Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 62
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912902, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617922

RESUMO

Importance: Air pollutants interact with estrogen nuclear receptors, but their effect on thyroid signaling is less clear. Thyroid function is of particular importance for pregnant women because of the thyroid's role in fetal brain development. Objective: To determine the short-term association of exposure to air pollution in the first trimester with thyroid function throughout pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 9931 pregnant women from 4 European cohorts (the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study, the Generation R Study, Infancia y Medio Ambiente, and Rhea) and 1 US cohort (Project Viva) with data on air pollution exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy were included. The recruitment period for the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study was January 2003 to March 2004; for Generation R, April 2002 to January 2006; for Infancia y Medio Ambiente, November 2003 to January 2008; for Rhea, February 2007 to February 2008; and for Project Viva, April 1999 to November 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted from January 2018 to April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Residential air pollution concentrations (ie, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter [PM]) during the first trimester of pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth models. Free thyroxine, thyrotropin, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured across gestation. Hypothyroxinemia was defined as free thyroxine below the fifth percentile of the cohort distribution with normal thyrotropin levels, following the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Results: Among 9931 participants, the mean (SD) age was 31.2 (4.8) years, 4853 (48.9%) had more than secondary educational levels, 5616 (56.6%) were nulliparous, 404 (4.2%) had hypothyroxinemia, and 506 (6.7%) tested positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) were lower and had less variation in women in the US cohort than those in European cohorts. No associations of nitrogen oxide with thyroid function were found. Higher exposures to PM2.5 were associated with higher odds of hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women (odds ratio per 5-µg/m3 change, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Although exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less was not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia, the coefficient was similar to that for the association of PM2.5 with hypothyroxinemia (odds ratio per 10-µg/m3 change, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48). Absorbances of PM2.5 and PM with aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 to 10 µg and were not associated with hypothyroxinemia. There was substantial heterogeneity among cohorts with respect to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (P for heterogeneity, <.001), showing associations of nitrogen oxide and PM with thyroid autoimmunity only in the women in the Generation R Study. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that first-trimester exposures to PM2.5 were associated with mild thyroid dysfunction throughout pregnancy. The association of PM2.5 exposure with thyroid function during pregnancy is of global health importance because air pollution exposure is widespread and hypothyroxinemia may adversely influence the brain development of offspring.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374897

RESUMO

The consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCB) has been associated with obesity although the evidence in preschool children is scarce. Cross-sectional analyses were performed to assess the association between obesity and SCB consumption (packaged juices and sugar-sweetened soft drinks) in 1823 children at the age of 4-5 years from the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. One drink was defined as a glass of 175 mL, and the consumption of SCB was categorized in <1, 1-7 drinks/week and > 1 drink/day. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR). The average SCB consumption was 79.1 mL/day, mainly from packaged juices (80.9%). The SCB consumption was lower in non-obese children than in children with obesity, 76.6 vs 118.4 mL/day (p = 0.02). After adjusting for covariates, children who consumed >1 drink/day showed elevated odds of obesity, OR = 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48-6.98) compared to children who consumed <1 SCB drink a week. Each additional SCB drink per day was associated with higher odds of obesity, OR = 1.55 (1.14-2.09). Higher consumption of packaged juices, but not sugar-sweetened soft drinks, was significantly associated with higher odds of obesity, OR = 1.55 (1.09-2.15) and OR = 1.59 (0.76-3.39), respectively. A higher SCB consumption is associated with obesity in preschool children, mainly due to the consumption of packaged juices.

