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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical degenerative myelopathy is a variable and progressive degenerative disease caused by chronic compression of the spinal cord. Surgical approaches for the cervical spine can be performed anteriorly and/or posteriorly. Regarding the posterior approach, there are 2 fundamental techniques: laminoplasty and laminectomy with posterior fixation (LPF). There is still controversy concerning the technique in terms of outcome and complications. The aim of the present work is to analyze from the clinical and radiological point of view these 2 techniques: laminoplasty and LPF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A historical cohort of 39 patients was reviewed (12 LFP and 27 laminoplasty) including patients operated in a 10 years period at the Hospital Universitario La Paz with a follow-up of 12 months after surgery was carried out. The clinical results were analyzed and compared using the Nurick scale and the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale (mJOA) and the radiological results using the Cobb angle, Sagittal Vertical Axis, T1 Slope and alignment (measured by Cobb-T1 Sloppe). RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in the postoperative improvement of the Nurick scale (p = 0.008) and mJOA (p = 0.018) in the laminoplasty group. In LFP there is a tendency to a greater improvement, but statistical significance is not reached due to the low sample size of this group. No statistically significant differences were observed in the radiological variables. Regarding the total number of complications, a higher number was observed in the laminoplasty group (7 cases) versus LFP (one case), but no statistically significant differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Laminoplasty and LFP are both safe and effective procedures in the treatment of cervical degenerative myelopathy. The findings of our study demonstrate statistically significant clinical improvement based on the Nurick and mJOA scales with laminoplasty. No significant differences in terms of complications or radiological variables were observed between the 2 techniques.

2.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) can present with a varied constellation of clinical signs and symptoms, which together with the time-sensitive nature of the condition and risk of catastrophic clinical outcome, presents a significant challenge to those assessing patients with this suspected diagnosis. Anal tone is commonly tested during initial assessment using a digital rectal examination (DRE). This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of anal tone and perianal sensation assessment in patients with suspected CES and report modern prevalence data on CES within a neurosciences centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected CES presenting over three years to the Emergency Department (ED) of a busy tertiary centre were included in the study. History and examination findings, documented in the ED notes, were assessed and these variables were correlated with the presence or absence of cauda equina compression on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Out of 1005 patients with suspected CES, 117 (11.6%) had MRI confirmed cauda equina compression (MRI + ve CES). 35% of MRI + ve patients and 31% of MRI -ve patients had reduced anal tone. Using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, no associations were found between abnormal anal tone and MRI + ve CES for patients of all ages. The univariate logistic regression analysis identified altered perianal sensation to be significantly associated with MRI + ve CES in patients ≤42 years old. This association was no longer present when an adjusted multivariable logistic regression was performed. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MRI + ve CES was 11.6%. Our findings suggest that the clinical finding of reduced anal tone has no demonstrable diagnostic value for those with suspected CES, either in itself or in combination with other clinical findings. Further studies are needed to confirm the diagnostic efficacy of assessing perianal sensation in this context.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770158

RESUMO

Health effects related to exposure to air pollution such as ozone (O3) have been documented. The World Health Organization has recommended the use of the Sum of O3 Means Over 35 ppb (SOMO35) to perform Health Impact Assessments (HIA) for long-term exposure to O3. We estimated the avoidable mortality associated with long-term exposure to tropospheric O3 in 14 cities in Mexico using information for 2015. The economic valuation of avoidable deaths related to SOMO35 exposure was performed using the willingness to pay (WTP) and human capital (HC) approaches. We estimated that 627 deaths (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 227-1051) from respiratory diseases associated with the exposure to O3 would have been avoided in people over 30 years in the study area, which confirms the public health impacts of ambient air pollution. The avoidable deaths account for almost 1400 million USD under the WTP approach, whilst the HC method yielded a lost productivity estimate of 29.7 million USD due to premature deaths. Our findings represent the first evidence of the health impacts of O3 exposure in Mexico, using SOMO35 metrics.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Malar J ; 20(1): 445, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) is the largest multigene family in the genomes of most Plasmodium species. A variety of functions for the PIR proteins which they encode have been proposed, including antigenic variation, immune evasion, sequestration and rosetting. However, direct evidence for these is lacking. The repetitive nature of the family has made it difficult to determine function experimentally. However, there has been some success in using gene expression studies to suggest roles for some members in virulence and chronic infection. METHODS: Here pir gene expression was examined across the life cycle of Plasmodium berghei using publicly available RNAseq data-sets, and at high resolution in the intraerythrocytic development cycle using new data from Plasmodium chabaudi. RESULTS: Expression of pir genes is greatest in stages of the parasite which invade and reside in red blood cells. The marked exception is that liver merozoites and male gametocytes produce a very large number of pir gene transcripts, notably compared to female gametocytes, which produce relatively few. Within the asexual blood stages different subfamilies peak at different times, suggesting further functional distinctions. Representing a subfamily of its own, the highly conserved ancestral pir gene warrants further investigation due to its potential tractability for functional investigation. It is highly transcribed in multiple life cycle stages and across most studied Plasmodium species and thus is likely to play an important role in parasite biology. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of distinct expression patterns for different pir genes and subfamilies is likely to provide a basis for the design of future experiments to uncover their function.

