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1.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e663, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of mechanical ventilation among final-year medical students in Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between October 2015 and October 2017 involving 554 medical students was carried out to develop a questionnaire for assessing knowledge on mechanical ventilation. Reproducibility was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient, internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha, and construct validation was evaluated with a tetrachoric exploratory factor analysis. To compare the means of the competences among the same type of assessment tool, the nonparametric Friedman test was used, and the identification of the differences was obtained with Dunn-Bonferroni tests. RESULTS: The final version of the questionnaire contained 19 questions. The instrument presented a clarity index of 8.94±0.83. The value of the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.929, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.831. The factor analysis revealed five factors associated with knowledge areas regarding mechanical ventilation. The final score among participants was 24.05%. CONCLUSION: The instrument has a satisfactory clarity index and adequate psychometric properties and can be used to assess the knowledge of mechanical ventilation among final-year medical students in Brazil.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Respiração Artificial , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(1): 69-74, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539748

RESUMO

In 2015, 3 independent meta-analyses raised concerns about digoxin therapy being associated with an increased mortality risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and with heart failure (HF). Although several other studies have been published since then fostering these safety issues, the most recent 2016 European guidelines for AF still recommend this therapy as a class I indication. We performed an updated systematic review and random-effect meta-analysis on publications up to March 2018 reporting data on digoxin associated mortality in subjects with AF or HF. Based on the adjusted survival data of all identified 37 trials comprising a total of 825,061 patients, digoxin use was associated with an increased relative risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.29, p <0.01). Treatment with digoxin was associated with an increased mortality risk in the subgroup of patients with AF (n = 627,620, HR 1.23, 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.30, p <0.01), and in the subgroup of patients with HF (n = 197,441, HR 1.11, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.16, p<0.01). A sensitivity analysis of studies reporting data on new digoxin users (n = 41,687) demonstrated an even higher risk for all-cause mortality compared with patients not receiving cardiac glycosides (HR 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.88, p <0.01). In conclusion, this updated meta-analysis confirms that digoxin use is associated with increased mortality in patients with AF or HF.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Digoxina/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-916465

RESUMO

O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é a maior causa de incapacidade em todo mundo, e atualmente é também considerado como a segunda maior causa de morte no Brasil. O AVC isquêmico é o subtipo mais comum e pode ser subdividido etiologicamente em car-dioembólico, aterosclerótico de grandes ou pequenas artérias (lacunas), criptogênico ou de outras etiologias. Dependendo da etiologia encontrada, a profilaxia secundária de novos eventos deve ser feita através de medicações antitrombóticas específicas. Portanto, investigar adequadamente a etiologia do evento vascular isquêmico é fundamental para a instituição da profilaxia secundária apropriada. A terapia antitrombótica pós-AVC isquêmico evoluiu consideravelmente na última década. Especificamente para pacientes com AVC e fibrilação atrial, a incorporação de anticoagulantes de ação direta à prática clínica representa um grande avanço, já que tais medicações são mais eficazes e seguras para o tratamento de pacientes de alto risco. No presente artigo, discutiremos o uso de antitrombóticos em pacientes com AVC em diferentes momentos pós-icto vascular e nas distintas etiologias possíveis


Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and is currently also considered the second leading cause of death in Brazil. Ischemic stroke is the most common subtype and can be subdivided etiologically into cardioembolic, atherosclerotic (large artery atherosclero-sis or small vessel disease-lacunae), cryptogenic or strokes of other etiologies. Depending on the etiology, secondary prophylaxis of new events should be undertaken with specific antithrombotic medications. Therefore, a thorough investigation of ischemic vascular event etiology is essential for the introduction of appropriate secondary prophylaxis. Antithrombotic therapy after ischemic stroke has evolved considerably in the last decade. The incorporation of direct-acting anticoagulants into clinical practice represents a major advance, particularly for stroke and atrial fibrillation patients, since such medications are safer and more effective for the treatment of high-risk patients. In this article, we will discuss the use of antithrombo-tics in stroke patients at different post-stroke stages and in the distinct possible etiologies