3.
Thyroid ; 29(9): 1316-1326, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426724

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid hormone is essential for optimal fetal brain development. Evidence suggests that both low and high maternal thyroid hormone availability may have adverse effects on child neurodevelopmental outcomes, but the effect on behavioral problems remains unclear. We studied the association of maternal thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy with child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A total of 7669 mother-child pairs with data on maternal thyroid function and child ADHD were selected from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; N = 1073, Spain), Generation R (N = 3812, The Netherlands), and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 2784, United Kingdom). Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancy, fertility treatment, usage of medication affecting the thyroid, and pre-existing thyroid disease. We used logistic regression models to study the association of maternal thyroid function with the primary outcome, ADHD, assessed via the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria by parents and/or teachers at a median child age of 4.5 to 7.6 years, and with the secondary outcome, an ADHD symptom score above the 90th percentile. Effect modification by gestational age and sex was tested with interaction terms and stratified analyses. Results: Overall, 233 (3%) children met the criteria for ADHD. When analyzed continuously, neither fT4 nor TSH was associated with a higher risk of ADHD (odds ratio [OR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI 1.0-1.3], p = 0.060 and OR 0.9 [CI 0.9-1.1], p = 0.385, respectively) or with high symptom scores. When investigating effect modification by gestational age, a higher fT4 was associated with symptoms above the 90th percentile but only in the first trimester (for fT4 per 1 SD: OR 1.2 [CI 1.0-1.4], p = 0.027). However, these differential effects by gestational age were not consistent. No significant effect modification by sex was observed. Conclusions: We found no clear evidence of an association between maternal thyroid function and child ADHD.

4.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(6): 945-954, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with impaired immune and respiratory health during childhood but the evidence is inconsistent and limited for lung function. We studied the association between prenatal PFASs exposure and immune and respiratory health, including lung function, up to age 7 years in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. METHODS: We assessed four PFASs in maternal plasma samples collected during the 1st trimester of pregnancy (years: 2003-2008): perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). Mothers reported the occurrence (yes/no) of lower respiratory tract infections, wheezing, asthma, and eczema in the previous 12 months at 1.5 and 4 years of the child (n = 1188) and at 7 years (n = 1071). At ages 4 (n = 503) and 7 (n = 992) years lung function was assessed using spirometry tests. RESULTS: The most abundant PFASs were PFOS and PFOA (geometric means: 5.80 and 2.31 ng/mL, respectively). The relative risk of asthma during childhood per each doubling in PFNA concentration was 0.74 (95 CI%: 0.57, 0.96). The relative risk of eczema during childhood per every doubling in PFOS concentration was 0.86 (95 CI%: 0.75, 0.98). Higher PFOA concentrations were associated with lower forced vital capacity and lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s z-scores at 4 years [ß (95 CI %): -0.17 (-0.34, -0.01) and -0.13 (-0.29, 0.03), respectively], but not at 7 years. CONCLUSION: This longitudinal study suggests that different PFASs may affect the developing immune and respiratory systems differently. Prenatal exposure to PFNA and PFOS may be associated with reduced risk of respiratory and immune outcomes, particularly asthma and eczema whereas exposure to PFOA may be associated with reduced lung function in young children. These mixed results need to be replicated in follow-up studies at later ages.

5.
Environ Int ; 131: 105049, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362153

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) can increase the risk of reported respiratory symptoms in children. It remains unclear whether these compounds can also impact on lung function. We assessed the association between prenatal exposure to OCs and lung function during childhood. METHODS: We included 1308 mother-child pairs enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Prenatal concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], and seven polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] were measured in cord blood. Spirometry was performed in the offspring at ages 4 (n = 636) and 7 years (n = 1192). RESULTS: More than 80% of samples presented quantifiable levels of p,p'-DDE, HCB, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180; p,p'-DDE was the compound with the highest median concentrations. At 4 years, prenatal p,p'-DDE exposure was associated with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in all quartiles of exposure (e.g., third quartile [0.23-0.34 ng/mL]: ß for FEV1 -53.61 mL, 95% CI -89.87, -17.35, vs. the lowest). Prenatal p,p'-DDE levels also decreased forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC, but associations did not reach statistical significance in most exposure quartiles. At 7 years, p,p'-DDE was associated with a decrease in FVC and FEV1 in only the second quartile of exposure (e.g. ß for FEV1 -36.96 mL, 95% CI -66.22, -7.70, vs. the lowest). Prenatal exposure to HCB was associated with decreased FVC and FEV1, but in only the second quartile and at 7 years (e.g. [0.07-0.14 ng/mL]: ß for FEV1 -25.79 mL, 95% CI -55.98, 4.39, vs. the lowest). PCBs were not consistently associated with lung function. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE may decrease lung function during childhood, especially FEV1 and at medium levels of exposure. Further and deeper knowledge on the impact of environmental chemicals during pregnancy on lung development is needed.

