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1.
Anesthesiology ; 131(3): 580-593, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246600

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Among patients with sepsis or septic shock, a variety of extracorporeal blood purification techniques are availableIndividual existing trials evaluating these options are underpowered to provide clear evidence WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Meta-analysis of very low-quality randomized controlled trial evidence demonstrates a potential benefit of hemoperfusion, hemofiltration, or plasmapheresisAdditional high-quality trials demonstrating benefit in modern clinical practice are needed before recommending these therapies BACKGROUND:: Sepsis and septic shock are severe inflammatory conditions related to high morbidity and mortality. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized trials to assess whether extracorporeal blood purification reduces mortality in this setting. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for pertinent studies up to January 2019. We included randomized controlled trials on the use of hemoperfusion, hemofiltration without a renal replacement purpose, and plasmapheresis as a blood purification technique in comparison to conventional therapy in adult patients with sepsis and septic shock. The primary outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up available. We calculated relative risks and 95% CIs. The grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation methodology for the certainty of evidence was used. RESULTS: Thirty-seven trials with 2,499 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Hemoperfusion was associated with lower mortality compared to conventional therapy (relative risk = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.78 to 0.98], P = 0.02, very low certainty evidence). Low risk of bias trials on polymyxin B immobilized filter hemoperfusion showed no mortality difference versus control (relative risk = 1.14 [95% CI, 0.96 to 1.36], P = 0.12, moderate certainty evidence), while recent trials found an increased mortality (relative risk = 1.22 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.45], P = 0.02, low certainty evidence); trials performed in the United States and Europe had no significant difference in mortality (relative risk = 1.13 [95% CI, 0.96 to 1.34], P = 0.15), while trials performed in Asia had a positive treatment effect (relative risk = 0.57 [95% CI, 0.47 to 0.69], P < 0.001). Hemofiltration (relative risk = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63 to 1.00], P = 0.05, very low certainty evidence) and plasmapheresis (relative risk = 0.63 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.96], P = 0.03, very low certainty evidence) were associated with a lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Very low-quality randomized evidence demonstrates that the use of hemoperfusion, hemofiltration, or plasmapheresis may reduce mortality in sepsis or septic shock. Existing evidence of moderate quality and certainty does not provide any support for a difference in mortality using polymyxin B hemoperfusion. Further high-quality randomized trials are needed before systematic implementation of these therapies in clinical practice.

2.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101509

RESUMO

The perioperative nutritional status of patients undergoing cardiac surgery influences outcomes; therefore nutritional support is essential for these patients. Owing to the lack of solid evidence, no protocols have been established for the nutritional management of this specific population, and most of the recommendations are based on other critically ill populations. In this review of the main studies performed in this population, the importance of preoperative evaluation of nutritional status, the management of nutritional support immediately after cardiac surgery, the influence of nutrition on outcomes, and the importance of nutrition after hospital discharge are discussed. In addition, the possible influence of glycemic control and pharmaconutrition in the outcomes of these patients are described briefly.

4.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(3): 510-516, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033331

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: the application of specialized nutritional support (SNE) is difficult at the organizational level due to the complexity of clinical practice guidelines and we do not know the degree of adherence to the published nutritional recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of adherence to the recommendations of high impact and "do not do" within our environment, in order to show areas for improvement. Methods: survey of nine questions agreed by experts and carried out in different ICUs of our environment, which reflected the recommendations in SNE. Data related to the organizational characteristics and the healthcare provider that indicated the nutritional support were collected. The differences regarding the degree of adherence between the level of care and the presence of an expert in these units were analyzed. Results: thirty-seven ICUs participated, which corresponded mostly to second level hospitals and polyvalent ICUs with an SNE indicated by intensivists. The adherence to the recommendations was > 80%, with three exceptions associated with issues related to the refeeding syndrome (70.3%), the caloric-protein adjustment of nutrition according to the patient's evolutionary phase (51.4%) and the adjustment of protein intake in patients with renal failure (40.5%). There were no differences according to the level of care or the presence of an expert in these ICUs. Only a greater availability of local nutrition protocols was observed in those ICUs with an expertise. Conclusions: there is a high theoretical adherence to the majority of recommendations in the nutritional field, with exceptions that could correspond to areas where there is an opportunity for improvement.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 47(6): 774-783, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effects of vitamin C administration on clinical outcome in critically ill patients remain controversial. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to October 1, 2018. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized controlled trials on the use of vitamin C (any regimen) in adult critically ill patients versus placebo or no therapy. DATA EXTRACTION: Risk ratio for dichotomous outcome and standardized mean difference for continuous outcome with 95% CI were calculated using random-effects model meta-analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Forty-four randomized studies, 16 performed in ICU setting (2,857 patients) and 28 in cardiac surgery (3,598 patients), published between 1995 and 2018, were included in the analysis. In ICU patients, vitamin C administration was not associated with a difference in mortality (risk ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.74-1.10; p = 0.31), acute kidney injury, ICU or hospital length of stay compared with control. In cardiac surgery, vitamin C was associated to a reduction in postoperative atrial fibrillation (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.78; p < 0.0001), ICU stay (standardized mean difference, -0.28 d; 95% CI, -0.43 to -0.13 d; p = 0.0003), and hospital stay (standardized mean difference, -0.30 d; 95% CI, -0.49 to -0.10 d; p = 0.002). Furthermore, no differences in postoperative mortality, acute kidney injury, stroke, and ventricular arrhythmia were found. CONCLUSIONS: In a mixed population of ICU patients, vitamin C administration is associated with no significant effect on survival, length of ICU or hospital stay. In cardiac surgery, beneficial effects on postoperative atrial fibrillation, ICU or hospital length of stay remain unclear. However, the quality and quantity of evidence is still insufficient to draw firm conclusions, not supporting neither discouraging the systematic administration of vitamin C in these populations. Vitamin C remains an attractive intervention for future investigations aimed to improve clinical outcome.

