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1.
Virchows Arch ; 480(5): 989-998, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122124

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to stratify high-grade T1 (HGT1) bladder urothelial carcinoma into risk categories based on the presence of variant histology when compared to conventional urothelial carcinoma. The clinicopathological features of 104 HGT1 cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with variant histology present in 34 (37%) were assessed. The endpoint of the study was disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival. Overall, variant histology was identified as a significant predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.035). The presence of any specific variant histology (squamous, glandular, micropapillary, nested, microcystic, inverted growth, villous-like, basaloid, and lymphoepithelioma-like) was identified as a significant predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.008) and cancer-specific survival (P = 0.0001) in HGT1 bladder cancer. Therefore, our results support including micropapillary HGT1 urothelial carcinoma within the aggressive high-risk category, as suggested by some recent clinical guidelines, but also favor nested, glandular, and basaloid to be placed in the high-risk category due to their potential of aggressive, life-threatening behavior and their limited response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy. Conversely, the low-risk category would include urothelial carcinomas with squamous, inverted growth, or microcystic morphology, all with limited life-threatening potential and good response to current therapy. A very low-risk category would finally include patients whose tumors present villous-like or lymphoepithelioma-like morphology. In conclusion, our findings support the value of reporting the variant histology as a feature of variable aggressiveness in HGT1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
3.
Pathol Res Pract ; 229: 153737, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952428

RESUMO

The seminal vesicle (SV) mucosa can show epithelial and stromal tumors. The epithelial tumors include both cystadenoma and carcinomas, adenocarcinoma being the most common. Squamous carcinoma may arise in the SV (1). Rarely mixed epithelial and stromal tumors (MESTs) can occur. Incipient lesions, i.e., primary precursor or preinvasive lesions giving rise to such tumors in the mucosa of the SVs, have been observed in anecdotal cases.


Assuntos
Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Glândulas Seminais/patologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771663

RESUMO

Molecular classification of bladder carcinoma is a relevant topic in modern bladder cancer oncology due to its potential to improve oncological outcomes. The available molecular classifications are generally based on transcriptomic profiles, generating highly diverse categories with limited correlation. Implementation of molecular classification in practice is typically limited due to the high complexity of the required technology, the elevated costs, and the limited availability of this technology worldwide. We have conducted a gene expression analysis using a four-gene panel related to luminal and basal subtypes in a series of 91 bladder cancer cases. NanoString-based gene expression analysis using typically luminal (GATA3+/KRT20+) and basal markers (KRT14+/KRT5+/GATA3low/-/KRT20low/-) classified urothelial bladder carcinoma samples as luminal, basal, and a third category (KRT14-/KRT5-/GATA3-/KRT20-), null/double negative (non-luminal/non-basal). These three categories were meaningful in terms of overall cancer-specific survival (p < 0.0001) or when classified as conventional urothelial carcinoma and variant histology urothelial carcinoma (p < 0.0001), NMIBC vs. MIBC (p < 0.001), or by AJCC stage category Ta (p = 0.0012) and T1 (p < 0.0001) but did not reach significance in T2-T4 (p = 0.563). PD-L1 expression (low vs. high) was also different according to molecular subtype, with high PD-L1 expression mostly seen in basal and null subtypes and carcinomas with variant histology (p = 0.002). Additionally, the luminal subtype was enriched in NMIBC with favorable cancer-specific survival (p < 0.0001). In contrast, basal and null subtypes resulted in aggressive MIBC tumors with shorter cancer-specific survival (p < 0.0001), some of which presented variant histology. In conclusion, a comprehensive evaluation of a gene classifier related to molecular taxonomy using NanoString technology is feasible. Therefore, it might represent an accessible and affordable tool in this rapidly expanding area of precision genomics.

