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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472061

RESUMO

Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the triglyceride/glucose index (TyG index) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Additionally, we compared the ability of the TyG index and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) index and the combination of these two indices (TyG index plus TG/HDL-c) to predict insulin resistance (IR) in South American overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 345 overweight adolescents aged 10-18 years, from both the sexes. The TyG index was calculated as Ln (fasting triglycerides [mg/dL] × fasting glucose [mg/dL])/2, while the TG/HDL-c index was calculated by the division of TG (mg/dL) by HDL-c (mg/dL). HOMA-IR was calculated with the formula: fasting insulin (FI) (U/mL) × fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5. The cut-off point used to determine the presence of IR was HOMA-IR ≥ 3.16. Results The TyG index showed a positive correlation with HOMA-IR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the TyG index was 0.74, indicating good sensitivity (75.7%) and specificity (67.4%). Furthermore, the TyG index cut-off point of >4.44 was established for IR prediction in this population. Conclusions The TyG index is a simple and cost-effective surrogate marker of IR in South American overweight children and adolescents. Moreover, due to its good accessibility, it can be used in large epidemiological studies.

2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 25(4): 322-327, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013656

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Studies of association between obesity and genetic factors have demonstrated a significant contribution of polymorphisms related to body fat distribution and subclinical inflammatory process. Objective: To investigate the association between genotypes of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene and indicators of adiposity, inflammatory markers, metabolic parameters and parameters of physical fitness in overweight adolescents. Methods: A total of 44 male and female adolescents, aged between 13 and 17 years, with positive clinical diagnosis of overweight, were divided into two groups according to the Gln27Glu polymorphism genotypes of the ADRB2 gene: a) Group of carriers of the 27Glu allele (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n = 22); b) Group of non-carriers of the 27Glu allele (Gln27Gln) (n = 22). Both groups were evaluated for body composition, sexual maturation, cardiorespiratory fitness variables and indicators of muscle strength. Basal glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and inflammatory profile were measured. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposities were evaluated by ultrasonography. Genotyping of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Results: The genotype frequency found was: Gln/Gln (n = 22) (50.0%), Gln/Glu (n = 18) (41.0%) and Glu/Glu (n = 4) %). The frequency of the 27Glu allele was 29.5%. The group of adolescent carriers of the 27Glu allele of the ADRB2 gene presented higher mean adiposity indicators (abdominal circumference, trunk fat mass and visceral fat), as well as lower IL-10 concentrations when compared to non-carriers. Conclusions: The 27Glu allele was associated with adiposity indicators in overweight adolescents, while subcutaneous abdominal fat exhibited an inverse relationship with inflammatory variables and maximum oxygen uptake, which may result in more damage to health. Level of evidence III; Case-control study.


RESUMO Introdução: Estudos de associação entre a obesidade e fatores genéticos têm demonstrado a significativa contribuição de polimorfismos relacionados à distribuição de gordura corporal e processo inflamatório subclínico. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre os genótipos do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2 e indicadores de adiposidade, marcadores inflamatórios, parâmetros metabólicos e de aptidão física em adolescentes com excesso de peso. Métodos: Participaram 44 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 13 e 17 anos, com diagnóstico clínico positivo de excesso de peso, divididos em dois grupos conforme os genótipos do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2: a) Grupo de portadores do alelo 27Glu (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n=22); b) Grupo de não portadores do alelo 27Glu (Gln27Gln) (n=22). Ambos os grupos foram avaliados quanto à composição corporal, maturação sexual, variáveis de aptidão cardiorrespiratória e indicadores de força muscular. Foram dosados glicemia e insulina basais, perfil lipídico e perfil inflamatório. As adiposidades abdominais subcutânea e visceral foram avaliadas através de ultrassonografia. A genotipagem do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2 foi realizada através do ensaio de discriminação alélica Taqman. Resultados: A frequência genotípica encontrada foi: Gln/Gln (n=22) (50,0%), Gln/Glu (n=18) (41,0%) e Glu/Glu (n=4) (9,0%). A frequência do alelo do 27Glu foi de 29,5%. O grupo de adolescentes portadores do alelo 27Glu do gene ADRB2 apresentou maiores médias de indicadores de adiposidade (circunferência abdominal, massa gorda troncular e gordura visceral), assim como menores concentrações de IL-10 quando comparados aos não portadores. Conclusões: O alelo 27Glu apresentou associação com os indicadores de adiposidade em adolescentes com excesso de peso, assim como a gordura abdominal subcutânea demonstrou relação inversa com as variáveis inflamatórias e o consumo máximo de oxigênio, podendo resultar em maiores prejuízos à saúde. Nível de evidência III; Estudo de caso-controle.


