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2.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of once-weekly exenatide (EQW) on microvascular and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes by baseline renal function in the Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Least squares mean difference (LSMD) in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline between the EQW and placebo groups was calculated for 13,844 participants. Cox regression models estimated by group effects on incident macroalbuminuria, retinopathy, and major adverse CV events (MACE). Interval-censored time-to-event models estimated effects on renal composite 1 (40% eGFR decline, renal replacement, or renal death) and renal composite 2 (composite 1 variables plus macroalbuminuria). RESULTS: EQW did not change eGFR significantly (LSMD +0.21 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI -0.27 to 0.70]). Macroalbuminuria occurred in 2.2% of patients in the EQW group and in 2.5% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.70-1.07]). Neither renal composite was reduced with EQW in unadjusted analyses, but renal composite 2 was reduced after adjustment (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.74-0.98]). Retinopathy rates did not differ by treatment group or in the HbA1c-lowering or prior retinopathy subgroups. CV outcomes in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 did not differ by group. Those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had nominal risk reductions for MACE, all-cause mortality, and CV death, but interactions by renal function group were significant for only stroke (HR 0.74 [95% CI 0.58-0.93]; P for interaction = 0.035) and CV death (HR 1.08 [95% CI 0.85-1.38]; P for interaction = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: EQW had no impact on unadjusted retinopathy or renal outcomes. CV risk was modestly reduced only in those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in analyses unadjusted for multiplicity.

3.
Am Heart J ; 218: 57-65, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707329

RESUMO

International differences in management/outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure (HF) are not well characterized. We sought to evaluate geographic variation in treatment and outcomes among these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 14,671 participants in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS), those with HF at baseline and a documented ejection fraction (EF) (N = 1591; 10.8%) were categorized by enrollment region (North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Asia Pacific). Cox models were used to examine the association between geographic region and the primary outcome of all-cause mortality (ACM) or hospitalization for HF (hHF) in addition to ACM alone. Analyses were stratified by those with EF <40% or EF ≥40%. The majority of participants with HF were enrolled in Eastern Europe (53%). Overall, 1,267 (79.6%) had EF ≥40%. ß-Blocker (83%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (86%) use was high across all regions in patients with EF <40%. During a median follow-up of 2.9 years, Eastern European participants had lower rates of ACM/hHF compared with North Americans (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.32-0.64). These differences were seen only in the EF ≥40% subgroup and not the EF <40% subgroup. ACM was similar among Eastern European and North American participants (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.44-1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation exists in the clinical features and outcomes of HF patients across regions in TECOS. Patients from Eastern Europe had lower risk-adjusted ACM/hHF than those in North America, driven by those with EF ≥40%. These data may inform the design of future international trials.

4.
Am Heart J ; 218: 110-122, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicare insurance claims may provide an efficient means to ascertain follow-up of older participants in clinical research. We sought to determine the accuracy and completeness of claims- versus site-based follow-up with clinical event committee (+CEC) adjudication of cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using linked Medicare and Duke Database of Clinical Trials data. Medicare claims were linked to clinical data from 7 randomized cardiovascular clinical trials. Of 52,476 trial participants, linking resulted in 5,839 (of 10,497 linkage-eligible) Medicare-linked trial participants with fee-for-service A and B coverage. Death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and revascularization incidences were compared using Medicare inpatient claims only, site-reported events (+CEC) only, or a combination of the 2. Randomized treatment effects were compared as a function of whether claims-based, site-based (+CEC), or a combined system was used for event detection. RESULTS: Among the 5,839 study participants, the annual event rates were similar between claims- and site-based (+CEC) follow-up: death (overall rate 5.2% vs 5.2%; adjusted κ 0.99), MI (2.2% vs 2.3%; adjusted κ 0.96), stroke (0.7% vs 0.7%; adjusted κ 0.99), and any revascularization (7.4% vs 7.9%; adjusted κ 0.95). Of events detected by claims yet not reported by CEC, a minority were reported by sites but negatively adjudicated by CEC (39% of MIs and 18% of strokes). Differences in individual case concordance led to higher event rates when claims- and site-based (+CEC) systems were combined. Randomized treatment effects were similar among the 3 approaches for each outcome of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Claims- versus site-based (+CEC) follow-up identified similar overall cardiovascular event rates despite meaningful differences in the events detected. Randomized treatment effects were similar using the 2 methods, suggesting claims data could be used to support clinical research leveraging routinely collected data. This approach may lead to more effective evidence generation, synthesis, and appraisal of medical products and inform the strategic approaches toward the National Evaluation System for Health Technology.