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prevenção de Doenças , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Comportamento Sedentário
4.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-916534

RESUMO

A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia cardíaca mais comum na população com uma prevalência de 1-2%, além disso, está associada a um risco, aproximadamente cinco vezes maior de acidente vascular cerebral do que na população em geral. A anticoagulação é a melhor maneira de prevenir os eventos tromboembólicos. A varfarina é utilizada há décadas como uma droga segura e eficaz, desde que rigorosamente controlada. Nos últimos anos, foram desenvolvidas novas classes de anticoagulantes orais: inibidores diretos da trombina e inibidores do fator Xa, conhecidos como anticoagulantes orais de ação direta (DOACs). Tanto a cardioversão elétrica quanto a cardioversão farmacológica estão associadas a um maior risco de eventos tromboembólicos durante o primeiro mês após o procedimento (5-7%). No entanto, com a utilização de nticoagulantes essa taxa é inferior a 1%. No presente artigo, faremos uma revisão das principais evidências científicas relacionadas ao uso da dabigatrana, rivaroxabana, apixabana e edoxabana durante a cardioversão e uma abordagem prática com o manejo antitrombótico em diferentes cenários clínicos (cardioversão em pacientes com uso prévio de DOACs, cardioversão em pacientes com FA com duração maior ou menor que 48 horas sem anticoagulação)


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice with a prevalence of 1-2%, and is associated with an almost 5-fold increase in the risk of stroke compared to the general population. Anticoagulation is the best way to prevent thromboembolic events. Warfarin has been used for decades as a safe and effective drug, provided it is strictly controlled. In recent years, new classes of oral anticoagulants have been developed: direct thrombin inhibitors and factor Xa inhibitors, known as direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Both electrical and pharmacological cardioversion are associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events during the first month after the procedure (5-7%). However, with the use of anticoagulants, this rate is less than 1%. In this article, we will review the main scientific evidence related to the use of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban during cardioversion and a practical approach with antithrombotic management in different clinical scenarios (cardioversion of patients in previous use of DOACs, cardioversion of patients not using oral anticoagulants with episodes of AF longer or shorter than 48 h)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas , Fibrilação Atrial , Cardioversão Elétrica , Emergências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Fator Xa , Hemorragia , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Revisão , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Tromboembolia/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 267: 13-15, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR®) Database is commonly used for quality-improvement initiatives in North America, but little is known about the application of this tool in other regions of the world. METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted due to myocardial infarction (MI) and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from January 2012 until December 2015 in a Brazilian private cardiovascular hospital were included respectively in ACTION REGISTRY®-GWTG™ and CathPCI Registry®. Meetings including all hospital staff were performed quarterly to discuss every NCDR® report. Quality improvement initiatives were developed based on the reports which were also used for evaluation of changes after the interventions. The following indicators were considered a priority 1) Door-to-ECG and door-to-balloon (D2B) times; 2) PCI appropriateness; 3) length of stay; 4) delivery of guideline-based medication. Changes in the quality of care with respect to the over time were assessed using linear and logistic regression for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1.382 patients were included in the ACTION REGISTRY®-GWTG™ and 3.179 patients in the CathPCI Registry®. In the ACTION registry, the overall AMI performance composite of quality indicators improved along the 4 years from 95.0% to 99.6% (p for trend <0.001). The percentage of appropriate/uncertain PCI in acute and elective scenario increased along the years from 91.1% and 70.9% to 96.6% and 84.7%, respectively (p for trend <0.001). CONCLUSION: The present novel experience using the NCDR® registries as benchmarks to guide quality-improvement programs in an international site was associated with improvement in quality indicators.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(24): e11094, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS-related stroke is set to increase dramatically in coming decades. MetS is a complex disease that includes endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, ectopic obesity, and dyslipidaemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. One function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is the cholesterol-efflux pathway, which is the pathway where cholesterol is removed from macrophages within the arterial walls back into the bloodstream and out to the liver. As one of the key functions of HDL, their hypothesis was that if they could measure HDL-C-efflux capacity, they would have a better handle on the role of HDL in atherosclerosis. However, there are no systematic analyses or well-conducted meta-analyses to evaluate the relationship between HDL-C functionality and MetS. The aim of this study is to examine this association of HDL-C functionality with MetS in different ages and sex. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The update systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted using published studies that will be identified from electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). Studies that examined the association between HDL-C functionality and MetS; focused on cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies; were conducted among in adults aged 40 to 70 years; provided sufficient data for calculating odds ratio or relative risk with a 95% confidence interval; were published as original articles written in English or other languages; and have been published until January 2018 will be included. Study selection, data collection, quality assessment, and statistical syntheses will be conducted based on discussions among investigators. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was not required for this study because it was based on published studies. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO (CRD42018083465).