6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
7.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 16(4): 336-343, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032753

RESUMO

Halogenated anesthetic agents (desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane) may have cardioprotective properties at therapeutic doses against myocardial intraoperative ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cardioprotection mechanisms are related to mitochondrial and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Experimentals and human studies have proven that their use may reduce morbidity and mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery, including a reduction in myocardial infarct size and mechanical ventilation needs. In contrast, total intra-venous propofol based anesthesia may be detrimental. In the present review, we show the rationale for the perioperative use of halogenated anesthetics based on mechanisms of action, experimental research and human studies. Considerations and major concerns regarding their use, the present evidence for their use in other areas, such as major non-cardiac surgery and intensive care unit patients, and future perspectives are also discussed.

8.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0118858, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25781994

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity influences risk stratification in cardiac surgery in everyday practice. However, some studies have reported better outcomes in patients with a high body mass index (BMI): this is known as the obesity paradox. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of diverse degrees of high BMI on clinical outcomes after cardiac surgery, and to assess the existence of an obesity paradox in our patients. METHODS: A total of 2,499 consecutive patients requiring all types of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between January 2004 and February 2009 were prospectively studied at our institution. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI: normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg∙m-2; n = 523; 21.4%), overweight (25-29.9 kg∙m-2; n = 1150; 47%), obese (≥ 30-≤ 34.9 kg∙m-2; n = 624; 25.5%) and morbidly obese (≥ 35kg∙m-2; n = 152; 6.2%). Follow-up was performed in 2,379 patients during the first year. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding factors, patients with higher BMI presented worse oxygenation and better nutritional status, reflected by lower PaO2/FiO2 at 24h and higher albumin levels 48 h after admission respectively. Obese patients showed a higher risk for Perioperative Myocardial Infarction (OR: 1.768; 95% CI: 1.035-3.022; p = 0.037) and septicaemia (OR: 1.489; 95% CI: 1.282-1.997; p = 0.005). In-hospital mortality was 4.8% (n = 118) and 1-year mortality was 10.1% (n = 252). No differences were found regarding in-hospital mortality between BMI groups. The overweight group showed better 1-year survival than normal weight patients (91.2% vs. 87.6%; Log Rank: p = 0.029. HR: 1.496; 95% CI: 1.062-2.108; p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: In our population, obesity increases Perioperative Myocardial Infarction and septicaemia after cardiac surgery, but does not influence in-hospital mortality. Although we found better 1-year survival in overweight patients, our results do not support any protective effect of obesity in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 143: w13788, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23739994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A small proportion of patients with influenza H1N1 rapidly develop acute respiratory failure and are a problem for intensive care units (ICUs). Although certain clinical risk factors have been identified, few measurable biochemical/haematological markers able to predict poor outcome have been reported. The aims of the present report are to show which variables on and during admission are associated with increased in-hospital mortality in patients admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure due to H1N1 influenza. METHODS: A prospective observational study at two ICUs was carried out between August 2009 and March 2011. The study period covered two waves of pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Spain. Clinical and laboratory data on and during ICU admission were recorded for the purpose of analysis. RESULTS: Sixty patients with acute respiratory failure due to H1N1 influenza were admitted during the period described above; 63.3% (n = 38) were male and the mean age was 49.2 ± 14 years. Regarding comorbidities, 46.7% (n = 28) were smokers, 38% (n = 23) had hypertension, 30% (n = 18) had a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2, 30% (n = 18) had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 26% (n = 16) had cardiac insufficiency; 16.6% (n = 10) had bacterial co-infection, 70% (n = 42) required invasive mechanical ventilation and 48.3% (n = 29) non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Mortality was 20% (n = 12). Comparing survivors with non-survivors, univariate analysis revealed significant differences in BMI, creatinine, haemoglobin, platelets, arterial pH, pCO2, and the rate of bacterial co-infection. In the multivariate analysis, only the presence of lower platelet count was statistically significant (214 ± 101 vs 113 ± 82 ×109/L; p = 0.009). Patients with thrombocytopenia showed a lower in-hospital survival rate (55%vs92.5%; Log Rank = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Thrombocytopenia could be valuable marker of in-hospital mortality in patients with respiratory failure due to H1N1 influenza in the ICU scenario.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade
10.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 16(3): 332-8, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23243034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cirrhosis represents a serious risk in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Several preoperative factors identify cirrhotic patients as high risk for cardiac surgery; however, a patient's preoperative status may be modified by surgical intervention and, as yet, no independent postoperative mortality risk factors have been identified in this setting. The objective of this study was to identify preoperative and postoperative mortality risk factors and the scores that are the best predictors of short-term risk. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive cirrhotic patients requiring cardiac surgery between January 2004 and January 2009 were prospectively studied at our institution. Forty-two (72%) patients were operated on for valve replacement, 9 (16%) for a CABG and 7 (12%) for both (CABG and valve replacement). Thirty-four (58%) patients were classified as Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A, 21 (36%) as class B and 3 (5%) as class C. We evaluated the variables that are usually measured on admission and during the first 24 h of the postoperative period together with potential operative predictors of outcome, such as cardiac surgery scores (Parsonnet, EuroSCORE), liver scores (Child-Turcotte-Pugh, model for end-stage liver disease, United Kingdom end-stage liver disease score) and ICU scores (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and III, simplified acute physiology score II and III, sequential organ failure assessment). RESULTS: Seven patients (12%) died in-hospital, of whom 5 were Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B and 2 class C. Comparing survivors vs non-survivors, univariate analysis revealed that variables associated with short-term outcome were international normalized ratio (1.5 ± 0.24 vs 2.2 ± 0.11, P < 0.0001), presurgery platelet count (171 ± 87 vs 113 ± 52 l nl(-1), P = 0.031), presurgery haemoglobin count (11.8 ± 1.8 vs 10.2 ± 1.4 g dl(-1), P = 0.021), total need for erythrocyte concentrates (2 ± 3.4 vs 8.5 ± 8 units, P < 0.0001), PaO(2)/FiO(2) at 12 h after ICU admission (327 ± 84 vs 257 ± 78, P = 0.04), initial central venous pressure (11 ± 3 vs 16 ± 4 mmHg, P = 0.02) and arterial blood lactate concentration 24 h after admission (1.8 ± 0.5 vs 2.5 ± 1.3 mmol l(-1), P = 0.019). Multivariate analysis identified initial central venous pressure as the only independent factor associated with short-term outcome (P = 0.027). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the model for end-stage Liver disease score had a better predictive value for short-term outcome than other scores (AUC: 90.5 ± 4.4%; sensitivity: 85.7%; specificity: 83.7%), although simplified acute physiology score III was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that central venous pressure could be a valuable predictor of short-term outcome in patients with cirrhosis undergoing cardiac surgery. The model for end-stage liver disease score is the best predictor of cirrhotic patients who are at high risk for cardiac surgery. Sequential organ failure assessment and simplified acute physiology score III are also valuable predictors.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , APACHE , Idoso , Pressão Venosa Central , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Ann Transplant ; 17(1): 122-7, 2012 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22466918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) due to antiretroviral treatment is a rare but a fatal complication in HIV-infected patients. Non-nucleoside retroviral transcriptase inhibitors are known to cause hepatotoxicity and exceptionally acute hepatic failure. CASE REPORT: We report a case of nevirapine-induced acute liver failure successfully managed with orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Antiretroviral therapy including raltegravir, zidovudine and abacavir was reintroduced 6 days after transplantation. No interaction with immunosuppressive agents was observed and the patient had a complete recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Urgent OLT should be considered in HIV patients with nevirapine-induced ALF because of the poor outcome despite intensive supportive conservative treatment. Concomitant use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and immunosuppression could be feasible if treatment is performed cautiously.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico
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