5.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747786

RESUMO

Background: The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with oral anticoagulants has been associated with an increased risk of bleeding. We investigated the risk of bleeding and major cardiovascular outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking NSAIDs and apixaban or warfarin. Methods: The ARISTOTLE trial (n=18,201) compared apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF at increased risk of stroke. Patients in ARISTOTLE without severe renal (creatine clearance ≤30 mL/min) or liver disease were included in this analysis (n=17,423). NSAID use at baseline, NSAID use during the trial (incident NSAID use) and never users were described. The primary outcome was major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart failure hospitalization, stroke or systemic embolism, and all-cause mortality. NSAID use during the trial and the interaction between randomized treatment and was analyzed using time dependent Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Those with baseline NSAID use (n=832 [4.8%]), incident NSAID use (n=2185 [13.2%]), and never users were similar in median age [25th, 75th] (70 [64, 77] vs. 70 [63, 75] vs. 70 [62, 76]). Those with NSAID use at baseline and incident NSAID use were more likely to have a history of bleeding (24.5% vs. 21.0% vs 15.6%) than never users. During a median follow-up [25th, 75th] of 1.8 [1.4, 2.3]) years and when excluding those taking NSAID at baseline, we found that incident NSAID use was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% CI 1.11-2.33) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.16-2.48), but not gastrointestinal bleeding. No significant interaction was observed between NSAID use and randomized treatment for any outcome. Conclusions: A substantial number of patients in the ARISTOTLE trial took NSAIDs. Incident NSAID use was associated with major and CRNM bleeding, but not gastrointestinal bleeding. The safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin appeared not significantly to be altered by NSAID use. This study warrants more investigation of the effect of NSAIDs on the outcomes of patients treated with apixaban. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00412984.

7.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319886959, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel approach to determine the effect of a treatment is to calculate the delay of event, which estimates the gain of event-free time. The aim of this study was to estimate gains in event-free time for stroke or systemic embolism, death, bleeding events, and the composite of these events, in patients with atrial fibrillation randomized to either warfarin or apixaban in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation trial (ARISTOTLE). DESIGN: The ARISTOTLE study was a randomized double-blind trial comparing apixaban with warfarin. METHODS: Laplace regression was used to estimate the delay in time to the outcomes between the apixaban and the warfarin group in 6, 12, 18 and 22 months of follow-up. RESULTS: The gain in event-free time for apixaban versus warfarin was 181 (95% confidence interval 76 to 287) days for stroke or systemic embolism and 55 (-4 to 114) days for death after 22 months of follow-up. The corresponding gains in event-free times for major and intracranial bleeding were 206 (130 to 281) and 392 (249 to 535) days, respectively. The overall gain for the composite of all these events was a gain of 116 (60 to 171) days. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation, 22 months of treatment with apixaban, as compared with warfarin, provided gains of approximately 6 months in event-free time for stroke or systemic embolism, 7 months for major bleeding and 13 months for intracranial bleeding.