RESUMEN Introducción: Estudios de asociación entre la obesidad y factores genéticos han demostrado la significativa contribución de polimorfismos relacionados a la distribución de grasa corporal y proceso inflamatorio subclínico. Objetivo: Investigar la asociación entre los genotipos del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2 e indicadores de adiposidad, marcadores inflamatorios, parámetros metabólicos y de aptitud física en adolescentes con exceso de peso. Métodos: Participaron 44 adolescentes, de ambos sexos, con edad entre 13 y 17 años, con diagnóstico clínico positivo de exceso de peso, divididos en dos grupos según los genotipos del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2: a) Grupo de portadores del alelo 27Glu (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n = 22); b) Grupo de no portadores del alelo 27Glu (Gln27Gln) (n = 22). Ambos grupos fueron evaluados cuanto a la composición corporal, madurez sexual, variables de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria e indicadores de fuerza muscular. Fueron dosificadas glucemia e insulina basales, perfil lipídico y perfil inflamatorio. Las adiposidades abdominales subcutánea y visceral fueron evaluadas a través de ultrasonografía. El genotipado del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2 fue realizado a través del ensayo de discriminación alélica Taqman. Resultados: La frecuencia genotípica encontrada fue: Gln/Gln (n = 22) (50,0%), Gln/Glu (n = 18) (41,0%) y Glu/Glu (n = 4) (9,0%). La frecuencia del alelo del 27Glu fue del 29,5%. El grupo de adolescentes portadores del alelo 27Glu del gen ADRB2 presentó mayores promedios de indicadores de adiposidad (circunferencia abdominal, masa grasa troncular y grasa visceral), así como menores concentraciones de IL-10, en comparación con los no portadores. Conclusiones: El alelo 27Glu presentó asociación con los indicadores de adiposidad en adolescentes con exceso de peso, así como la grasa abdominal subcutánea demostró relación inversa con las variables inflamatorias y el consumo máximo de oxígeno, lo que puede resultar en mayores perjuicios a la salud. Nivel de Evidencia III; Estudio de caso-control.

3.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(3): 239-246, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844760

RESUMO

Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and pubertal stages have been related to many health outcomes, including obesity and adipocytokines. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the moderator role of CRF and pubertal stage in the relationship between adiposity and adipocytokines in girls. Method This cross-sectional study was performed with 42 pre-pubertal girls aged from 7 to 11 years and 54 post-pubertal girls aged from 13 to 17 years. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of leptin and adiponectin, and then the leptin/adiponectin ratio (L/A ratio) was calculated. CRF, anthropometric and body composition indicators were assessed. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics and several linear regression models were used. The moderation analysis was tested using the PROCESS macro. Results An interaction between body mass index (BMI) and CRF (ß: -0.70; confidence interval [CI]: -1.29, -0.12), as well as between BMI and pubertal stage (ß: 0.79; CI: 0.28, 1.30) with leptin, was found. Regarding the L/A ratio, an interaction was found only in BMI × CRF (ß: -0.56; CI: -1.06, -0.06). Using a combined interaction (CRF and pubertal stage), the results showed a positive association between BMI with leptin and L/A ratio only in low CRF, pre-pubertal and post-pubertal stages. Conclusion This study suggests a protective role of high levels of CRF in the relationship between BMI and adipocytokines. Despite the effect of pubertal stage, the results suggest that youth should be engaged in physical activity in order to improve CRF levels and consequently improve cardiometabolic health.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Puberdade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Puberdade/sangue
4.
Qual Life Res ; 28(7): 1803-1812, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790154