6.
Environ Int ; 130: 104835, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226565

RESUMO

Mercury is considered a neurotoxicant and human exposure occurs mainly from the consumption of marine species. We aimed to describe total mercury concentrations (THg) and associated factors in 9-year old children, as well as to explore the trend in THg from 4 to 9 years of age. The study population consisted of 9-year-old children participating in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort study in Valencia, Spain (n = 405, 2013-2014). THg in hair samples was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry at the age of 4 and 9 years. Sociodemographic and dietary data was obtained through questionnaires. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the association between THg and covariates. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of hair THg at 9 years old was 0.89 µg/g (0.81, 0.98). Thirteen percent of children had THg above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by the World Health Organization. THg were higher among children whose mothers had a healthy body mass index before pregnancy. Children with non-smoker mothers and worker fathers had also higher THg. Children's fish intake at 9 years-old was positively associated with THg, being swordfish, canned tuna and lean fish (i.e. hake, sea bream and sole) the most associated categories. Levels decreased by around 22% between 4 and 9 years old. Birth cohort studies, such as the INMA Project, allow the longitudinal evaluation of Hg exposure and the possible effects on children's health. This information can be used to formulate diet recommendations in vulnerable populations.

7.
Environ Int ; 130: 104830, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the possible association between prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and birth anthropometry. However, none has assessed fetal size longitudinally. We studied the possible association between PFASs and fetal biometry. METHODS: In 1230 mother-child pairs of three cohorts from the Spanish INMA-Project, we analyzed perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in first-trimester maternal plasma (collection: 2003-2008). We measured abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), biparietal diameter (BPD), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) by ultrasounds at 12, 20, and 34 gestational weeks. We conducted multivariable linear regression analyses between log2-transformed (PFASs) and SD-scores of fetal parameters in each cohort and subsequent meta-analysis. We also assessed effect modification by sex and maternal smoking. RESULTS: PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA medians were: 0.58, 2.35, 6.05, and 0.65 ng/mL, respectively. There were no associations for the whole population in any trimester of pregnancy. However, we found an indication that maternal smoking modified the effect in different directions depending on the PFAS. Among smokers (31%), we found negative associations between both PFOA and PFNA and FL or EFW at week 20 (% change ranging between -6.8% and -5.7% per twofold PFAS increase) and positive associations between PFHxS or PFOS and BPD at week 34 (6.8% and 6.3%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Results did not suggest an overall association between prenatal PFASs and fetal growth. The results among smokers should be taken with caution and further studies are warranted to elucidate the possible role of smoking in this association.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 661-673, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062119

RESUMO

There is scientific evidence on the protective effects of nut intake against cognitive decline in the elderly; however, this effect has been less explored in child neurodevelopment and no studies have explored the potential longitudinal association with nut intake during pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the association of maternal nut intake during pregnancy with child neuropsychological outcomes. We included 2208 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in four regions of Spain. The follow up settings were during pregnancy (first and third trimesters), birth, 1.5, 5 and 8 years. Neuropsychological examinations were based on Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1.5 years), McCarthy scales of Children's Abilities (5 year), Attention Network Test (ANT, 8 year) and N-Back test (8 year). Nut intake in pregnancy was reported through a validated food frequency questionnaire during the first and the third trimester. Multivariable regressions analyzed associations after controlling for priori selected confounders notably maternal education, social class, body mass index, energy intake, fish intake, omega-3 supplements, alcohol consumption and smoking habits during pregnancy. Children within the highest tertile of maternal nut consumption during first pregnancy trimester (> 32 g/week) had a decrease of 13.82 ms [95% confidence interval (CI) - 23.40, - 4.23] in the ANT-hit reaction time standard error, compared to the first tertile (median 0 g/w). A similar protective association pattern was observed with the other cognitive scores at the different child ages. After correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni familywise error rate (FWER), Hochberg FWER and Simes false discovery rate, ANT-hit reaction time standard error remained significant. Final model estimates by inverse probability weighting did not change results. Third pregnancy trimester nut intake showed weaker associations. These data indicate that nut intake during early pregnancy is associated with long-term child neuropsychological development. Future cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this association pattern in order to further extend nutrition guidelines among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mães , Nozes , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(3): 503-512, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713056