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(16): e0387, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS-related stroke is set to increase dramatically in coming decades. MetS is a complex disease that includes endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, ectopic obesity, and dyslipidaemia, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, there are no systematic analyses, or well-conducted meta-analyses to evaluate the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and (MetS). The aim of this study is to examine this association of EAT with MetS in different ages and sex. METHODS: The update systematic review, and meta-analysis will be conducted using published studies that will be identified from electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Studies that firstly, examined the association between EAT and MetS, secondly, focus on cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, thirdly, were conducted among in adults aged between 40 and 70 years, fourth, provided sufficient data for calculating ORs or relative risk with a 95% CI, fifth, were published as original articles written in English or other languages, and sixth, have been published until January year 2018 will be included. Study selection, data collection, quality assessment, and statistical syntheses will be conducted based on discussions among investigators. RESULTS: Ethics approval was not required for this study because it was based on published studies. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. This study will provide a high quality synthesis on the association of EAT and MetS. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence to assess whether there is a strong association of EAT and MetS, and its components.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Pericárdio/patologia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(15): e0116, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with HIV have been found to suffer from lipid abnormalities, including elevated levels of total and LDL-cholesterol as well as triglyceride levels. Abnormal lipid levels are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, which are significant causes of mortality among the general population. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to conduct a systematic review with network meta-analysis to compare the effects of statins classes on HIV patients. METHODS: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies published in English up to 31 December 2017, and which include direct and/or indirect evidence, will be included. Studies will be retrieved by searching four electronic databases and cross-referencing. Dual selection and abstraction of data will occur. The primary outcome will all-cause mortality, new event of acute myocardial infarction, stroke (hemorrhagic and ischemic), hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome and urgent revascularization procedures and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary outcomes will be assessment of the differences in change of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C). Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment instrument for RCTs and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology instrument for observational studies. Network meta-analysis will be performed using multivariate random-effects meta-regression models. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve will be used to provide a hierarchy of statins that reduce cardiovascular mortality in HIV patients. A revised version of the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB 2.0) will be used to assess the risk of bias in eligible RCTs. Results will be synthesized and analyzed using network meta-analysis (NMA). Overall strength of the evidence and publication bias will be evaluated. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis will also be performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Ethics approval was not required for this study because it was based on published studies. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. The evidence will determine which combination of interventions are most promising for current practice and further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO (CRD42017072996).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias , Infecções por HIV , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Adulto , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(15): e9862, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The metabolic syndrome is composed of several cardiovascular risk factors and has a high prevalence throughout the world. However, there are no systematic analyses or well-conducted meta-analyses to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and stroke. The aim of this study is to examine this association of metabolic syndrome with stroke in different ages and sex. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The update systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted using published studies that will be identified from electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Studies that examined the association between metabolic syndrome and stroke, had a longitudinal or prospective cohort design, were conducted among in adults aged 40 to 70 years, provided sufficient data for calculating ORs or relative risk with a 95% CI, were published as original articles written in English or other languages, and have been published until December 2017 will be included. Study selection, data collection, quality assessment, and statistical syntheses will be conducted based on discussions among investigators. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was not required for this study because it was based on published studies. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. The findings from this study could be useful for assessing metabolic syndrome risk factors in stroke, and determining approaches for prevention of stroke in the future.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estatística como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(17): e0273, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is now widely recognized as a multifactorial disease with outcomes that arise from complex factors such as plaque components, blood flow, and inflammation. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active fat depot, abundant in proinflammatory cytokines, and has been correlated with the extent and severity of carotid artery disease (CD). The locations most frequently affected by carotid atherosclerosis are the proximal internal carotid artery (ie, the origin) and the common carotid artery bifurcation. Progression of atheromatous plaque at the carotid bifurcation results in luminal narrowing, often accompanied by ulceration. However, there are no systematic analyses or well-conducted meta-analyses to evaluate the relationship between EAT and CD. The aim of this study is to examine this association of EAT with CD in different ages and sex. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted using published studies that will be identified from electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Studies that (1) examined the association between EAT and CD, (2) focus on cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies, (3) will conducted among in adults aged 40 to 70 years, (4) provided sufficient data for calculating ORs or relative risk with a 95% CI, (5) will published as original articles written in English or other languages, and (6) have been published until January 2018 will be included. Study selection, data collection, quality assessment and statistical syntheses will be conducted based on discussions among investigators. RESULTS: We propose the current protocol to evaluate the evaluation of EAT with ED. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will not need ethical approval, because it does not involve human beings. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was not required for this study because it was based on published studies. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO (CRD42018083458).