7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Additional safe and efficacious vaccines are needed to control the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to analyse the efficacy and safety of the CVnCoV SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine candidate. METHODS: HERALD is a randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 2b/3 clinical trial conducted in 47 centres in ten countries in Europe and Latin America. By use of an interactive web response system and stratification by country and age group (18-60 years and ≥61 years), adults with no history of virologically confirmed COVID-19 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intramuscularly either two 0·6 mL doses of CVnCoV containing 12 µg of mRNA or two 0·6 mL doses of 0·9% NaCl (placebo) on days 1 and 29. The primary efficacy endpoint was the occurrence of a first episode of virologically confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 of any severity and caused by any strain from 15 days after the second dose. For the primary endpoint, the trial was considered successful if the lower limit of the CI was greater than 30%. Key secondary endpoints were the occurrence of a first episode of virologically confirmed moderate-to-severe COVID-19, severe COVID-19, and COVID-19 of any severity by age group. Primary safety outcomes were solicited local and systemic adverse events within 7 days after each dose and unsolicited adverse events within 28 days after each dose in phase 2b participants, and serious adverse events and adverse events of special interest up to 1 year after the second dose in phase 2b and phase 3 participants. Here, we report data up to June 18, 2021. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04652102, and EudraCT, 2020-003998-22, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Dec 11, 2020, and April 12, 2021, 39 680 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either CVnCoV (n=19 846) or placebo (n=19 834), of whom 19 783 received at least one dose of CVnCoV and 19 746 received at least one dose of placebo. After a mean observation period of 48·2 days (SE 0·2), 83 cases of COVID-19 occurred in the CVnCoV group (n=12 851) in 1735·29 person-years and 145 cases occurred in the placebo group (n=12 211) in 1569·87 person-years, resulting in an overall vaccine efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 of 48·2% (95·826% CI 31·0-61·4; p=0·016). Vaccine efficacy against moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was 70·7% (95% CI 42·5-86·1; CVnCoV 12 cases in 1735·29 person-years, placebo 37 cases in 1569·87 person-years). In participants aged 18-60 years, vaccine efficacy against symptomatic disease was 52·5% (95% CI 36·2-64·8; CVnCoV 71 cases in 1591·47 person-years, placebo, 136 cases in 1449·23 person-years). Too few cases occurred in participants aged 61 years or older (CVnCoV 12, placebo nine) to allow meaningful assessment of vaccine efficacy. Solicited adverse events, which were mostly systemic, were more common in CVnCoV recipients (1933 [96·5%] of 2003) than in placebo recipients (1344 [67·9%] of 1978), with 542 (27·1%) CVnCoV recipients and 61 (3·1%) placebo recipients reporting grade 3 solicited adverse events. The most frequently reported local reaction after any dose in the CVnCoV group was injection-site pain (1678 [83·6%] of 2007), with 22 grade 3 reactions, and the most frequently reported systematic reactions were fatigue (1603 [80·0%] of 2003) and headache (1541 [76·9%] of 2003). 82 (0·4%) of 19 783 CVnCoV recipients reported 100 serious adverse events and 66 (0·3%) of 19 746 placebo recipients reported 76 serious adverse events. Eight serious adverse events in five CVnCoV recipients and two serious adverse events in two placebo recipients were considered vaccination-related. None of the fatal serious adverse events reported (eight in the CVnCoV group and six in the placebo group) were considered to be related to study vaccination. Adverse events of special interest were reported for 38 (0·2%) participants in the CVnCoV group and 31 (0·2%) participants in the placebo group. These events were considered to be related to the trial vaccine for 14 (<0·1%) participants in the CVnCoV group and for five (<0·1%) participants in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: CVnCoV was efficacious in the prevention of COVID-19 of any severity and had an acceptable safety profile. Taking into account the changing environment, including the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, and timelines for further development, the decision has been made to cease activities on the CVnCoV candidate and to focus efforts on the development of next-generation vaccine candidates. FUNDING: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and CureVac.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22093, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764371