8.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707833

RESUMO

We describe the incidence, timing, and characteristics of stent thrombosis and its consequences in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the AUGUSTUS trial1 who received a coronary stent during their qualifying admission (acute coronary syndrome [ACS] or elective percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) and the randomized treatment effects of low-dose aspirin (compared with placebo) and apixaban (compared with vitamin K antagonist [VKA]) on the risk of stent thrombosis. We included patients who received a stent during their qualifying admission. We excluded patients with medically-managed ACS (n=1097) or an unknown qualifying index event (n=19). The protocol was approved by appropriate ethics committees; patients provided written informed consent prior to participation.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the optimal antithrombotic therapies for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not been powered to evaluate ischemic outcomes. We compared double therapy with oral anticoagulation (OAC) and a P2Y12 inhibitor to triple therapy with an OAC + dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with AF requiring PCI. METHODS: Using PRISMA guidelines, we searched for RCTs including patients with AF as an indication for OAC and undergoing PCI or medical management of acute coronary syndrome. The results were pooled using fixed-effects and random-effects models to estimate the overall effect of double therapy versus triple therapy on ischemic and bleeding outcomes. RESULTS: We identified four RCTs, comprising 10,238 patients (5,498 double therapy, 4,740 triple therapy). Trial-reported major adverse cardiovascular events were similar between double therapy and triple therapy (fixed effect model OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.94-1.26). However, stent thrombosis (61/5,496 double therapy vs. 33/4738 triple therapy; fixed effect model OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02-2.40; number needed to treat with triple therapy = 242) favored triple therapy. Bleeding outcomes were less frequent with double therapy (746/5470 vs. 950/4710; fixed effect model OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.53-0.65; number needed to harm with triple therapy = 16), but with significant heterogeneity (Q = 8.33, p = .04; I2 = 64%), as were intracranial hemorrhages (19/5470 vs. 30/4710; fixed effect model OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Double therapy in patients with AF requiring OAC following PCI or Acute coronary syndrome has a significantly better safety profile than triple therapy but may be associated with a modest increased risk of stent thrombosis.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(9): 1406-1412, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474328

RESUMO

Whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and thyroid disease are clinically distinct from those with AF and no thyroid disease is unknown. Furthermore, the effectiveness of anticoagulation for prevention of AF-related thromboembolic events in patients with thyroid disease has not been adequately studied. Patients enrolled in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation, which compared apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF (n = 18,201), were categorized by thyroid disease history at randomization (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and no thyroid disease). Adjusted hazard ratios derived from Cox models were used to compare outcomes by thyroid disease history. Associations between randomized treatment and outcomes by thyroid disease history were examined using Cox models with interaction terms. A total of 18,021/18,201 (99%) patients had available thyroid disease history at randomization: 1,656 (9%) had hypothyroidism, 321 (2%) had hyperthyroidism, and 16,044 (89%) had no thyroid disease. When compared with those without a history of thyroid disease, patients with hypo- or hyperthyroidism were more likely to be female (60.4% vs 32.1%; 52.0% vs 32.1%; both p <0.0001). Patients with hypothyroidism were older (73 vs 70 years, p <0.0001) and more likely to have had previous falls (8.7% vs 4.3%, p <0.0001). There was no difference in clinical outcomes by thyroid disease history. The benefit of apixaban compared with warfarin was similar regardless of thyroid disease history (interaction p >0.10). In conclusion, despite differences in baseline characteristics of patients with and without thyroid disease, their clinical outcomes were similar. The benefit of apixban compared with warfarin was preserved regardless of thyroid disease history.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520256