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Pericárdio/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
11.
JAMA ; 319(13): 1331-1340, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525821

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of loading doses of statins on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management remain uncertain. Objective: To determine if periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin decrease 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ACS and planned invasive management. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 53 sites in Brazil among 4191 patients with ACS evaluated with coronary angiography to proceed with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if anatomically feasible. Enrollment occurred between April 18, 2012, and October 6, 2017. Final follow-up for 30-day outcomes was on November 6, 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 2 loading doses of 80 mg of atorvastatin (n = 2087) or matching placebo (n = 2104) before and 24 hours after a planned PCI. All patients received 40 mg of atorvastatin for 30 days starting 24 hours after the second dose of study medication. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was MACE, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization through 30 days. Results: Among the 4191 patients (mean age, 61.8 [SD, 11.5] years; 1085 women [25.9%]) enrolled, 4163 (99.3%) completed 30-day follow-up. A total of 2710 (64.7%) underwent PCI, 333 (8%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 1144 (27.3%) had exclusively medical management. At 30 days, 130 patients in the atorvastatin group (6.2%) and 149 in the placebo group (7.1%) had a MACE (absolute difference, 0.85% [95% CI, -0.70% to 2.41%]; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11; P = .27). No cases of hepatic failure were reported; 3 cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported in the placebo group (0.1%) and 0 in the atorvastatin group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with ACS and planned invasive management with PCI, periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin did not reduce the rate of MACE at 30 days. These findings do not support the routine use of loading doses of atorvastatin among unselected patients with ACS and intended invasive management. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01448642.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia
12.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(3): f:186-l:194, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-875256

RESUMO

O uso de anticoagulantes tem papel essencial na prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA). Entretanto, esse tratamento pode ter consequências graves, como eventos hemorrágicos. Por este motivo, é importante classificar os pacientes quanto ao risco de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) e embolia sistêmica e identificar aqueles para os quais a terapia anticoagulante está indicada para prevenção desses eventos, assim como evitar o uso desse tratamento em pacientes de baixo risco. Os escores de risco de eventos tromboembólicos para pacientes com FA mais utilizados na prática clínica são CHADS2 e o CHA2DS2VASc, que apresentam um valor de estatística C entre 0,6 e 0,7, o que representa performance razoável. Para predizer o risco de eventos hemorrágicos, estão disponíveis os escores HEMORR2HAGES, HAS-BLED, ATRIA e ORBIT, com estatística C em torno de 0,6, ou seja, capacidade preditora modesta. Os escores usados para pacientes com FA são razoáveis na predição de risco de eventos isquêmicos e hemorrágicos, no entanto seu papel quanto à capacidade de guiar o tratamento é limitado. Os registros de prática clínica têm demonstrado que os pacientes com maior risco de AVC são os que recebem anticoagulante com menos frequência, o que configura um "paradoxo" de tratamento. Novos escores, que incluem fatores clínicos e biomarcadores e que já têm validação externa, deverão ajudar a comunidade médica nas decisões terapêuticas, fornecendo informações úteis adicionais para se atingir o maior benefício líquido: máxima redução de eventos isquêmicos à custa do menor risco de sangramento ao promover a anticoagulação em pacientes com FA


