos agregados y proporcionaban un acceso más detallado mediante solicitud formal, solo siete fuentes (23%) informaban datos nacionales, y la mayoría de ellas (n=29) incluían solo datos del sector público de salud. Aunque se han encontrado fuentes de datos de utilización de medicamentos en Argentina, el acceso a investigadores y legisladores sigue siendo una barrera importante. Aumentar la transparencia de los datos de salud a través de fuentes disponibles públicamente para analizar la información de salud pública es crucial para construir un sistema de salud más sólido.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 638001, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135752

RESUMO

Objective: Switching between second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is a common clinical practice in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders due to differences in the drugs' tolerability and safety profiles as well as the challenge of obtaining an ideal response. However, the factors associated with SGA switching remain uncertain and related real-world data are scarce. The main objective was to identify the factors associated with the switching of SGAs in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, who were aged ≥18 years and received a SGA (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine or ziprasidone) from a Brazilian pharmaceutical assistance program for at least 3 months. We identified SGA users from 2008 to 2017 by using a national administrative database (Ambulatory Information System-SIA/SUS). The factors associated with the switches were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression and adjusted for sex and age; the confidence interval was set at 95% (95% CI). Results: In total, 563,765 patients were included. Female sex, advanced age of ≥70 years, residence in the Brazilian northeast region, and the type of antipsychotic used were associated with an increased risk of switching (p < 0.001). The incidence of switching ranged from 37.6/100 person-years for clozapine users to 58.2/100 person-years for risperidone users. Compared to the adjusted hazard ratio, for clozapine users, the corresponding ratios for risperidone, ziprasidone, quetiapine and olanzapine were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.57-1.61), 1.41 (95% CI, 1.39-1.44), 1.25 (95% CI, 1.23-1.26) and 1.11 (95% CI, 1.10-1.12) respectively. Conclusion: The groups most susceptible to SGA switching in real-life setting were older individuals, women, and those living in the Brazilian northeast region. Risperidone was associated with the highest risk of switching and as expected, clozapine was associated with the lowest risk of switching than that associated with the other SGAs.

18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 320, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia and other mental disorders in populations under 18 years of age is increasing worldwide. Little is known about treatment patterns and the influence of gender differences, which may be a predictor of clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the use of atypical antipsychotics in patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) assisted by the public health system in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of outpatients with EOS aged 10 to 17 years who received at least one provision of atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine or ziprasidone) from a large Brazilian pharmaceutical assistance programme. Data were retrieved from a nationwide administrative database from 2008 to 2017. RESULTS: Of the 49,943 patients with EOS, 63.5% were males, and the mean age was 13.6 years old. The patients were using risperidone (62.5%), olanzapine (19.6%), quetiapine (12.4%), ziprasidone (3.3%) and clozapine (2.2%). We found gender differences, especially in the 13-17 year age group (65.1% for males vs. 34.9% for females, p < 0.001), in the use of risperidone (72.1% for males vs. 27.9% for females, p < 0.001) and olanzapine (66.5% for males vs. 33.5% for females, p < 0.001). Only in the 13 to 17 years age group were the prescribed doses of olanzapine (p = 0.012) and quetiapine (p = 0.041) slightly higher for males than for females. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed gender differences among patients diagnosed with EOS and who received atypical antipsychotics. More attention should be devoted to gender differences in research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Front Psychol ; 12: 622973, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113278

RESUMO

CONTEXT: People with mental disorders can acquire long-term disabilities, which could impair their functioning and quality of life (QoL), requiring permanent care and social support. Systematic data on QoL and functioning, which could support a better management of these people, were not available. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the QoL, level of functioning and their association with sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with mental disorders who underwent deinstitutionalization using assisted living facilities. METHODS: A Cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2018 and July 2019, through interviews using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) to determine the QoL scores, and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) to determine the level of functioning. All adults (≥18 years old) with mental disorders, who underwent deinstitutionalization, users of assisted living facilities and assisted by the Psychosocial Assistance Centers III, in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected. For statistical analysis of the associated factors, Student's t-test was used for dichotomous variables and ANOVA for polynomial variables. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between QoL and functioning scores. RESULTS: Out of 359 people who underwent deinstitutionalization with mental disorders, 147 met the eligibility criteria. The mean total score for the WHOQOL-BREF was 66.5 ± 13.4 and the mean score for WHODAS 2.0 was 10.4 ± 7.6. An association was found between people who were studying (n = 65.8; 95%CI, 63.5-68.1 vs. n = 73.9; 95%CI, 67.5-80.3; p = 0.04) and better WHOQOL-BREF QoL scores or WHODAS 2.0 levels of functioning (n = 10.9; 95%CI, 9.6-12.2 vs. n = 5.1; 95%CI, 2.5-7.7; p = 0.01). A weak negative correlation (r = 0.41) emerged between higher QoL scores and functioning improvement. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the QoL of the sample is associated by their functioning levels, which, in turn, may reflect on their social interactions. Public policies that favor interventions increasing socialization of this population can result in better health outcomes. The QoL and functioning scores provide valuable insights to develop public policies more suited to this population profile.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 575108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981256

RESUMO

Background: The deinstitutionalization process is complex, long-term and many countries fail to achieve progress and consolidation. Informing decision-makers about appropriate strategies and changes in mental health policies can be a key factor for it. This study aimed to develop an evidence brief to summarize the best available evidence to improve care for deinstitutionalized patients with severe mental disorders in the community. Methods: We used the SUPPORT (Supporting Policy Relevant Reviews and Trials) tools to elaborate the evidence brief and to organize a policy dialogue with 24 stakeholders. A systematic search was performed in 10 electronic databases and the methodological quality of systematic reviews (SRs) was assessed by AMSTAR 2. Results: Fifteen SRs were included (comprising 378 studies and 69,736 participants), of varying methodological quality (3 high-quality SRs, 2 moderate-quality SRs, 7 low-quality SRs, 3 critically low SRs). Six strategies were identified: (i). Psychoeducation; (ii). Anti-stigma programs, (iii). Intensive case management; (iv). Community mental health teams; (v). Assisted living; and (vi). Interventions for acute psychiatric episodes. They were associated with improvements on a global status, satisfaction with the service, reduction on relapse, and hospitalization. Challenges to implementation of any of them included: stigma, the shortage of specialized human resources, limited political and budgetary support. Conclusions: These strategies could guide future actions and policymaking to improve mental health outcomes.

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