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study whether polypharmacy or drug-drug interactions have differential effect on safety and efficacy in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus warfarin. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that randomized patients with atrial fibrillation to DOACs or warfarin stratified by the number of concomitant drugs. Outcomes included stroke or systemic embolism (SE), all-cause mortality, major bleeding, and intracranial hemorrhage. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated and Mantel-Haenszel random effects were applied. RESULTS: Two high-quality studies were eligible, including 32,465 participants who received apixaban, rivaroxaban, or warfarin, with a median follow-up of 1.9 years. Of participants, 29% used < 5 drugs, 55% used 5-9 drugs, and 16% used ≥ 10 drugs. Drugs interacting with DOACs (P-glycoprotein/CYP3A4) were used by 6460 (20%) of patients. Patients with higher number of drugs (0-4 vs 5-9 vs ≥ 10) had higher rates of mortality (5.8%, 7.9%, 10.0%) and major bleeding (3.4%, 4.8%, 7.7%). Comparative efficacy or safety of DOACs versus warfarin was not affected by polypharmacy status or P-glycoprotein/CYP3A4 inhibitor use. However, the presence of polypharmacy (p = 0.001) or glycoprotein/CYP3A4-modulating drugs (p = 0.03) was correlated with increased risk of major bleeding when compared with warfarin. Overall, DOAC use was associated with a lower risk of stroke/SE (RR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.74-0.94), all-cause mortality (RR, 0.91; 95%CI, 0.84-0.98), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR, 0.51; 95%CI, 0.38-0.70) compared with warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: DOACs were more effective than warfarin, and at least as safe. Polypharmacy was associated with adverse outcomes and attenuated the advantage in risk of major bleeding among rivaroxaban users, particularly in the presence of P-glycoprotein/CYP3A4-modulating drugs.

13.
Circulation ; 140(23): 1921-1932, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of antithrombotic regimens may differ between patients with atrial fibrillation who have acute coronary syndromes (ACS), treated medically or with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and those undergoing elective PCI. METHODS: Using a 2×2 factorial design, we compared apixaban with vitamin K antagonists and aspirin with placebo in patients with atrial fibrillation who had ACS or were undergoing PCI and were receiving a P2Y12 inhibitor. We explored bleeding, death and hospitalization, as well as death and ischemic events, by antithrombotic strategy in 3 prespecified subgroups: patients with ACS treated medically, patients with ACS treated with PCI, and those undergoing elective PCI. RESULTS: Of 4614 patients enrolled, 1097 (23.9%) had ACS treated medically, 1714 (37.3%) had ACS treated with PCI, and 1784 (38.8%) had elective PCI. Apixaban compared with vitamin K antagonist reduced International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in patients with ACS treated medically (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.28-0.68]), patients with ACS treated with PCI (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.52-0.89]), and patients undergoing elective PCI (HR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.64-1.04]; Pinteraction=0.052) and reduced death or hospitalization in the ACS treated medically (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.54-0.92]), ACS treated with PCI (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.74-1.06]), and elective PCI (HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.72-1.04]; Pinteraction=0.345) groups. Compared with vitamin K antagonists, apixaban resulted in a similar effect on death and ischemic events in the ACS treated medically, ACS treated with PCI, and elective PCI groups (Pinteraction=0.356). Aspirin had a higher rate of bleeding than did placebo in patients with ACS treated medically (HR, 1.49 [95% CI, 0.98-2.26]), those with ACS treated with PCI (HR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.53-2.67]), and those undergoing elective PCI (HR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.48-2.47]; Pinteraction=0.479). For the same comparison, there was no difference in outcomes among the 3 groups for the composite of death or hospitalization (Pinteraction=0.787) and death and ischemic events (Pinteraction=0.710). CONCLUSIONS: An antithrombotic regimen consisting of apixaban and a P2Y12 inhibitor without aspirin provides superior safety and similar efficacy in patients with atrial fibrillation who have ACS, whether managed medically or with PCI, and those undergoing elective PCI compared with regimens that include vitamin K antagonists, aspirin, or both. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02415400.