Anticoagulation therapy plays an essential role in preventing thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, this treatment can have severe consequences, such as hemorrhagic events. For this reason, it is important to classify patients according to their risk of stroke and systemic embolism, and to identify those patients for whom anticoagulation therapy is indicated, in order to prevent these events and avoid the use of this treatment in low-risk patients. The risks scores of thromboembolic events for patients with AF that are most used in clinical practice are CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc, which present C-statistics values of between 0.6 to 0.7, representing reasonable performance. To predict the risk of hemorrhagic events, the HEMORR2HAGES, HAS-BLED, ATRIA and ORBIT scores are available, with C-statistics of around 0.6, i.e. modest predicting capacity. The scores used for patients with AF are reasonable in predicting the risk of ischemic and bleeding events, but their role in terms of their capacity to guide the treatment is limited. Registries of clinical practice have shown that patients at higher risk for stroke are those that received anticoagulants with less frequency, leading to what is known as a treatment "paradox". New scores, which include clinical factors and biomarkers and have external validation, should help the medical community in the therapeutic decision-making process, providing useful additional information in order to achieve better net benefit: maximum reduction of isquemic events, with a lower risk of bleeding, while promoting anticoagulation in patients with AF


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Hemorragia/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/complicações , Tromboembolia/terapia , Fatores Etários , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Hipertensão/complicações , Pacientes , Curva ROC , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
13.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 72(2): 65-70, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28273238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. METHODS:: A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire's self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. RESULTS:: The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. CONCLUSION:: Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Interna/educação , Respiração Artificial , Autoavaliação , Brasil , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Clinics ; 72(2): 65-70, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-840041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. METHODS: A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire’s self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. RESULTS: The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. CONCLUSION: Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Medicina Interna/educação , Respiração Artificial , Autoavaliação , Brasil , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 107(2): 93-8, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27627639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A registry assessing the care of hypertensive patients in daily clinical practice in public and private centers in various Brazilian regions has not been conducted to date. Such analysis is important to elucidate the effectiveness of this care. OBJECTIVE: To document the current clinical practice for the treatment of hypertension with identification of the profile of requested tests, type of administered treatment, level of blood pressure (BP) control, and adherence to treatment. METHODS: National, observational, prospective, and multicenter study that will include patients older than 18 years with hypertension for at least 4 weeks, following up in public and private centers and after signing a consent form. The study will exclude patients undergoing dialysis, hospitalized in the previous 30 days, with class III or IV heart failure, pregnant or nursing, with severe liver disease, stroke or acute myocardial infarction in the past 30 days, or with diseases with a survival prognosis < 1 year. Evaluations will be performed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. The parameters that will be evaluated include anthropometric data, lifestyle habits, BP levels, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome, and adherence to treatment. The primary outcomes will be hospitalization due to hypertensive crisis, cardiocirculatory events, and cardiovascular death, while secondary outcomes will be hospitalization for heart failure and requirement of dialysis. A subgroup analysis of 15% of the sample will include noninvasive central pressure evaluation at baseline and study end. The estimated sample size is 3,000 individuals for a prevalence of 5%, sample error of 2%, and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The results will be presented after the final evaluation, which will occur at the end of a 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The analysis of this registry will improve the knowledge and optimize the treatment of hypertension in Brazil, as a way of modifying the prognosis of cardiovascular disease in the country.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Brasil , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(2): 93-98, Aug. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-794561