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of a 16-week multidisciplinary obesity treatment program (MOTP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with weight excess. In addition, we verified a possible association between changes on HRQoL and anthropometric, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) parameters. METHODS: Two hundred four adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years were distributed in control group (CG) and intervention group (IG). They underwent a 16-week MOTP composed by nutritional, psychological, and health-related physical activity group sessions. Moreover, they performed physical exercise sessions three times per week during the whole 16-week program. Data on HRQoL, body composition, CRF and anthropometry were collected using standard protocols and validated questionnaires. RESULTS: The MOTP promoted significant enhancements in all HRQoL domains, except for the school domain in IG. Furthermore, positive correlations between HRQoL and body weight (BW), body fat (BF), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) z-score were verified. Higher scores of HRQoL might be achieved by improving these variables. CONCLUSIONS: The 16-week MOTP was effective to improve HRQoL in adolescents with weight excess. This improvement has a positive correlation with enhancements in BW, BMI z-score, WC, and BF. Nevertheless, these findings have not reached a consensus on literature and still need to be further enlightened.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
7.
Nutrition ; 60: 19-24, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype and associated factors in South American adolescents who are overweight. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 340 overweight adolescent boys and girls between 10 and 18 y of age. The participants were classified as MHO according to two definitions: absence of any metabolic syndrome component and absence of insulin resistance (IR). The MHO phenotype-associated factors analyzed were age, sex, nutritional status, waist circumference (WC), body composition, metabolic profile, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of MHO using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The prevalence of MHO in South American overweight adolescents was 49.4% and 55.9% according to MS and IR criteria, respectively. Sex and WC were predictors of the MHO phenotype, considering MS classification criterion. For the IR criterion, age, WC, and triacylglycerol levels were independent predictors of MHO in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory fitness did not predict MHO phenotype in any of the criteria used. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MHO in South American overweight adolescents was high and varied according to the definition used. Age, sex, WC, and triacylglycerolslevel were independent predictors of the MHO phenotype in this population.

9.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(5): 361-365, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977828

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity in adolescents has increased worldwide, and is generally associated with poor eating habits and physical inactivity. Objective: To compare absolute and relative muscle strength with body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM) and localized FFM of upper and lower limbs among obese and non-obese adolescents. Methods: BM, height and body mass index (BMI) were verified in 39 male adolescents (aged 13-17 years). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and maximal strength of upper and lower limbs was estimated by a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test. Participants were divided into three groups: eutrophic (normal weight) (n=11), overweight (n=14), and obese (n=14). One-way ANOVA was used to compare the variables, followed by a Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for relevant correlations and multiple linear regression to verify the influence of anthropometric variables, body composition and muscle strength of upper and lower limbs. Results: Obese and overweight adolescents had absolute muscle strength values similar to those of the eutrophic adolescents, which were lower when corrected by BM (p<0.001). However, muscle strength related to FFM and localized FFM were similar between groups in both upper and lower limbs. Linear regression showed that BMI explained 59% of the variation in absolute muscle strength of the lower limbs (β=0.59, p<0.05), FFM explained 84% of the variation in absolute muscle strength of the upper limbs (β=0.84, p<0.01) and 68% of the lower limbs (β=0.68; p<0.01), while localized FM was inversely associated in the lower limbs (β=−0.53, p<0.05). Conclusion: Muscle strength of lower and upper limbs, when corrected by localized FFM, does not distinguish between overweight and normal weight adolescents, indicating that obesity does not have a negative effect on generation of muscle strength in obese boys. Level of Evidence III; Case-control study.


RESUMO Introdução: A obesidade em adolescentes tem aumentado em todo o mundo, geralmente associada a hábitos alimentares inadequados e inatividade física. Objetivo: Comparar a força muscular absoluta e relativa com a massa corporal (MC), massa livre de gordura (MLG) e MLG localizada dos membros superiores e inferiores entre adolescentes obesos e não obesos. Métodos: Em 39 adolescentes do sexo masculino (entre 13 e 17 anos) foram verificados MC, estatura e índice de massa corporal (IMC). A composição corporal foi medida por absorciometria de raios-x de dupla energia (DXA) e a força máxima de membros superiores e inferiores foi estimada por um teste de repetição máxima (1RM). Os participantes foram divididos em três grupos: eutrófico (n = 11), sobrepeso (n = 14) e obeso (n = 14). Utilizou-se o teste One-way ANOVA para comparar as variáveis, seguido de teste post hoc de Bonferroni para comparações múltiplas, para as correlações relevantes, usou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e a regressão linear múltipla foi usada para verificar a influência das variáveis antropométricas, composição corporal e a força muscular dos membros superiores e inferiores. Resultados: Os adolescentes obesos e com sobrepeso tinham força muscular absoluta similar aos dos eutróficos, sendo menores quando corrigidas pela MC (p < 0,001). Porém, a força muscular relacionada com a MLG e a MLG localizada foi semelhante entre os grupos, tanto em membros superiores como inferiores. A regressão linear mostrou que o IMC explicou 59% da variação da força muscular absoluta dos membros inferiores (β = 0,59, p < 0,05), a MLG explicou 84% da variação da força muscular absoluta dos membros superiores (β = 0,84, p < 0,01) e 68% dos membros inferiores (β = 0,68; p < 0,01), enquanto a massa gorda localizada foi inversamente associada nos membros inferiores (β = −0,53; p < 0,05). Conclusão: A força muscular dos membros superiores e inferiores, quando corrigida pela MLG localizada, não diferencia adolescentes com sobrepeso e eutróficos, indicando que a obesidade não afeta negativamente a geração de força muscular em rapazes obesos. Nível de Evidência III; Estudo de caso-controle.