RESUMO

Species of camel spiders in the family Eremobatidae are an important component of arthropod communities in arid ecosystems throughout North America. Recently, research demonstrated that the evolutionary history and biogeography of the family are poorly understood. Herein we explore the biogeographic history of this group of arachnids using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, morphology, and distribution modelling to study the eremobatid genus Eremocosta, which contains exceptionally large species distributed throughout North American deserts. Relationships among sampled species were resolved with strong support and they appear to have diversified within distinct desert regions along an east-to-west progression beginning in the Chihuahuan Desert. The unexpected phylogenetic position of some samples suggests that the genus may contain additional, morphologically cryptic species. Geometric morphometric analyses reveal a largely conserved cheliceral morphology among Eremocosta spp. Phylogeographic analyses indicate that the distribution of E. titania was substantially reduced during the last glacial maximum and the species only recently colonized much of the Mojave Desert. Results from this study underscore the power of genome-wide data for unlocking the genetic potential of museum specimens, which is especially promising for organisms like camel spiders that are notoriously difficult to collect.

9.
JAMA Neurol ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747975

RESUMO

Importance: Advanced imaging for patient selection in mechanical thrombectomy is not widely available. Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of patients selected for mechanical thrombectomy by noncontrast computed tomography (CT) vs those selected by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the extended time window. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multinational cohort study included consecutive patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusion stroke presenting within 6 to 24 hours of time last seen well from January 2014 to December 2020. This study was conducted at 15 sites across 5 countries in Europe and North America. The duration of follow-up was 90 days from stroke onset. Exposures: Computed tomography with Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, CTP, or MRI. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the distribution of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 90 days (ordinal shift). Secondary outcomes included the rates of 90-day functional independence (mRS scores of 0-2), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 90-day mortality. Results: Of 2304 patients screened for eligibility, 1604 patients were included, with a median (IQR) age of 70 (59-80) years; 848 (52.9%) were women. A total of 534 patients were selected to undergo mechanical thrombectomy by CT, 752 by CTP, and 318 by MRI. After adjustment of confounders, there was no difference in 90-day ordinal mRS shift between patients selected by CT vs CTP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.77-1.17]; P = .64) or CT vs MRI (aOR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.8-1.13]; P = .55). The rates of 90-day functional independence (mRS scores 0-2 vs 3-6) were similar between patients selected by CT vs CTP (aOR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.7-1.16]; P = .42) but lower in patients selected by MRI than CT (aOR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.64-0.98]; P = .03). Successful reperfusion was more common in the CT and CTP groups compared with the MRI group (474 [88.9%] and 670 [89.5%] vs 250 [78.9%]; P < .001). No significant differences in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (CT, 42 [8.1%]; CTP, 43 [5.8%]; MRI, 15 [4.7%]; P = .11) or 90-day mortality (CT, 125 [23.4%]; CTP, 159 [21.1%]; MRI, 62 [19.5%]; P = .38) were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients undergoing proximal anterior circulation mechanical thrombectomy in the extended time window, there were no significant differences in the clinical outcomes of patients selected with noncontrast CT compared with those selected with CTP or MRI. These findings have the potential to widen the indication for treating patients in the extended window using a simpler and more widespread noncontrast CT-only paradigm.