14.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1578-1589, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 US cholesterol management guidelines recommend additional lipid-lowering therapies for secondary prevention in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL despite maximum tolerated statin therapy. Such patients are considered at very high risk (VHR) based on a history of >1 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event or a single ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. We investigated the association of US guideline-defined risk categories with the occurrence of ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome and reduction of those events by alirocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor. METHODS: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and residual dyslipidemia despite optimal statin therapy were randomly assigned to alirocumab or placebo. The primary trial outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events, ie, coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) was examined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association risk category. RESULTS: Of 18 924 participants followed for a median of 2.8 years, 11 935 (63.1%) were classified as VHR: 4450 (37.3%) had multiple prior ASCVD events and 7485 (62.7%) had 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 14.4% of placebo-treated patients at VHR versus 5.6% of those not at VHR. In the VHR category, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 20.4% with multiple prior ASCVD events versus 10.7% with 1 ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Alirocumab was associated with consistent relative risk reductions in both risk categories (hazard ratio=0.84 for VHR; hazard ratio=0.86 for not VHR; Pinteraction=0.820) and by stratification within the VHR group (hazard ratio=0.86 for multiple prior ASCVD events; hazard ratio=0.82 for 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions; Pinteraction=0.672). The absolute risk reduction for major adverse cardiovascular events with alirocumab was numerically greater (but not statistically different) in the VHR group versus those not at VHR (2.1% versus 0.8%; Pinteraction=0.095) and among patients at VHR with multiple prior ASCVD events versus a single prior ASCVD event (2.4% versus 1.8%; Pinteraction=0.661). CONCLUSIONS: The US guideline criteria identify patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia who are at VHR for recurrent ischemic events and who may derive a larger absolute benefit from treatment with alirocumab. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

15.
Circulation ; 140(20): 1613-1622, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Once-weekly exenatide (EQW) had a neutral effect on hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in the EXSCEL study (Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering), with no differential treatment effect on major adverse cardiac events by baseline heart failure (HF) status. EQW's effects on secondary end points based on HHF status have not been reported. The objective was to explore the effects of EQW on secondary end points in patients with and without baseline HF and test the effects of EQW on recurrent HHF events. METHODS: The prespecified analysis of the randomized controlled EXSCEL trial, which enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without additional cardiovascular disease, analyzed EQW effects on all-cause death, each major adverse cardiac event component, first HHF, and repeat HHF, by baseline HF status (regardless of ejection fraction). A subgroup analysis of the population stratified by preserved or reduced baseline ejection fraction was performed. RESULTS: Of 14 752 EXSCEL participants, 2389 (16.2%) had HF at baseline. Compared with those without HF at baseline, patients with preexisting HF were older, and more likely to be male and white, with a higher burden of other cardiovascular diseases. Overall, those assigned to EQW had a lower incidence of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86 [95% CI, 0.77-0.97]) and the composite outcome of all-cause death or HHF (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80-0.99]). When stratified by presence or absence of baseline HF, there was no observed reduction in all-cause death with EQW with baseline HF (HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.85-1.29]), while the risk of mortality was reduced with EQW in the no-HF group (HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.68-0.92]) with an interaction P value of 0.031. The reduction in all-cause death or HHF seen with EQW in patients without baseline HF (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.71-0.93]) was not seen in patients with baseline HF (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.89-1.29]; interaction P=0.015). First, plus recurrent, HHF was reduced in the exenatide group versus placebo (HR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-0.99]; P=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: In EXSCEL, the use of EQW in patients with or without HF was well tolerated, but benefits of EQW on reduction in all-cause death and first hospitalization for HF were attenuated in patients with baseline HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01144338.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493287

RESUMO

Acutely ill medical patients with cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in the presence of cancer, but its safety is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of extended prophylaxis with betrixaban in cancer patients enrolled in the APEX trial. APEX was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing oral betrixaban 80 mg qd administered for 35-42 days with subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg qd administered for 10 ± 4 days. Patients with acute medical illness and a history of cancer or active cancer were eligible for inclusion. Primary efficacy outcome was VTE (composite of symptomatic VTE and asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis); primary safety outcome was major bleeding. Of 7513 patients enrolled in the APEX trial, 959 patients (12.8%), 499 randomized to betrixaban and 460 to enoxaparin, had cancer. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 5.7% of cancer patients treated with betrixaban and in 6.2% treated with enoxaparin (p = 0.95). No significant interaction according to the presence or absence of cancer was observed (p = 0.36). Major bleeding events occurred in 0.8% of patients in the betrixaban group and in 0% in the enoxaparin group (p = 0.13), with no significant interaction (p = 0.07). The composite of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeds was similar between the two groups (2.9% and 2.0%, respectively, RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.63-3.27). Betrixaban was similarly effective in the reduction of VTE among subjects with and without cancer. The incidence of major bleeding was similarly low.