RESUMEN Introducción: La obesidad en adolescentes ha aumentado en todo el mundo, generalmente asociada a malos hábitos alimenticios y falta de actividad física. Objetivo: Comparar fuerza muscular absoluta y relativa de la masa corporal (MC), MLG y MLG localizada en miembros inferiores y superiores entre adolescentes obesos y no obesos. Métodos: Se verificó en 39 adolescentes hombres (entre 13 y 17 años) sus MC, estaturas e índices de masa corporal (IMC). La composición corporal fue mensurada por absorciometría de rayos-x de doble energía (DXA) y el test de repetición máxima para estimar la fuerza máxima de miembros superiores e inferiores, divididos en tres grupos: 11 eutróficos, 14 con sobrepeso y 14 obesos. Se usó ANOVA (one way) para comparación de variables, seguido de Post Hoc de Bonferroni para comparaciones múltiples, correlaciones por el coeficiente de correlación Pearson y Regresión Lineal Múltiple para la influencia de variables antropométricas, composición corporal y fuerza muscular de miembros inferiores y superiores. Resultados: Obesos y con sobrepeso presentaron valores de fuerza muscular absoluta similares a los eutróficos, pero menor si se corrigen por MC (p<0,001). Sin embargo, la fuerza muscular relativa a MLG y MLG localizada fue semejante. En regresión lineal, el IMC explicó el 59% de variación de fuerza muscular absoluta en miembros inferiores (β=0,59, p<0,05), MLG 84% de variación de fuerza muscular absoluta en miembros superiores (β=0,84, p<0,01) y 68% en miembros inferiores (β=0,68; p<0,01), mientras que la MG localizada fue inversamente asociada a los superiores (β=−0,53; p<0,05). Conclusión: La fuerza muscular de miembros superiores e inferiores, cuando es corregida por la MLG localizada, no se diferencia en adolescentes con sobrepeso y eutróficos, indicando que la obesidad no afecta negativamente la generación de fuerza muscular en jóvenes obesos. Nivel de Evidencia III; Estudio caso-control.

10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(4): 425-431, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954631

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To analyze the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, maximal fat oxidation rates and the lipid profile levels in non-obese adolescents. Methods: 72 schoolchildren, of both genders, aged between 11 and 17 years, participated in the study. The anthropometric and body composition variables, in addition to total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, insulin, and basal glycemia, were evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of the polymorphism: non-carriers of the Arg64 allele, i.e., homozygous (Trp64Trp: n = 54), and carriers of the Arg64 allele (Trp64Arg + Arg64Arg: n = 18), in which the frequency of the Arg64 allele was 15.2%. The maximal oxygen uptake and peak of oxygen uptake during exercise were obtained through the symptom-limited, submaximal treadmill test. Maximal fat oxidation was determined according to the ventilatory ratio proposed in Lusk's table. Results: Adolescents carrying the less frequent allele (Trp64Arg and Arg64Arg) had higher LDL-c levels (p = 0.031) and lower maximal fat oxidation rates (p = 0.038) when compared with non-carriers (Trp64Trp). Conclusions: Although the physiological processes related to lipolysis and lipid metabolism are complex, the presence of the Arg 64 allele was associated with lower rates of FATMAX during aerobic exercise, as well as with higher levels of LDL-c in adolescents.