10.
Fam Process ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613612

RESUMO

We present The Couple's Tree of Life (CTOL) as a new collective narrative methodology to strengthen couple relationships and prevent conflicts. The CTOL, based on the tree of life methodology (Ncube & Denborough, Tree of Life, mainstreaming psychosocial care and support: a manual for facilitators, REPSSI, 2007), aims to reinforce the identity and strengths of the couple. We explain the CTOL implementation process and illustrate it step by step with a group of 14 adult heterosexual Caucasian couples who belonged to Protestant churches in Madrid (Spain). As a way to assess its usefulness before applying the CTOL to other groups of couples, we conducted a pre-post evaluation using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale of Spanier(1976). We found an improvement in dyadic adjustment, quality, understanding of, and satisfaction with, the relationship. The results, though not generalizable at this stage, suggest that the CTOL could reinforce the couple's identity while maintaining individual identities. We also discuss the possible applications of couples therapy.

11.
Emerg Med J ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atraumatic back pain is an increasingly common presentation to the ED. A minority of these cases will have significant structural pathology, resulting in acute cauda equina compression (CEC). Although clinicians often look for 'red flags' to identify potential CEC, the prognostic accuracy of these presenting symptoms and clinical examination findings is unclear. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of individual clinical features in a large cohort of ED patients with atraumatic backpain and reference standard imaging, for the diagnosis of CEC. METHODS: A retrospective case note review from 2014 to 2018 within an established ED atraumatic back pain pathway, undertaken at the largest tertiary spinal referral centre in the UK. We analysed routine data, collected prospectively by treating clinicians within a structured electronic health record clinical proforma. Data on signs and symptoms in 996 patients with suspected CEC referred for definitive MRI over a 4-year study period were extracted and compared against a final reference standard diagnosis. RESULTS: We identified 111 patients with radiological evidence of CEC within the cohort referred for definitive imaging (111/996, 11.1%), of whom 109 (98.2%) underwent operative intervention. Patients with CEC were more likely to present with bilateral leg pain (OR=2.2), dermatomal sensory loss (OR 1.8) and bilateral absent ankle or ankle and knee jerks (OR=2.9). Subjective weakness was found to be associated with CEC on univariate but not multivariate analysis. We found no relationship between digital rectal examination findings and the diagnosis of CEC. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, factors independently associated with CEC diagnosis on MRI included bilateral leg pain, dermatomal sensory loss. Loss of lower limb reflexes was strongly suggestive of CES (likelihood ratio 3.4 on multivariate logistic regression). Our findings raise questions about the diagnostic utility of invasive digital rectal examination.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683627

RESUMO

Hybrid methyl-ammonium (MA:CH3NH3+) lead halide MAPbX3 (X = halogen) perovskites exhibit an attractive optoelectronic performance that can be applied to the next generation of solar cells. To extend the field of interest of these hybrid materials, we describe the synthesis by a solvent-free ball-milling procedure, yielding a well crystallized, pure and moisture stable specimen of the Cd tribromide counterpart, MACdBr3, which contains chains of face-sharing CdBr6 octahedra in a framework defined in the Cmc21 (No 36) space group. The details of the structural arrangement at 295 K have been investigated by high angular resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SXRD), including the orientation of the organic MA units, which are roughly aligned along the c direction, given the acentric nature of the space group. UV-vis spectra unveil a gap of 4.6 eV, which could be useful for ultraviolet detectors.

13.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680881

RESUMO

Different mating systems are expected to affect the extent and direction of hybridization. Due to the different levels of sexual conflict, the weak inbreeder/strong outbreeder (WISO) hypothesis predicts that gametes from self-incompatible (SI) species should outcompete gametes from self-compatible (SC) ones. However, other factors such as timing of selfing and unilateral incompatibilities may also play a role on the direction of hybridization. In addition, differential mating opportunities provided by different mating systems are also expected to affect the direction of introgression in hybrid zones involving outcrossers and selfers. Here, we explored these hypotheses with a unique case of recent hybridization between two mangrove killifish species with different mating systems, Kryptolebias ocellatus (obligately outcrossing) and K. hermaphroditus (predominantly self-fertilizing) in two hybrid zones in southeast Brazil. Hybridization rates were relatively high (~20%), representing the first example of natural hybridization between species with different mating systems in vertebrates. All F1 individuals were sired by the selfing species. Backcrossing was small, but mostly asymmetrical with the SI parental species, suggesting pattern commonly observed in plant hybrid zones with different mating systems. Our findings shed light on how contrasting mating systems may affect the direction and extent of gene flow between sympatric species, ultimately affecting the evolution and maintenance of hybrid zones.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618979