RESUMO

Abstract Background: A registry assessing the care of hypertensive patients in daily clinical practice in public and private centers in various Brazilian regions has not been conducted to date. Such analysis is important to elucidate the effectiveness of this care. Objective: To document the current clinical practice for the treatment of hypertension with identification of the profile of requested tests, type of administered treatment, level of blood pressure (BP) control, and adherence to treatment. Methods: National, observational, prospective, and multicenter study that will include patients older than 18 years with hypertension for at least 4 weeks, following up in public and private centers and after signing a consent form. The study will exclude patients undergoing dialysis, hospitalized in the previous 30 days, with class III or IV heart failure, pregnant or nursing, with severe liver disease, stroke or acute myocardial infarction in the past 30 days, or with diseases with a survival prognosis < 1 year. Evaluations will be performed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. The parameters that will be evaluated include anthropometric data, lifestyle habits, BP levels, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome, and adherence to treatment. The primary outcomes will be hospitalization due to hypertensive crisis, cardiocirculatory events, and cardiovascular death, while secondary outcomes will be hospitalization for heart failure and requirement of dialysis. A subgroup analysis of 15% of the sample will include noninvasive central pressure evaluation at baseline and study end. The estimated sample size is 3,000 individuals for a prevalence of 5%, sample error of 2%, and 95% confidence interval. Results: The results will be presented after the final evaluation, which will occur at the end of a 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: The analysis of this registry will improve the knowledge and optimize the treatment of hypertension in Brazil, as a way of modifying the prognosis of cardiovascular disease in the country.


Resumo Fundamento: Ainda não foi realizado um registro brasileiro para avaliar, na prática clínica diária, o atendimento a pacientes hipertensos tanto em serviços públicos quanto privados distribuídos pelas diversas regiões do país. Este conhecimento é importante como forma de verificar a efetividade deste atendimento. Objetivo: Documentar a prática clínica vigente para o tratamento da hipertensão arterial, através do conhecimento do perfil dos exames realizados, do tipo de tratamento recebido, do nível de controle da pressão arterial (PA) e da adesão ao tratamento. Métodos: Estudo nacional, observacional, prospectivo e multicêntrico que incluirá pacientes > 18 anos, hipertensos há ≥ 4 semanas, em acompanhamento em serviços públicos e privados e com assinatura do consentimento. Serão excluídos pacientes em diálise, internados nos últimos 30 dias, com insuficiência cardíaca classe III ou IV, gravidez ou amamentação, hepatopatia grave, acidente vascular cerebral ou infarto agudo nos 30 dias anteriores e doenças com prognóstico de sobrevida < 1 ano. As avaliações serão realizadas ao início e final do estudo, após acompanhamento por 1 ano. Parâmetros a serem avaliados incluirão dados antropométricos, hábitos de vida, PA, perfil lipídico, síndrome metabólica e adesão ao tratamento. Os desfechos primários serão internação por crise hipertensiva, evento cardiocirculatório e óbito cardiovascular, e os desfechos secundários serão internação por insuficiência cardíaca e necessidade de diálise. Uma análise de subgrupo avaliará a pressão central de forma não invasiva em 15% da amostra no início e final do estudo. A amostra estimada é de 3.000 indivíduos para prevalência de 5%, erro amostral de 2% e intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: Os resultados serão apresentados após a avaliação final que ocorrerá quando encerrado 1 ano de seguimento. Conclusão: A análise deste registro trará melhor conhecimento sobre o tratamento da hipertensão no Brasil e possibilitará a otimização do mesmo, como forma de interferir no prognóstico da doença cardiovascular em nosso meio.

17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 13(4): 269-272, out-dez 2015. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-785265

RESUMO

Paciente masculino, 57 anos, hipertenso, etilista, ex-tabagista, com quadro anterior de acidente vascular encefálico por aneurisma em artéria cerebral média em 1998. No ano de 2013, com sintomas de cansaço e mialgias, pensava estar com dengue, não suportando ficar de pé devido às dores em membros inferiores. Concomitantemente, apresentou paralisia facial central e perda da força motora em membro inferior direito, sendo internado com diagnóstico de acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico. Constatou-se também isquemia subepicárdica lateral alta ao eletrocardiograma, apesar de o paciente se apresentar oligossintomático sob o ponto de vista cardiovascular, sendo submetido a diversas investigações angiográficas e angiotomográficas, possibilitando o diagnóstico do aneurisma de aorta abdominal infrarrenal silencioso. As inespecificidades e o quadro clínico assintomático da doença são dificuldades comumente encontradas no diagnóstico, tornando-se fundamental a utilização de técnicas complementares de alta complexidade para definição do diagnóstico por imagem. São essenciais as atualizações e pesquisas sobre o presente tema, aumentando a acurácia e a precocidade do diagnóstico, e diminuindo, portanto, a morbimortalidade dos pacientes portadores de aneurisma de aorta abdominal.


Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an irreversible aortic dilatation below renal arteries, usually, asymptomatic, showing high morbidity and mortality, becoming relevant this clinical report. Abdominal aortic aneurysm is particularly difficult to diagnose. This study aims to describe in detail the diagnostic process in several levels: syndromic functional, anatomical and etiological and commonly difficulties encountered. Male, 57 year-old, hypertensive, alcoholic and smoker with a previous history of stroke due to middle cerebral artery aneurysm in 1998. In the year 2013 with symptoms of fatigue and muscle pain, thought to have dengue, he wasn't supporting to stand up due to a pain in the lower limbs (LL). Simultaneously he suffered central facial paralysis and loss of motor strength in the right leg. Therefore he was hospitalized with a diagnosis of a new stroke. He showed also high lateral subepicardial ischemia on electrocardiogram, although he had a few atipical cardiovascular symptoms. The patient was submitted to diverse angiographic and angiotomographies investigations, allowing the precise diagnosis of a silent infrarenal Abdominal aortic aneurysm . The authors present a clinical case of infrarenal Abdominal aortic aneurysm, reporting diferentt clinical procedures. The report also discusses the endovascular therapeutic approach and the clinical screening and diagnostic methods. The unspecific and asymptomatic clinical picture of this disease were commonly found difficulties in diagnosis, becoming essential the use of complementary techniques of high definition for diagnostic imaging. Updates are required and research on this topic increasing the accuracy for an early diagnosis and treatment, reducing therefore the morbidity and mortality of these patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hipertensão
18.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 69(9): 601-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25318091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil and to evaluate their quality of life. METHODS: Both a semi-structured questionnaire with 57 questions and the SF-36 questionnaire were sent to research departments within SAMU in the Brazilian state capitals, the Federal District and inland towns in Brazil. RESULTS: Of a total of 902 physicians, including 644 (71.4%) males, 533 (59.1%) were between 30 and 45 years of age and 562 (62.4%) worked in a state capital. Regarding education level, 45.1% had graduated less than five years before and only 43% were specialists recognized by the Brazilian Medical Association. Regarding training, 95% did not report any specific training for their work at SAMU. The main weaknesses identified were psychiatric care and surgical emergencies in 57.2 and 42.9% of cases, respectively; traumatic pediatric emergencies, 48.9%; and medical emergencies, 42.9%. As for procedure-related skills, the physicians reported difficulties in pediatric advanced support (62.4%), airway surgical access (45.6%), pericardiocentesis (64.4%) and thoracentesis (29.9%). Difficulties in using an artificial ventilator (43.3%) and in transcutaneous pacing (42.2%) were also reported. Higher percentages of young physicians, aged 25-30 years (26.7 vs 19.0%; p<0.01), worked exclusively in prehospital care (18.0 vs 7.7%; p<0.001), with workloads >48 h per week (12.8 vs 8.6%; p<0.001), and were non-specialists with the shortest length of service (<1 year) at SAMU (30.1 vs 18.2%; p<0.001) who were hired without having to pass public service exams (i.e., for a temporary job) (61.8 vs 46.2%; p<0.001). Regarding quality of life, the pain domain yielded the worst result among physicians at SAMU. CONCLUSIONS: The doctors in this sample were young and within a few years of graduation, and they had no specific training in prehospital emergencies. Deficiencies were mostly found in pediatrics and psychiatry, with specific deficiencies in the handling of essential equipment and in the skills necessary to adequately attend to prehospital emergencies. A disrespectful labor scenario was also found; the evaluation of quality of life showed a notable presence of pain on the SF-36 among physicians at SAMU and especially among doctors who had worked for a longer length of time at SAMU.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Brasil , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medição da Dor , Fatores de Tempo , Carga de Trabalho
19.
Clinics ; 69(9): 601-607, 9/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-725407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil and to evaluate their quality of life. METHODS: Both a semi-structured questionnaire with 57 questions and the SF-36 questionnaire were sent to research departments within SAMU in the Brazilian state capitals, the Federal District and inland towns in Brazil. RESULTS: Of a total of 902 physicians, including 644 (71.4%) males, 533 (59.1%) were between 30 and 45 years of age and 562 (62.4%) worked in a state capital. Regarding education level, 45.1% had graduated less than five years before and only 43% were specialists recognized by the Brazilian Medical Association. Regarding training, 95% did not report any specific training for their work at SAMU. The main weaknesses identified were psychiatric care and surgical emergencies in 57.2 and 42.9% of cases, respectively; traumatic pediatric emergencies, 48.9%; and medical emergencies, 42.9%. As for procedure-related skills, the physicians reported difficulties in pediatric advanced support (62.4%), airway surgical access (45.6%), pericardiocentesis (64.4%) and thoracentesis (29.9%). Difficulties in using an artificial ventilator (43.3%) and in transcutaneous pacing (42.2%) were also reported. Higher percentages of young physicians, aged 25-30 years (26.7 vs 19.0%; p<0.01), worked exclusively in prehospital care (18.0 vs 7.7%; p<0.001), with workloads >48 h per week (12.8 vs 8.6%; p<0.001), and were non-specialists with the shortest length of service (<1 year) at SAMU (30.1 vs 18.2%; p<0.001) who were hired without having to pass public service exams* (i.e., for a temporary job) (61.8 vs 46.2%; p<0.001). Regarding quality of life, the pain domain yielded the worst result among physicians at SAMU. CONCLUSIONS: The doctors in this sample were young and within a few years of graduation, and they had no specific training in prehospital emergencies. Deficiencies ...