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre o polimorfismo Trp64Arg do gene ADRB3, as taxas de oxidação máxima de gorduras e as concentrações do perfil lipídico em adolescentes não obesos. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 72 escolares, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 11 e 17 anos. Foram avaliadas as variáveis antropométricas e de composição corporal, além do colesterol total, lipoproteina de alta densidade, lipoproteina de baixa densidade, triglicerídeos; insulina e glicemia basal. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, segundo a presença ou não do polimorfismo: não portadores do alelo Arg64, ou seja, homozigotos (Trp64Trp: n = 54) e portadores do alelo Arg64 (Trp64Arg + Arg64Arg: n = 18), em que a frequência do alelo Arg64 foide 15,2%. O consumo máximo de oxigênio e pico de consumo máximo de oxigênio durante o exercício foram obtidos por meio do teste aeróbio submáximo de sintoma limitado em esteira. A oxidação máxima de gorduras foi determinada de acordo com a razão de trocas ventilatórias propostas na Tabela de Lusk. Resultados: Os adolescentes portadores do alelo menos frequente (Trp64Arg e Arg64Arg) apresentaram maiores concentrações de lipoproteina de baixa densidade (p = 0,031) e menores taxasde oxidação máxima de gorduras (p = 0,038) quando comparados aos não portadores (Trp64Trp). Conclusões: Embora os processos fisiológicos relacionados à lipólise e ao metabolismo de lipídeos sejam complexos, a presença do alelo Arg64 associou-se a menores taxas de FATMAX durante exercício aeróbio, bem como maiores níveis de lipoproteina de baixa densidade em adolescentes.

11.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 20(4): 395-405, July-Aug. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-958379

RESUMO

Abstract A systematic review of the prevalence of Active Play in Brazilian children and adolescents was performed. Only fully available scientific papers that measured Active Play or leisure time physical activity independently from other types of physical activity in Brazilian children and/or adolescents were considered for inclusion. The search for potential articles was performed on the following electronic databases: Pubmed/Medline, Web of Science, Bireme, Scielo and Scopus. Initially, 63 papers met the eligibility criteria. However, after deeply analyzed, seven studies remained and were included in the present review. The overall prevalence of Active Play was 36%, in which varied from 27.2% to 79.3%. Boys presented a prevalence of 47%, ranging from 39,1% to 79.9%, while the prevalence in girls reached 26%, varying from 13.9% to 78.7%. Although the prevalence of Active Play in Brazil in not satisfactory, the potential to present a reliable data regarding this theme should be highlighted. In agreement with some other studies, boys presented a higher prevalence of physical activity than girls. Also, any socioeconomic pattern regarding the prevalence of Active Play in children and adolescents was observed when the results from this study were compared to other studies developed in other countries from several socioeconomic status. The Active Play should be further investigated individually, as a pivotal component of physical activity, as well as its impact on physical inactivity-related comorbidities.


Resumo Foi realizada Revisão sistemática acerca da prevalência de brincadeiras ativas em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. Apenas trabalhos científicos totalmente disponíveis que mediram a atividade física praticada como brincadeira ou lazer em crianças e/ou adolescentes brasileiros foram considerados para inclusão. A busca por artigos foi realizada nas seguintes bases de dados eletrônicas: PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Bireme, Scielo e Scopus. Inicialmente, 63 artigos preencheram os critérios de elegibilidade, e após análise minuciosa, sete estudos foram incluídos na presente revisão. A prevalência geral de brincadeiras ativas foi de 36%, variando de 27,2% a 79,3%. Os meninos apresentaram prevalência de 47%, variando de 39,1% a 79,9%, enquanto a prevalência nas meninas chegou a 26%, variando de 13,9% a78,7%. Embora no Brasil essa prevalência não seja satisfatória, destaca-se o potencial de apresentar dados relevantes sobre esta temática. Corroborando com outros estudos, os meninos apresentaram maior prevalência de atividade física como brincadeira ou lazer que as meninas. Além disso, não foi encontrado um padrão socioeconômico em relação à prevalência de brincadeiras ativas em crianças e adolescentes quando os resultados deste estudo foram comparados com outros estudos desenvolvidos em outros países de diferentes condições socioeconômicas. Portanto, brincadeiras ativas devem ser investigadas individualmente, como um componente essencial da atividade física, bem como seu impacto nas comorbidades relacionadas à inatividade física.