6.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(11): e13714, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661368

RESUMO

Risk stratification of COVID-19 patients is essential for pandemic management. Changes in the cell fitness marker, hFwe-Lose, can precede the host immune response to infection, potentially making such a biomarker an earlier triage tool. Here, we evaluate whether hFwe-Lose gene expression can outperform conventional methods in predicting outcomes (e.g., death and hospitalization) in COVID-19 patients. We performed a post-mortem examination of infected lung tissue in deceased COVID-19 patients to determine hFwe-Lose's biological role in acute lung injury. We then performed an observational study (n = 283) to evaluate whether hFwe-Lose expression (in nasopharyngeal samples) could accurately predict hospitalization or death in COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 patients with acute lung injury, hFwe-Lose is highly expressed in the lower respiratory tract and is co-localized to areas of cell death. In patients presenting in the early phase of COVID-19 illness, hFwe-Lose expression accurately predicts subsequent hospitalization or death with positive predictive values of 87.8-100% and a negative predictive value of 64.1-93.2%. hFwe-Lose outperforms conventional inflammatory biomarkers and patient age and comorbidities, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.93-0.97 in predicting hospitalization/death. Specifically, this is significantly higher than the prognostic value of combining biomarkers (serum ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio), patient age and comorbidities (AUROC of 0.67-0.92). The cell fitness marker, hFwe-Lose, accurately predicts outcomes in COVID-19 patients. This finding demonstrates how tissue fitness pathways dictate the response to infection and disease and their utility in managing the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Biomarcadores , Flores , Humanos , Pandemias , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298683

RESUMO

The 2021 novelties in prognostic and therapeutic tissue markers in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) can be subdivided into two major groups. The first group is related to prognostic markers based on morphological and immunohistochemical evaluations. The novelties in this group can then be subdivided into two subgroups, one involving morphologic evaluation only, i.e., PCa grading, and the other involving both morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluations, i.e., aggressive variant PCa (AVPCa). Grading concerns androgen-dependent PCa, while AVPCa represents a late phase in its natural history, when it becomes androgen-independent. The novelties of the other major group are related to molecular markers predicting significant disease or response to therapy. This group mainly includes novelties in the molecular evaluation of PCa in tissue material and liquid biopsies.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073818

RESUMO

Approximately 23% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) harbor deleterious aberrations in DNA repair genes. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) therapy has shown improvements in overall survival in patients with mCRPC who harbor somatic and/or germline alterations of homology recombination repair (HRR) genes. Peripheral blood samples are typically used for the germline mutation analysis test using the DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Somatic alterations can be assessed by extracting DNA from a tumor tissue sample or using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from a plasma sample. Each of these genetic tests has its own benefits and limitations. The main advantages compared to the tissue test are that liquid biopsy is a non-invasive and easily repeatable test with the value of better representing tumor heterogeneity than primary biopsy and of capturing changes and/or resistance mutations in the genetic tumor profile during disease progression. Furthermore, ctDNA can inform about mutation status and guide treatment options in patients with mCRPC. Clinical validation and test implementation into routine clinical practice are currently very limited. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of the ctDNA test in prostate cancer compared to blood and tissue testing. We also illustrate the ctDNA testing workflow, the available techniques for ctDNA extraction, sequencing, and analysis, describing advantages and limits of each techniques.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(3): 1506-1520, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850785

RESUMO

In 1952, renal cell carcinomas had been divided into 2 categories-clear cell or granular cell-depending upon their cytoplasmic staining characteristics. In the following years, the inventory of renal epithelial tumors has expanded by the addition of tumors named by their architectural pattern (i.e., papillary RCC, tubulocystic RCC), anatomic location (i.e., collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma), associated diseases (i.e., acquired cystic disease-associated RCCs). With the extensive application of molecular diagnostic techniques, it becomes possible to detect genetic distinctions between various types of renal neoplasm and discover new entities, otherwise misdiagnosed or diagnosed as unclassified RCC. Some tumors such as ALK rearrangement-associated RCC, MiT family translocation renal carcinomas, SDH-deficient renal cancer or FH-deficient RCC, are defined by their molecular characteristics. The most recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal neoplasms account for more than 50 entities and provisional entities. New entities might be included in the upcoming WHO classification. The aim of this review is to summarise and discuss the newly acquired data and evidence on the clinical, pathological, molecular features and on the prognosis of new RCC entities, which will hopefully increase the awareness and the acceptance of these entities among clinicians and improve prognostication for individual patients.