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação no Emprego , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medição da Dor , Fatores de Tempo , Carga de Trabalho
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 12(1)jan.-mar. 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-707352

RESUMO

Weaning from mechanical ventilation is a challenge. Its prolongation is related to increased mortality. Studies have demonstrated that traditional objective criteria used are notable to shorten this time for discontinuation of mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study is to review the strategies that have been proposed and that can be used by the internist to shorten the weaning process. The judicious and systematized clinical judgment in the weaning process seems to be critical to decrease the time of weaning from mechanical ventilation. A cause of failure in weaning process should be systematically reviewed by the internist (airway and respiratory tract dysfunction, cardiac, neurological, endocrine and metabolic dysfunction). A protocol for weaning and sedation also seems crucial to shorten weaning. For the weaning process, bedside clinical follow-up by a multidisciplinary team is essential, taking various aspects into account, not only traditional objective criteria. With this approach strategy it is possible to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation.


O desmame da ventilação mecânica é um desafio. O seu prolongamento está relacionado ao aumento da mortalidade. Estudos têm demonstrado que os critérios objetivos tradicionais utilizados não são capazes de reduzir este tempo para interrupção da ventilação mecânica. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar as estratégias que têm sido propostas e que podem ser usadas pelo clínico para encurtar o processo de desmame. O julgamento clínico criterioso e sistematizado no processo de desmame parece ser fundamental para diminuir o tempo de desmame da ventilação mecânica. A causa da falha no processo de desmame deve ser sistematicamente revista pelo clínico (disfunções do trato respiratório, da via aérea, cardiológicas, neurológicas, endocrinológicas e disfunções metabólicas). Um protocolo para o desmame e sedação também parece crucial para reduzir o desmame. Para o processo de desmame, um acompanhamento clínico a beira do leito por uma equipe multidisciplinar é essencial, levando em consideração vários aspectos, não apenas critérios objetivos tradicionais. Com esta estratégia de abordagem é possível reduzir a duração da ventilação mecânica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Respiração Artificial , Desmame do Respirador , Medicina de Emergência
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