Assuntos
Criança , Adolescente , Atividades de Lazer
12.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 20(4): 517-531, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-958384

RESUMO

Abstract The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide, no mattering age groups and socioeconomic status. In Brazil, it is still unclear the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents, since most Brazilian studies have only verified regional prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the scientific production regarding the prevalence of weight excess in Brazilian children and adolescents. A search in the relevant electronic databases Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs, Scielo and BVS was performed. After analyzing 61 studies, the overall prevalence was 25.5%. When sample was stratified weight excess degree, a prevalence of 17% and 11.6% for overweight and obesity were observed, respectively. Analyzing differences by sex, boys presented higher prevalence of overall weight excess (e.g., 26.4% vs 23.5%), overweight (17% vs 16%) and obesity (11.9% vs 9.1%) than girls. With respect to Brazilian regions and its differences, individuals from southern presented the highest prevalence of overall weight excess (33.2%) and overweight (20.1%). The southeastern region showed the highest prevalence of obesity (18.2%). The results obtained in the current study indicate that Brazil presents a scenario of crescent increasing on the prevalence of weight excess. These results are in accordance with studies from other countries, and reinforce the increase of the overall weight excess prevalence in Brazilian children and adolescents, highlighting the increasing of obesity rates, since it is a more concerning condition than overweight. Therefore, preventive measures to reduce weight excess increase, as well as treatment programs aiming to tackle obesity in childhood should be public health system top priority.


Resumo A prevalência da obesidade tem aumentado em todo o mundo em todas as faixas etárias e níveis socioeconômicos. No Brasil, ainda é incerto a prevalência de obesidade em crianças e adolescentes devido a maioria dos estudos serem de características regionais.Portanto,o propósito do presente estudo foi analisar a produção científica referente à prevalência de excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, WEB of Science, LILACS, Scielo e BVS.Foram analisados 61 estudos, sendo identificado 17% de sobrepeso e 11,6% de obesidade.As prevalências de excesso de peso (26,4% vs 23,5%), sobrepeso (17% vs 16%) e obesidade (11,9% vs 9,1%) foram maiores entre os meninos comparados as meninas, respectivamente. As crianças e os adolescentes da Região Sul apresentaram maior prevalência de excesso de peso (33,2%) e sobrepeso (20,1%), e as do Sudeste maior prevalência de obesidade (18,2%). Nossa análise indicou que o Brasil apresenta um quadro de prevalência crescente de excesso de peso, similar ao de outros países.Os resultados reforçam o aumento da prevalência de excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes no Brasil, especialmente pelo aumento da obesidade, que é considerada uma condição mais grave que o sobrepeso. Portanto, medidas preventivas para diminuir esta tendência de aumento do excesso de peso, bem como programas de tratamento da obesidade na infância e adolescência deve ser prioridade do Sistema único de Saúde (SUS).


Assuntos
Criança , Adolescente , Obesidade
13.
J Obes ; 2018: 3134026, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854435

RESUMO

Purpose: The rs9939609 SNP (T > A) in FTO gene is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed at verifying whether this SNP influenced biochemical outcomes of children and adolescents who are overweight/obese submitted to a program of physical exercise and also if there was influence on basal levels of these biochemical variables. Methods: The sample was composed by 432 children and adolescents grouped in three ways (obese, overweight, and normal weight); of these, 135 children and adoloescents who are obese and overweight were submitted to a physical exercise program for 12 weeks. All were genotyped by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results: The children and adolescents who are overweight/obese and carriers of AA genotype had higher levels of insulin (p=0.03) and HOMA (p=0.007) and lower levels of glucose (p=0.003), but the SNP did not modulate the response to physical exercise. Conclusions: In our study, the rs9939609 AA genotype was associated with parameters related to insulin metabolism but did not interact with physical exercise.