17.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(3): 1521-1529, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850786

RESUMO

Over the last few years efficacy of immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has been investigated in patients with bladder cancer (BC) at all stages. The present article aims to assess new therapeutic options with emerging agents in BC patients, shedding light on ICI-based treatments encompassing all disease stages, from non-muscle invasive (NMIBC) to muscle-invasive (MIBC) BC, concluding with metastatic MIBC. In bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) unresponsive patients with carcinoma in situ, pembrolizumab has been recently approved. In the neoadjuvant setting, results from two clinical trials seem to identify pathological and genomic features of highly responsive tumors. Squamous cells and lymphoepithelioma/like histotypes, programmed cell-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and high levels of activate T cells have been associated with higher response rate. In the metastatic setting, only 30% of patient may respond to ICI. A panel of biomarkers for patient selection is an actual need since the correlation between response and PD-L1 expression seem inconsistent across clinical trials, with some exceptions. Molecular characterization of BC, tumor mutation burden and immune-gene expression profiling might introduce new molecular biomarkers, hopefully transferable into the clinical-pathological practice.

18.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(3): 1530-1540, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850787

RESUMO

The Gleason grading system, proposed by Dr. Donald F. Gleason in 1966, is one of the most important prognostic factors in men with prostate cancer (PCa). At consensus conferences held in 2005 and 2014, organized by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP), the system was modified to reflect the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In particular, in the 2014 Conference, it was recognized that there were weaknesses with the original and the 2005 ISUP modified Gleason systems. Based on the results of a research conducted by Prof. JI Epstein and his group, a new grading system was proposed by the ISUP in order to address some of such deficiencies: i.e., the five distinct Grade Groups (GGs). Since 2014, results of studies have been published by different groups and societies, including the Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS), giving additional support to the prognostic role of the architectural Gleason patterns and, in particular, of the GGs. A revised GG system, taking into account the percentage of Gleason pattern (GP) 4, cribriform and intraductal carcinoma, tertiary GP 5, and reactive stroma grade, has shown to have some advantages, however not ready for adoption in the current practice. The aim of this contribution was to review the major updates and recommendations regarding the GPs and GSs, as well as the GGs, trying to give an answer to the following questions: "How has the grade group system been used in the routine?" and "will the Gleason scoring system be replace by the grade groups?" We also discussed the potential implementation in the future of molecular pathology and artificial intelligence in grading to further define risk groups in patients with PCa.

19.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(3): 1541-1552, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850788

RESUMO

The American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, with its periodical updates and modifications, has represented and still represents the basis of cancer staging. The historical, long-standing limitations of anatomic-based TNM staging have been recently "threatened" by the impressive amount of data derived from molecular analyses, which have led to an unprecedented level of understanding of cancer genomics. In fact, current era of personalized oncology has witnessed important efforts towards the integration between clinical, anatomical and molecular features; however, despite the promises, personalized oncology faces many obstacles, due to the complex relationship between tumor biomarkers, previously unknown cancer subtypes and clinical and anatomical characteristics. With regard to urothelial carcinoma (UC), the characterization of tumors in large cohorts of patients has provided important information concerning genetic alterations, revealing the presence of biologically relevant subtypes of UC. In the current review, we will provide an overview regarding this recent "translation" from the anatomic-based TNM to a novel horizon, aiming at further "tailoring" personalized oncology, especially focusing on recently published data about the molecular landscape of UC with its therapeutic and prognostic implications.

20.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(3): 1562-1568, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850790

RESUMO

Prostate cancer represents the most frequent tumor in men, accounting for the 21% of all diagnosed tumors, with 191,930 new cases and 33,330 deaths estimated in 2020. Advanced prostate cancer represents a heterogeneous disease, ranging from hormone naive or hormone sensitive to castration resistant. The therapeutic armamentarium for this disease has been implemented in the last years by novel hormonal therapies and chemotherapies. However, the percentage of patients who achieve complete responses still results negligible. On this scenario, the design of clinical trials investigating new therapeutic approaches represent a dramatic medical need. Predicting cancer incidence may be fundamental to design specific clinical trials, to optimize the allocation of economic resources, and to plan future cancer control programs. ERG, SPOP and DDR genes alterations can act as therapeutic targets in prostate cancer patients and can be tested to identify a gene-selected patient population to enrol in specific trials. According to our predictions, ERG gene fusions will be the most predominant molecular subtype, accounting for 69,050 new cases in 2030. Mutation in SPOP gene will be diagnosed in 16,512 tumors, corresponding to the number of cases associated with alterations in DDR genes (including 7,956 BRCA2 mutated tumors). In this article, we analyzed and discussed the future molecular and clinical profiles of prostate cancer in the United States, aimed to describe a series of distinct subpopulations and to quantify potential clinical trial candidates in the next years.

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