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Copper (Cu) is an essential element involved in biological processes; however, excessive Cu could be harmful because of its reactive nature. Very few studies have evaluated its potential neurotoxic effects. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal Cu levels and children's neuropsychological development. METHODS: Study subjects were mother-child pairs from the Spanish INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) Project. Cu was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in serum samples taken at the first trimester of pregnancy (2003-2005). Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 12 months (n = 651) and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) at 5 years of age (n = 490). Covariates were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Multivariate linear and non-linear models were built in order to study the association between maternal Cu and child neuropsychological development. RESULTS: The mean ±â€¯standard deviation of maternal Cu concentrations was 1606 ±â€¯272 µg/L. In the multivariate analysis, a negative linear association was found between maternal Cu concentrations and both the BSID mental scale (beta = -0.051; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: -0.102, -0.001) and the MSCA verbal scale (beta = -0.044; 95%CI:-0.094, 0.006). Boys obtained poorer scores than girls, with increasing Cu at 12 months (interaction p-value = 0.040 for the mental scale and 0.074 for the psychomotor scale). This effect modification disappeared at 5 years of age. The association between Cu and the MSCA scores (verbal, perceptive performance, global memory and motor, general cognitive, and executive function scales) was negative for those children with lowest maternal iron concentrations (<938µg/L). CONCLUSION: The Cu concentrations observed in our study were within the reference range established for healthy pregnant women in previous studies. The results of this study contribute to the body of scientific knowledge with important information on the possible neurotoxic capability of Cu during pregnancy.

10.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(4): 1082-1097, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912347

RESUMO

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood. Methods: We pooled seven European birth cohort studies encompassing 4437 mother-child pairs from the general population with concentrations of PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB measured in cord blood, maternal blood or milk. We then calculated prenatal (birth) and postnatal (3, 6, 12 and 24 months) POP concentrations using a pharmacokinetic model. The operational definition of ADHD varied across cohorts and ranged from doctor diagnosis obtained from patient registries to maternal or teachers reports. We used multilevel (mixed) logistic regression models to estimate the associations between exposure to POPs at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months and ADHD. Results: The global prevalence of ADHD in our study was 6%. The mean age at assessment of ADHD was 5.8 years (range: 3.8-9.5 years). We found no association between exposure to PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB at any age point between birth and 24 months and ADHD, in the pooled analyses (pooled odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.01). A number of sensitivity analyses gave basically the same results. Conclusions: In the largest study to date of 4437 children in seven European birth cohorts, we did not observe any association between either pre- or postnatal exposure (up to 24 months) to PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB and the risk of ADHD before the age of 10 years.

12.
Epidemiology ; 29(5): 618-626, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may increase attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of eight European population-based birth/child cohorts, including 29,127 mother-child pairs. METHODS: Air pollution concentrations (nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and particulate matter [PM]) were estimated at the birth address by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011. We extrapolated concentrations back in time to exact pregnancy periods. Teachers or parents assessed ADHD symptoms at 3-10 years of age. We classified children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range and within the clinical range using validated cutoffs. We combined all adjusted area-specific effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis and multiple imputations and applied inverse probability-weighting methods to correct for loss to follow-up. RESULTS: We classified a total of 2,801 children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range, and 1,590 within the clinical range. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy was not associated with a higher odds of ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [OR] for ADHD symptoms of 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.01 per 10 µg/m increase in NO2 and 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.19 per 5 µg/m increase in PM2.5). We observed similar associations for ADHD within the clinical range. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence for an increase in risk of ADHD symptoms with increasing prenatal air pollution levels in children aged 3-10 years. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B379.