14.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 94(4): 425-431, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, maximal fat oxidation rates and the lipid profile levels in non-obese adolescents. METHODS: 72 schoolchildren, of both genders, aged between 11 and 17 years, participated in the study. The anthropometric and body composition variables, in addition to total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, insulin, and basal glycemia, were evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of the polymorphism: non-carriers of the Arg64 allele, i.e., homozygous (Trp64Trp: n=54), and carriers of the Arg64 allele (Trp64Arg+Arg64Arg: n=18), in which the frequency of the Arg64 allele was 15.2%. The maximal oxygen uptake and peak of oxygen uptake during exercise were obtained through the symptom-limited, submaximal treadmill test. Maximal fat oxidation was determined according to the ventilatory ratio proposed in Lusk's table. RESULTS: Adolescents carrying the less frequent allele (Trp64Arg and Arg64Arg) had higher LDL-c levels (p=0.031) and lower maximal fat oxidation rates (p=0.038) when compared with non-carriers (Trp64Trp). CONCLUSIONS: Although the physiological processes related to lipolysis and lipid metabolism are complex, the presence of the Arg 64 allele was associated with lower rates of FATMAX during aerobic exercise, as well as with higher levels of LDL-c in adolescents.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Oxirredução , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Composição Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238857

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is involved in energy homeostasis. The A allele of the rs9939609 (SNP; T>A) is associated with obesity and higher food intake, while its effect in energy expenditure remains unclear. The aim of this study is to examine whether FTO rs9939609 is associated with the anthropometric outcomes of a physical exercise program and a dietary intervention. METHODS: We studied two independent samples. The first was composed by children and adolescents in which overweight and obese individuals were submitted to a physical exercise program (n = 136) and normal weight participants served as a control group (n = 172). The second sample was composed by obese women submitted to a hypocaloric dietary intervention (n = 126). RESULTS: Physical exercise and dietary intervention were effective, independently of genotype. We found no association of FTO rs9939609 with obesity in children and adolescents (p = 0.67). The rs9939609 affected the response to dietary intervention in obese women: A allele carriers reduced 2.7 cm less of abdominal circumference (AC) than homozygous TT (p = 0.04), while no effect was observed in response to physical exercise in overweight and obese children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The A allele is associated with a worse outcome in response to the hypocaloric dietary intervention regarding abdominal circumference reduction; the same allele did not show interaction with any anthropometric outcomes in response to the exercise program applied.

17.
Motriz (Online) ; 23(spe2): e101789, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-895028

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Aim To compare the anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters of overweight adolescents after 12-weeks of resistance and aerobic training (CT), taking into account the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene. Methods Forty-seven adolescents (15.05±1.07y) were assigned to one of four groups, according to the presence or absence of the Glu27 allele: CT (CarrierT n=11; NoncarrierT n=11) or control (CarrierC n=13; NoncarrierC n=12). Body composition, abdominal fat, maturation, fitness, metabolic and lipid profile, inflammatory markers were assessed. The CT consisted of six resistance exercises, followed by 30 min of walking/running at 50-80% VO2max, totaling 60 min/session, three times a week. A mixed-model factorial ANOVA was used to compare variables at baseline and after 12-weeks. Results TC was effective in reducing total fat mass (NoncarrierT ES=.45, CarrierT ES=.27) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (NoncarrierT ES=.48, CarrierT ES=.46) and increasing lean mass (NoncarrierT ES=.58, CarrierT ES=.60) and fitness. CarrierT group showed a reduction in leptin (ES=.49). Conclusion The responses of body composition and physical fitness to TC were not influenced by the presence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism. However, only the Glu27 allele carriers showed reductions in leptin after 12-weeks. Besides, a lack of intervention caused obesogenic effects, especially in Glu27carriers.

18.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 34(1): 24-29, Mar. 2016. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-776555

RESUMO

To determine the influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in triggering exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in adolescents. Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups: present EIB (EIB+) (n=45) and absent EIB (EIB−) (n=115). The bronchial provocation test with exercise was performed with a protocol that consisted of walking/running for at least eight minutes at high intensity, i.e., >85% of maximum heart rate, considering EIB+ as a 10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The genotyping of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman method, using the Step One Plus system. Independent t-test, Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Age, body weight, height, FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were lower in the EIB+ group when compared to EIB− (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportion of the allele at position 27 and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes between the EIB+ and EIB− groups (p=0.26; p=0.97 and p=0.43, respectively). However, there was a trend toward statistical significance regarding the greater proportion of the Gly16 allele for the EIB+ when compared to the EIB− group (p=0.08). Conclusions: The presence of polymorphisms associated with the Glu27 allele and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes had no influence on EIB. However, the statistical trend toward greater frequency of the Gly16 allele in individuals with EIB+ can be considered evidence of the influence of polymorphisms of the ADBR2 gene on EIB in adolescents.