17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(12): 2089-2098, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended-duration thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) without increasing major bleeding rates in acutely ill medical patients as compared to standard duration enoxaparin. We aimed to assess the risk-benefit of betrixaban in patients aged ≥ 80 years enrolled in the APEX trial. METHODS: APEX was a randomized, double-blind trial in which patients hospitalized for acute medical illnesses received enoxaparin 40 mg qd for 10 ± 4 days or oral betrixaban 80 mg qd for 35 to 42 days. The primary efficacy outcome was VTE, the principal safety outcome was major bleeding. Net clinical benefit (NCB) was defined by the occurrence of VTE or major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 7513 patients enrolled in the APEX trial, 2781 (37%) were aged ≥ 80 years. In this subgroup, VTE or major bleeding occurred in 7.0% of betrixaban patients and in 8.4% of enoxaparin patients, for a relative risk in the NCB of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.10). The relative risk reduction obtained with betrixaban was similar between those aged ≥ 80 years and patients younger than 80 years (5.0% and 6.7%, respectively, NCB 0.75, 0.58-0.96, P = .024), with no significant interaction across age groups (P = .33). CONCLUSIONS: Event rates were higher in medically ill patients aged ≥ 80 years enrolled in the APEX study than in patients younger than 80 years. The predefined NCB was reduced with extended betrixaban therapy in both groups with no signs of age-related interactions. However, the primary efficacy endpoint was not achieved with betrixaban for patients 80 years of age or older.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463701

RESUMO

Volume management is an essential component of anti-hypertensive therapy. Different volume phenotypes have been proposed. We sought to study the total blood volume (TBV), plasma volume (PV), and red blood cell volume (RBV) in hypertensive patients. We included patients followed in an outpatient cardiology clinic from 1998 to 2003. Blood volume (BV) parameters were measured using radioisotope iodine-131-labeled albumin dilution technique. Values were expressed as percentage (%) deviation from ideal volumes. A total of 95 patients were included. The intravascular volume distribution as percent deviation from normal volume ranged from - 23 to + 28% for TBV, - 22 to + 36% for PV and - 29 to + 37% for RBV. There was no significant correlation between systolic BP and any of the BV parameters (TBV and SBP, r = - 0.03; PV and SBP, r = - 0.12; RBV and SBP, r = - 0.08). Patients with hypertension have a wide variation in BV parameters. BV does not correlate with SBP.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 912-919, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375245

RESUMO

Fragmented care following elective surgery has been associated with poor outcomes. The association between fragmented care and outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. We examined patients who underwent TAVI from 2011 to 2015 at 374 sites in the STS/ACC TVT Registry, linked to Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services claims data. Fragmented care was defined as at least one readmission to a site other than the implanting TAVI center within 90 days after discharge, whereas continuous care was defined as readmission to the same implanting center. We compared adjusted 1-year outcomes, including stroke, bleeding, heart failure, mortality, and all-cause readmission in patients who received fragmented versus continuous care. Among 8,927 patients who received a TAVI between 2011 and 2015, 27.4% were readmitted within 90 days of discharge. Most patients received fragmented care (57.0%). Compared with the continuous care group, the fragmented care group was more likely to have severe chronic lung disease, cerebrovascular disease, and heart failure. States that had lower TAVI volume per Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services population had greater fragmentation. Patients living > 30 minutes from their TAVI center had an increased risk of fragmented care 1.07 (confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.09, p < 0.001). After adjustment for comorbidities and procedural complications, fragmented care was associated with increased 1-year mortality (hazards ratio 1.18, CI 1.04 to 1.35, p = 0.010) and all-cause readmission (hazards ratio 1.08, CI 1.00 to 1.16, p = 0.051. In conclusion, fragmented readmission following TAVI is common, and is associated with increased 1-year mortality and readmission. Efforts to improve coordination of care may improve these outcomes and optimize long-term benefits yielded from TAVI.

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