13.
Environ Res ; 166: 215-222, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between maternal selenium (Se) status and child neurodevelopment has been scarcely assessed. In a previous study we observed an inverse U-shaped association between maternal Se concentrations and infant neurodevelopment at 12 months of age. In this study, this non-linear association was explored at preschool age. The effect modification by breastfeeding, child's sex and cord blood mercury was also evaluated. METHODS: Study subjects were 490 mother-child pairs from the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2012). Child neuropsychological development was assessed at around 5 years of age by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Sociodemographic and dietary characteristics were collected by questionnaire at the first and third trimester of gestation and at 5 years of age. Se was measured in serum samples by ICP-MS at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (mean ±â€¯standard deviation (SD) = 12.4 ±â€¯0.6 weeks of gestation). RESULTS: The mean ±â€¯SD of maternal serum Se concentrations was 79.9 ±â€¯8.1 µg/L. In multivariate analysis, no linear association was found between Se concentrations and the nine MSCA scales. Generalized additive models indicated inverted U-shaped relationships between Se concentrations and the verbal and global memory scales. When assessing the influence of effect modifiers, breastfeeding played a role: the association between Se and neuropsychological development was inverted U-shaped for the quantitative, general cognitive, working memory, fine motor, global motor and executive function scales only for non-breastfed children. CONCLUSION: Low and high maternal Se concentrations seem to be harmful for child neuropsychological development, however further studies should explore this non-linear relationship.

14.
Environ Int ; 115: 267-278, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have developmental effects at environmental concentrations. We investigated whether some EDCs are associated with the adverse birth outcome Small for Gestational Age (SGA). METHODS: We used PCB 153, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFOS and PFOA measured in maternal, cord blood or breast milk samples of 5446 mother-child pairs (subset of 693 for the perfluorinated compounds) from seven European birth cohorts (1997-2012). SGA infants were those with birth weight below the 10th percentile for the norms defined by gestational age, country and infant's sex. We modelled the association between measured or estimated cord serum EDC concentrations and SGA using multiple logistic regression analyses. We explored effect modification by child's sex and maternal smoking during pregnancy. RESULTS: Among the 5446 newborns, 570 (10.5%) were SGA. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PCB 153 was associated with a modestly increased risk of SGA (odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 [95% CI: 1.04-1.07]) that was stronger in girls (OR of 1.09 [95% CI: 1.04-1.14]) than in boys (OR of 1.03 [95% CI: 1.03-1.04]) (p-interaction = 0.025). For HCB, we found a modestly increased odds of SGA in girls (OR of 1.04 [95% CI: 1.01-1.07] per IQR increase), and an inverse association in boys (OR of 0.90 [95% CI: 0.85-0.95]) (p-interaction = 0.0003). Assessment of the HCB-sex-smoking interaction suggested that the increased odds of SGA associated with HCB exposure was only in girls of smoking mothers (OR of 1.18 [95% CI: 1.11-1.25]) (p-interaction = 0.055). Higher concentrations of PFOA were associated with greater risk of SGA (OR of 1.64 [95% CI: 0.97-2.76]). Elevated PFOS levels were associated with increased odds of SGA in newborns of mothers who smoked during pregnancy (OR of 1.63 [95% CI: 1.02-2.59]), while an inverse association was found in those of non-smoking mothers (OR of 0.66 [95% CI: 0.61-0.72]) (p-interaction = 0.0004). No significant associations were found for p,p'-DDE. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal environmental exposure to organochlorine and perfluorinated compounds with endocrine disrupting properties may contribute to the prevalence of SGA. We found indication of effect modification by child's sex and smoking during pregnancy. The direction of the associations differed by chemical and these effect modifiers, suggesting diverse mechanisms of action and biological pathways.