Determinar a influência dos polimorfismos dos receptores adrenérgicos beta 2 (ADRB2) no desencadeamento de broncoespasmo induzido pelo exercício (BIE) em adolescentes. Métodos: Os sujeitos foram divididos em dois grupos: BIE presente (BIE+) (n=45) e BIE ausente (BIE−) (n=115). O teste de broncoprovocação com exercício foi feito com protocolo que consistiu em caminhar/correr durante no mínimo oito minutos em intensidade superior a 85% da frequência cardíaca máxima, considerando como BIE presente uma queda de 10% do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1). A genotipagem do gene ADRB2 foi feita pelo método Taqman por meio do aparelho Step One Plus. Para análise estatística usaram-se os testes t independente, U de Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Resultados: Idade, massa corporal, estatura, VEF1, CVF e relação VEF1/CVF foram menores no grupo BIE+ em comparação com o BIE− (p<0,05). Não houve diferenças significativas na proporção do alelo na posição 27 e dos genótipos Arg16Gly e Gln27Glu entre os grupos BIE+ e BIE− (p=0,26; p=0,97 e p=0,43, respectivamente). Entretanto, verificou-se uma tendência à significância estatística na maior proporção do alelo Gly16 para o grupo BIE+ comparado com o BIE− (p=0,08). Conclusões: A presença de polimorfismos associados ao alelo Glu27 e os genótipos Arg16Gly e Gln27Glu não influenciam no BIE. Porém, a tendência estatística observada para uma maior frequência do alelo Gly16 nos indivíduos com a presença de BIE pode ser considerado indício da influência de polimorfismos no gene ADBR2 no BIE em adolescentes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Asma Induzida por Exercício/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
19.
J Sports Sci ; 34(20): 1902-12, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26852885

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls. Thirty-three girls (13-17 years) were assigned into overweight training (n = 17) or overweight control (n = 16) groups. Additionally, a normal-weight group (n = 15) was used as control for the baseline values. The combined training programme consisted of six resistance exercises (three sets of 6-10 repetitions at 60-70% 1 RM) followed by 30 min of aerobic exercise (walking/running) at 50-80% VO2peak, performed in the same 60 min session, 3 days/weeks, for 12 weeks. Body composition, dietary intake, aerobic fitness (VO2peak), muscular strength (1 RM), glycaemia, insulinemia, lipid profile and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, leptin, resistin and adiponectin) were measured before and after intervention. There was a significant decrease in body fat (P < 0.01) and increase in fat-free mass (P < 0.01), VO2peak (P < 0.01), 1 RM for leg press (P < 0.01) and bench press (P < 0.01) in the overweight training group. Concomitantly, this group presented significant decreases in serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05) and leptin (P < 0.05), as well as in insulin resistance (P < 0.05) after the experimental period. In conclusion, 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction reduced inflammatory markers associated with obesity in overweight girls.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Restrição Calórica , Exercício/fisiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Adipocinas/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Força Muscular , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso , Consumo de Oxigênio , Treinamento de Resistência
20.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 34(1): 24-9, 2016 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26684442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in triggering exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in adolescents. METHODS: The subjects were divided into two groups: present EIB (EIB+) (n=45) and absent EIB (EIB-) (n=115). The bronchial provocation test with exercise was performed with a protocol that consisted of walking/running for at least eight minutes at high intensity, i.e., >85% of maximum heart rate, considering EIB+ as a 10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The genotyping of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman method, using the Step One Plus system. Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Age, body weight, height, FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were lower in the EIB+ group when compared to EIB- (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportion of the allele at position 27 and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes between the EIB+ and EIB- groups (p=0.26; p=0.97 and p=0.43, respectively). However, there was a trend towards statistical significance regarding the greater proportion of the Gly16 allele for the EIB+ when compared to the EIB- group (p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of polymorphisms associated with the Glu27 allele and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes had no influence on EIB. However, the statistical trend towards greater frequency of the Gly16 allele in individuals with EIB+ can be considered evidence of the influence of polymorphisms of the ADBR2 gene on EIB in adolescents.


Assuntos
Asma Induzida por Exercício/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/genética , Adolescente , Testes de Provocação Brônquica/métodos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Genótipo , Humanos
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