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the specific adaptations provoked by power-oriented resistance training using light (LL-PT, 40% 1-RM) vs. heavy (HL-PT, 80% 1-RM) loads in older adults. Using a randomized within-subject study design, 45 older adults (>65 years) completed an 8-week control period (CTR) followed by 12 weeks of unilateral LL-PT vs. HL-PT on a leg press. The 1-RM, theoretical force at zero velocity (F0 ), maximal unloaded velocity (V0 ), and maximal muscle power (Pmax ) were determined through a force-velocity relationship test. Isometrically, the rate of force development (RFD) and the corresponding muscle excitation of the knee extensor muscles were assessed. In addition, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and architecture of two quadriceps muscles were determined. Changes after CTR, LL-PT and HL-PT were compared using linear mixed models. HL-PT provoked greater improvements in 1-RM and F0 (effect size (ES) = 0.55-0.68; p < 0.001) than those observed after LL-PT (ES = 0.27-0.47; p ≤ 0.001) (post hoc treatment effect, p ≤ 0.057). By contrast, ES of changes in V0 was greater in LL-PT compared to HL-PT (ES = 0.71, p < 0.001 vs. ES = 0.39, p < 0.001), but this difference was not statistically significant. Both power training interventions elicited a moderate increase in Pmax (ES = 0.65-0.69, p < 0.001). Only LL-PT improved early RFD (ie, ≤100 ms) and muscle excitation (ES = 0.36-0.60, p < 0.05). Increased CSA were noted after both power training programs (ES = 0.13-0.35, p < 0.035), whereas pennation angle increased only after HL-PT (ES = 0.37, p = 0.004). In conclusion, HL-PT seems to be more effective in improving the capability to generate large forces, whereas LL-PT appears to trigger greater gains in movement velocity in older adults. However, both interventions promoted similar increases in muscle power as well as muscle hypertrophy.

16.
Urology ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze predictors, extent and functional implications associated with renal parenchymal volume replacement (PVR) by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) prior to intervention. This phenomenon is well-recognized yet not adequately studied, and, if severe, can influence management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) patients with available preoperative nuclear-renal-scan and imaging demonstrating solitary RCC with normal contralateral kidney. Normal renal parenchymal volume of each kidney was measured by free-hand scripting from preoperative axial images. Primary endpoint was percent PVR which was estimated assuming that the contralateral-kidney serves as a control: PVR = (volume contralateral kidney - volume ipsilateral kidney) normalized by volume contralateral kidney. Multivariable linear-regression analysis assessed factors associated with preoperative PVR. Further analysis evaluated the functional effect of PVR prior to surgery. RESULTS: 146 PN and 136 RN patients with necessary studies were analyzed. For RN, the median PVR was 15% and a quarter of patients had PVR ≥27%. In contrast, PVR was negligible in PN patients for whom median preoperative parenchymal volumes were nearly identical in the ipsilateral/contralateral kidneys (179/180cc, respectively). PVR inversely correlated with preoperative renal function in the ipsilateral kidney (P <.01). Tumor-size (P <.01), stage (P = .03), and endophytic properties (P = .03) associated with PVR on multivariable-analysis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that substantial replacement of normal parenchyma by RCC occurs in many patients selected for RN and can contribute to preexisting renal-insufficiency. PVR prior to intervention is mainly driven by tumor characteristics in RN patients, but is negligible in most PN patients.

17.
Exp Gerontol ; 156: 111599, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688830

RESUMO

A subset of CD4+ T cells, known as T follicular helper (Tfh), provides co-stimulating signals required to establish long-term humoral immunity. Recent studies have shown a reduced frequency and functionality of this population in older adults in comparison to young adults, in response to vaccination. To evaluate whether memory generation of circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells contributes to this phenomenon, the memory subpopulations of cTfh, and their activation degree, were evaluated both ex-vivo and in-vitro, in response to the model antigen tetanus toxoid (TT) after the first dose of tetanus vaccine. Here, we report a lower frequency of cTfh after vaccination in older adults compared to young adults. Moreover, whereas cTfh from older adults preferably expanded with an effector memory phenotype, young adults experienced a temporal increase of CCR7+CD45RA+ cTfh cells, which also displayed higher levels of CD95, CD40L, CXCR3, and Bcl-6 upon antigen re-encounter. This phenotype was confirmed using automatized algorithm. In conclusion, our results suggest that an age-related loss of heterogeneity and an expansion of more differentiated memory cells within the cTfh compartment could affect the responsiveness of older individuals to vaccines, making this phenotype a characteristic feature of immunosenescence.

18.
Curr Opin Syst Biol ; 272021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485764

RESUMO

Computational modeling has become an established technique to encode mathematical representations of cellular processes and gain mechanistic insights that drive testable predictions. These models are often constructed using graphical user interfaces or domain-specific languages, with community standards used for interchange. Models undergo steady state or dynamic analysis, which can include simulation and calibration within a single application, or transfer across various tools. Here, we describe a novel programmatic modeling paradigm, whereby modeling is augmented with software engineering best practices. We focus on Python - a popular programming language with a large scientific package ecosystem. Models can be encoded as programs, adding benefits such as modularity, testing, and automated documentation generators, while still being extensible and exportable to standardized formats for use with external tools if desired. Programmatic modeling is a key technology to enable collaborative model development and enhance dissemination, transparency, and reproducibility.

19.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573620

RESUMO

Canine bites are an important public health problem, with consequences such as physical injuries, psychological trauma, transmission of zoonoses, infections and they can even cause death. To avoid deaths caused by this type of bite, multiple factors related to this issue must be considered. The objective of this review was to search and analyze the indexed scientific literature on canine bites resulting in death, published during the period 2013-2017. A search was carried out in various databases of indexed literature, in Spanish and English. After selecting and excluding items using PRISMA, they were classified according to SIGN guidelines to filter out the level of evidence and potential biases. Thirty-three scientific articles were retrieved and analyzed. In most of these, victims between 50 and 64 years of age (28.6%, 8/28) were registered. Additionally, in most of the articles, only one animal participated (80%, 16/20). The highest number of events occurred in public spaces (58.5%, 7/12). In conclusion, most of the scientific articles that report incidents of dog bites resulting in death, provide details about the victims, their injuries and the treatment received; however, few articles provide background information on the context of the attack and the biting animal.

20.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concern in the scientific community for the study of people with dementia and their families is comprehensible, especially the importance of knowing the effects that caring for the patient has on their family dynamic, paying special attention to the main caregiver. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of resilience and emotional intelligence with functional performance in the main caregivers of people with dementia in Spain according to the phase of the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried out. A total of 144 primary family caregivers of patients with dementia in Spain were included in the study. The following variables were measured: sociodemographic, psychosocial, and occupational, as well as resilience and emotional intelligence. RESULTS: The caregivers obtained a low moderate resilience (mean = 64.01 ± 14.5), an emotional intelligence bordering between moderate and high (mean = 78.48 ± 14.82), and a 61.8% self-care categorized as somewhat and quite a bit. The presence of higher levels of resilience in family caregivers of people with dementia were positively related to the time spent on self-care (r = 0.227; p = 0.033) and leisure (r = 0.262; p = 0.014), especially in the moderate phase of the disease, while in the severe phase, this relationship appeared with productivity (r = 0.355; p = 0.034). The higher levels of emotional intelligence were positively related to a greater time dedicated to self-care (r = 0.233, p = 0.005), as well as the data observed in the moderate and severe phase (r = 0.214; p = 0.046 and r = 0.398; p = 0.016 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The primary caregivers of relatives with dementia who have higher levels of resilience and emotional intelligence spend more time on self-care and leisure activities, especially in the moderate phase of the disease.

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