15.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(3): 216-222, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency on the neuropsychological development of their offspring is uncertain. We aimed to assess the association between iodine status during pregnancy and the cognitive and motor development of children at 4-5 years. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in four Spanish regions with recruitment of pregnant women between 2003 and 2008 and follow-up of their children up to 4-5 years (mean (SD)=4.8 (0.6)). Cognitive and motor function was assessed in 1803 children using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Dietary iodine and supplementation were measured through questionnaires twice during pregnancy. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in spot samples. The residuals of a regression of UIC against creatinine were used to define a variable corrected for creatinine (UIC~Cr). RESULTS: Neither iodine supplements nor iodised salt consumption or maternal UIC were associated with cognitive or motor function. After adjusting for creatinine, children of women with UIC~Cr <100 µg/L had 3.93 (95% CI -6.18 to -1.69) general cognitive scores lower than the reference (150-249 µg/L). Dietary iodine was inversely associated with motor scores and milk but not other dairy products or seafood consumption accounted for this association (beta: -1.36; 95% CI -2.12 to -0.61; per one daily milk serving). CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between low maternal urinary iodine and lower cognitive scores in childhood, although only when corrected for creatinine, adding to the evidence that iodine deficiency may have potential harmful effects on neurodevelopment. Iodine supplementation does not appear to improve child's neurodevelopment at 4-5 years.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 610-611: 741-749, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822941

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) has been positively associated with neurodevelopment in early life. However, its margin of safety is rather narrow, and few prospective studies have evaluated its potential neurotoxic effects at intermediate levels. We aimed to explore the association between maternal Se concentrations and child neuropsychological development, including the genetic effect modification of the Se metabolizing gene INMT. Study subjects were 650 mother-child pairs from the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2005). Infant neuropsychological development was assessed around 12months of age by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Sociodemographic and dietary characteristics were collected by questionnaire at the first and third trimester of gestation. Se was measured in serum samples at the first trimester. The mean serum Se concentration was 79.7 (standard deviation=7.9) µg/L. In multivariate analysis, nonsignificant inverse linear associations were found between Se concentrations and standardized mental and psychomotor development scores (ß (95% CI)=-0.13 (-0.29, 0.03) and ß (95% CI)=-0.08 (-0.24, 0.07), respectively). Generalized additive models indicated inverted U-shaped relationships between Se concentrations and both scales. Using segmented regression, the turning point for the associations was estimated at 86µg/L for both scales. The association between Se and neuropsychological development was inverted U-shaped for children with the AG+AA genotype for rs6970396 INMT but a descending curve was suggested for the GG genotype. Further studies would be necessary in order to disentangle the complex equilibrium between the toxicity and benefits of Se exposure during the prenatal period.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Metiltransferases/genética , Gravidez/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos de Selênio
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(11): 117004, 2017 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. METHODS: We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003-2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log10-transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log10-unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log10-unit increase=-5.86% (95% CI: -9.91%, -1.63%) and percent median change per log10-unit increase=-4.75% (95% CI: -8.16%, -0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log10-unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data (n=640). CONCLUSIONS: Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this study suggest that PFAS exposures during pregnancy may influence lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance and thus may impact the health of the mother and her child. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1062.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Caprilatos/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Gravidez
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(9): 097018, 2017 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect body mass index (BMI) and other components of cardiometabolic (CM) risk during childhood, but evidence is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposures and outcomes relevant to cardiometabolic risk, including a composite CM-risk score. METHODS: We measured perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in maternal plasma (first trimester). We assessed weight gain from birth until 6 mo. At 4 and 7 y, we calculated the age- and sex-specific z-scores for BMI, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) (n≈1,000). At age 4, we calculated the age-, sex-, and region-specific z-scores for cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), high-density (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (n=627). At age 4, we calculated a CM-risk score (n=386) as the sum of the individual age-, sex-, and region-specific z-scores for WC, BP, HDL-C, and TGs. We used the average between the negative of HDL-C z-score and TGs z-score to give similar weight to lipids and the other components in the score. A higher score indicates a higher cardiometabolic risk at age 4. RESULTS: PFOS and PFOA were the most abundant PFAS (geometric mean: 5.80 and 2.32 ng/mL, respectively). In general, prenatal PFAS concentrations were not associated with individual outcomes or the combined CM-risk score. Exceptions were positive associations between prenatal PFHxS and TGs z-score [for a doubling of exposure, ß=0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.21], and between PFNA and the CM-risk score (ß=0.60; 95% CI: 0.04, 1.16). There was not clear or consistent evidence of modification by sex. CONCLUSIONS: We observed little or no evidence of associations between low prenatal PFAS exposures and outcomes related to cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Spanish children followed from birth until 7 y. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1330.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Espanha
19.
Environ Int ; 108: 278-284, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28917208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight but maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may attenuate this association. Further, this association remains unclear for other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes, and the influence of GFR, in a Spanish birth cohort. METHODS: We measured PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA in 1st-trimester maternal plasma (years: 2003-2008) in 1202 mother-child pairs. Continuous birth outcomes included standardized weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. Binary outcomes included low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational-age, and preterm birth. We calculated maternal GFR from plasma-creatinine measurements in the 1st-trimester of pregnancy (n=765) using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. We used mixed-effects linear and logistic models with region of residence as random effect and adjustment for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fish intake during pregnancy. RESULTS: Newborns in this study weighted on average 3263g and had a median gestational age of 39.8weeks. The most abundant PFAS were PFOS and PFOA (median: 6.05 and 2.35ng/mL, respectively). Overall, PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated to birth outcomes. PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA showed weak, non-statistically significant associations with reduced birth weights ranging from 8.6g to 10.3g per doubling of exposure. Higher PFOS exposure was associated with an OR of 1.90 (95% CI: 0.98, 3.68) for LBW (similar in births-at-term) in boys. Maternal GFR did not confound the associations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, PFAS showed little association with birth outcomes. Higher PFHxS, PFOA, and PFNA concentrations were non-significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The association between PFOS and LBW seemed to be sex-specific. Finally, maternal GFR measured early during pregnancy had little influence on the estimated associations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
20.
Environ Int ; 104: 83-90, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. The disruption of the deiodinase (DIO) enzymes has been proposed as a mechanism of action. AIM: To evaluate the association between exposure to OCs and TH status in pregnant women, as well as to explore the role of genetic variations in the DIO1 and DIO2 genes. METHODS: The study population (n=1128) was composed of pregnant women who participated in the INMA Project (Spain, 2003-2006). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4´-DDE), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners 138, 153 and 180, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured in serum samples taken during the first trimester of pregnancy (mean [standard deviation (SD)]: 13.5 [2] weeks of gestation). Polymorphisms in DIO1 (rs2235544) and DIO2 (rs12885300) were genotyped in maternal DNA. Sociodemographic and dietary characteristics were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS: A 2-fold increase in HCB was associated with lower TT3 (% change=-1.48; 95%CI: -2.36, -0.60). Women in the third tertile for b-HCH had lower TT3 (% change=-3.19; 95%CI: -5.64, -0.67). The interactions between DIO1 rs2235544 and PCB153 and b-HCH were statistically significant. The inverse association between PCB153 and TT3 was the strongest among women with AA genotype. Women with CC genotype presented the strongest inverse association between b-HCH and FT4. CONCLUSION: Exposure to HCB and b-HCH was associated to a disruption in maternal TT3. The DIO1 rs2235544 SNP modified the association between exposure to some of the OCs (specifically b-HCH and PCB153) and maternal thyroid hormone levels. These results strengthen the hypothesis that DIO enzymes play a role in explaining the disruption of thyroid hormones in relation to exposure to OCs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Espanha , Tireotropina/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA