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1.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; : 1040638719899645, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924129

RESUMO

Nonadrenal diseases (NAD), including congestive heart failure (CHF), can affect the conversion of cortisone to cortisol favoring the production of cortisol's urinary downstream metabolites 5α/5ß-tetrahydrocortisol (THF) relative to tetrahydrocortisone (THE). We hypothesized that healthy dogs would have lower urinary levels of cortisol, cortisone, THF, and THE than dogs with hypercortisolism (HC) or CHF, and the latter would have higher urinary levels of THF and lower THE than dogs with HC. Four, 9, and 8 dogs with HC, CHF, and normal health, respectively, were included in a pilot prospective cross-sectional study. A single morning voided urine sample was analyzed for urinary cortisol metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The percentages of conjugated urinary metabolites were significantly higher in dogs with CHF than in healthy dogs (p = 0.001), and not different in HC dogs (p = 0.07). Log-transformed urine cortisol metabolites-to-creatinine ratios in healthy dogs were significantly lower than the 2 other groups (p < 0.001). The urinary free THE:THF ratio was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the urinary total and conjugated THE:THF ratios. Health status did not affect the total, conjugated, and free THE:THF ratios (p = 0.61). Additional studies are needed to investigate differences in cortisol metabolites between dogs with HC and NAD to accurately discriminate between the groups.

2.
Anim Sci J ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701624

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for lactation yields of milk (MY), fat (FY), protein (PY), and somatic cell score (SCS) of New Zealand dairy goats. The analysis used 64,604 lactation records from 23,583 does, kidding between 2004 and 2017, distributed in 21 flocks and representing 915 bucks. Estimates of genetic and residual (co) variances, heritabilities, and repeatabilities were obtained using a multiple-trait repeatability animal model. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (does kidding in the same flock and year), age of the doe (in years), and as covariates, kidding day, proportion of Alpine, Nubian, Toggenburg, and "unknown" breeds (Saanen was used as the base breed), and heterosis. Random effects included additive animal genetic and doe permanent environmental effects. Estimates of heritabilities were 0.25 for MY, 0.24 for FY, 0.24 for PY, and 0.21 for SCS. The phenotypic correlations between MY, FY, and PY ranged from 0.90 to 0.96, and the genetic correlations ranged from 0.81 to 0.93. These results indicate lactation yield traits exhibit useful heritable variation and that multiple trait selection for these traits could improve milk revenue produced from successive generations of New Zealand dairy goats.

3.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(4): 476-482, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the combinations of morphine, dexmedetomidine and maropitant enhance the analgesic effect and decrease the dose of individual drugs in rats subjected to noxious thermal stimulation with hot-plate and tail-flick tests. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, blinded, prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A total of 96 male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: The rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) morphine (3 mg kg-1; Mor); 2) dexmedetomidine (10 µg kg-1; Dex); 3) maropitant (20 mg kg-1; Maro); 4) morphine (1.5 mg kg-1) + dexmedetomidine (5 µg kg-1; Mor + Dex); 5) dexmedetomidine (5 µg kg-1) + maropitant (10 mg kg-1; Dex + Maro); 6) morphine (1.5 mg kg-1) + maropitant (10 mg kg-1; Mor + Maro); 7) morphine (1 mg kg-1) + dexmedetomidine (3.5 µg kg-1) + maropitant (6.5 mg kg-1; Mor + Dex + Maro); and 8) normal saline (0.5 mL; saline), all injected intravenously. The tail-flick and hot-plate tests were performed before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the injection of the drugs. These variables were analysed with the effect-time area under the curve (AUC) analysis and a mixed linear model. RESULTS: Data were analysed in 94 rats. The rank order of the total analgesic effects of the treatment groups shown by AUC analysis was found to be Mor > Maro + Mor > Dex + Mor > Dex > Maro > Dex + Maro + Mor > Dex + Maro > saline for the hot-plate test, and Maro + Mor > Mor > Dex + Mor > Dex + Maro + Mor > Maro > Dex > Dex + Maro > saline for the tail-flick test. The mixed model analysis showed a significant difference between latencies of the group morphine + maropitant versus all other treatment groups in the tail-flick test (p < 0.0001) and morphine versus saline in the hot-plate test (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Morphine and maropitant appeared to show a supra-additive effect for analgesia in the tail-flick test. Clinical trials should be conducted to establish its use in treating pain.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Morfina/farmacologia , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/farmacocinética , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinuclidinas/farmacocinética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Environ Technol ; : 1-12, 2019 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088332

RESUMO

Urine deposition by grazing livestock is the single largest source of ammonia (NH3) volatilisation losses in New Zealand. Urease inhibitors (UI) have been used to mitigate NH3 losses from fertiliser urea and animal urine. In previous trials, the UI effect in reducing NH3 emissions from urine has been measured by applying urine mixed with the UI to the pasture soil thus increasing the chances of better interaction of the UI in inhibiting the urease enzyme. However, these trials do not represent a realistic grazing scenario where only urine is deposited onto the soil. This current research aimed to identify the best time to spray nBTPT (a UI containing 0.025% N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide) onto pasture soil to reduce NH3 losses from urine patches. The treatments were: a control (without urine and nBTPT), urine alone at 530 kg N ha-1 and urine plus nBTPT. The UI was applied to the chambers and soil plots 5 and 3 days prior to urine deposition, on the same day and 1, 3 and 5 after urine deposition in autumn. Ammonia losses were measured using the dynamic chamber method. The application of the inhibitor prior to urine deposition reduced NH3 losses with reductions of 27.6% and 17.5% achieved for UAgr-5 and UAgr-3, respectively. However, reductions in NH3 emission were 0.6-2.9% for inhibitor applied post urine deposition. There was also a reduction in both soil NH4+-N concentration and soil pH in comparison with urine alone or with the treatments where nBTPT was applied after urine deposition.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 73, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks have a negative effect on dairy and beef cattle production systems around the world, with the concomitant risk they represent for the transmission of some important infectious diseases. Colombian cattle breeds are distributed across different agroecological regions and are exposed to different environmental challenges. In humid and warmer climates such as those from the tropics, tick burden and heat stress are important factors that can compromise livestock performance. The aim of this study was to characterize tick burden in four Colombian cattle breeds and evaluate the relationship between heat stress and tick burden in Bos taurus cattle under tropical conditions. Tick counting was conducted in 1332 cattle from Romosinuano (ROMO), Costeño con Cuernos (CCC), San Martinero (SM) and Blanco Orejinegro (BON) breeds, located in the Caribbean, Orinoquia and Andean regions. Vital signs and environmental variables were taken to calculate an adaptability index (AI) and a temperature humidity index (THI). An AI < 2 indicates maximum adaptability while an AI ≥ 2 indicates a state of lower adaptability. In beef cattle, productivity starts to be affected by heat stress when environmental conditions allow an estimation of a THI > 75. RESULTS: Results showed a differing distribution of ticks on the body of individuals that varied according to the agroecological region. There was a significant effect of breed, sex, family, age and live weight on cattle tick burden. The lowest tick burden was observed in the ROMO breed (12.8 ± 2.6), while the highest tick burden was observed in CCC (31.8 ± 2.3), which were located in the same agroecological region. SM and ROMO animals with an AI > 2 had a higher tick burden than their counterparts that had an AI < 2. CONCLUSIONS: Cattle breed, sex, age and live weight affect the tick burden in Bos taurus Colombian cattle breeds. The tick burden is higher in cattle with lower adaptability to heat stress. Moreover, it decreases as heat stress levels increase in a tropical environment. The interaction between tick burden and environmental heat stress can be affected by characteristics of the agroecological region itself, the breed and the genetic resistance of the individual tick, as well as the thermal adaptability of cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Carrapatos , Clima Tropical
7.
J Anim Sci ; 96(5): 1962-1977, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506123

RESUMO

Across the literature, there is large variation in lamb birth weight responses to changes in the ewe pregnancy nutrition. Much of this heterogeneity has been attributed to several factors inherent to each experiment; however, the relative contribution of these experimental factors has not yet been quantified. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the variation in lamb birth weight responses across nutritional studies involving adult multiparous ewes. Effect-sizes for individual studies were estimated using the unbiased estimator Hedges' g, whereby positive and negative values indicate heavier and lighter treatment lambs vs. controls, respectively. Heterogeneity varied between early-, mid- and late-pregnancy undernutrition studies (I2total [early pregnancy] = 19.90%, I2total [midpregnancy] = 52.10%, I2total [late pregnancy] = 68.70%). The small average effects for early- (0.04, highest posterior density [HPD] interval = -0.22, 0.28) and mid-pregnancy undernutrition (-0.15, HPD interval = -0.35, 0.05) suggest that if farmers anticipate a potential feed shortage, ewes can be allowed to lose weight providing nutrition is resumed to adequate levels later in pregnancy. On the contrary, late-pregnancy undernutrition was associated with a significant decrease in lamb birth weight (-0.72, HPD interval = -0.86, -0.55). Thus, management practices should focus on ensuring adequate nutrition in late pregnancy. Increasing lamb birth weight could be possible by feeding ewes above their pregnancy maintenance requirement (0.23, HPD interval = 0.002, 0.48), though the number of studies is limited and further research is needed.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Paridade , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso
8.
Vet Sci ; 5(1)2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351199

RESUMO

Biofilm formation is of growing concern in human and animal health. However, it is still unclear how biofilms are related to mastitis infections in dairy cattle. In this study, a comparison between two tests for biofilm formation and the association between biofilm and the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation were investigated for 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical mastitis cases. Congo red agar (CRA) and microtitre test assay (MTA) in vitro phenotypic tests were used to evaluate biofilm formation. The presence of icaA, icaD, and bap genes associated with biofilm formation was confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction. Results show that most of the S. aureus isolates, though not possessing one of the biofilm-forming genes, were able to produce biofilms. MTA was more frequently positive in identifying biofilm-forming isolates than CRA.

9.
Front Vet Sci ; 4: 191, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177156

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for culling, sales and deaths in intensively managed dairy goat herds in New Zealand. A data set provided by the New Zealand Dairy Goat Cooperative (n = 13,197 does) was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model. The outcome of interest was length of productive life (LPL), defined as the number of days from the date of second kidding to the date of removal from the herd or the date on which follow-up was terminated, whichever occurred first. Milk solids yield in the first lactation (MSL1) as a predictor of LPL was parameterized in the model as a penalized spline term. To account for MSL1 violating the proportional hazards assumption of the Cox model, LPL was divided into two intervals: T1 (less than or equal to 730 days from the date of second kidding) and T2 (greater than 730 days from the date of second kidding). MSL1 was then included in the model as a time-dependent covariate. A frailty term was included in the model to account for unmeasured, herd-level effects on LPL. During T1, the daily hazard of removal for does that produced 80 kg milk solids in the first lactation was 0.84 (95% CI 0.58-1.23) times the daily hazard of removal for does that produced 30 kg milk solids in the first lactation. During T2, the daily hazard of removal for does that produced 80 kg milk solids in the first lactation was 1.44 (95% CI 0.79-2.65) times the daily hazard of removal for does that produced 30 kg milk solids in the first lactation. We conclude that involuntary losses may be avoided if high MSL1 yielding does are preferentially managed from 2 years beyond the date of second kidding.

10.
Vet Sci ; 4(1)2017 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056676

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of diabetes mellitus. Fructosamine is a glycated serum protein that serves as an index of glycemic control in cats and is useful because it is not affected by stress hyperglycemia. However, factors such as body weight, hypoproteinemia, and increased serum thyroid hormone concentration can alter fructosamine concentration. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the fructosamine concentrations in diabetic and nondiabetic cats with and without uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. A secondary goal was to determine the effect of sex, age, different populations of cats, and diabetes on the variability of fructosamine. We found that the mean (±SE) serum fructosamine of hyperthyroid diabetic cats (332 ± 24 µmol/L, 95% CI 291-379 µmol/L) was within the population-based reference interval (200-360 µmol/L) and significantly lower in comparison to euthyroid diabetic cats (527 ± 10 µmol/L, 95% CI 515-553 µmol/L). Additionally, in this study, diabetes accounted only for approximately 50% of the variance in serum fructosamine, while age, sex, and population made a minor contribution to this variance. In conclusion, finding serum fructosamine that is within the population-based reference interval in an uncontrolled diabetic cat should alert the veterinarian to the possibility of concurrent hyperthyroidism. Additionally, the veterinary clinician should consider that serum fructosamine might be substantially affected by factors other than diabetes.

12.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 1399, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27610318

RESUMO

Pelibuey sheep is the main breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, and high demand of sheep meat has favored the finishing of lambs in feedlots with diets containing high levels of grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes (EE) and application method on nutrient intake and digestibility and performance of growing Pelibuey lambs. Treatments were based on comparison of two different methods of adding an enzyme product (sprayed on the total mixed ration or applied orally to the lambs) versus control treatment (no added enzyme). Twenty-one Pelibuey lambs, weighing 15.7 kg (SD = 1.8 kg) initial body weight, were individually housed in shaded pens and assigned randomly to one of the three enzyme treatments. At the end of study (lasting for 45 days), three lambs from each treatment were randomly selected and adapted to a pants and harness designed for fecal collection to measure nutrient digestibilities. Total body gain and average daily gain were affected (P < 0.05) by supplemental EE. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on FCE and FCR, but no effects were observed on nutrient intake. Supplemental EE did improve (P < 0.05) the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral and acid detergent fiber, but no differences were observed in crude protein digestibility. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on the digestibility of acid detergent fiber. Supplemental EE can improve body weight gain and nutrient digestibilities without affecting nutrient intake in Pelibuey lambs, but the results of feed conversion efficiency and acid detergent fiber digestibility depend on the application method used of the EE.

13.
Meat Sci ; 121: 403-408, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448194

RESUMO

Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Composição Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Músculo Esquelético/química
14.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0141317, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26656911

RESUMO

Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80% VO2speak intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID) or calcium carbonate (PLA) the day before and on the day of the exercise trial in a randomized, counterbalanced order, using a crossover design. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), citrate synthase, cytochome c and FOXO1 was elevated at rest following ACID (P<0.05). During the PLA condition, the mRNA content of mitochondrial- and glucose-regulating proteins was elevated immediately following exercise (P<0.05). In the early phase (0-2 h) of post-exercise recovery during ACID, PGC-1α, citrate synthase, cytochome C, FOXO1, GLUT4, and HKII mRNA levels were not different from resting levels (P>0.05); the difference in PGC-1α mRNA content 2 h post-exercise between ACID and PLA was not significant (P = 0.08). Thus, metabolic acidosis abolished the early post-exercise increase of PGC-1α mRNA and the mRNA of downstream mitochondrial and glucose-regulating proteins. These findings indicate that metabolic acidosis may affect mitochondrial biogenesis, with divergent responses in resting and post-exercise skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/farmacologia , Exercício , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Citocromos c/genética , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Proteína Forkhead Box O1 , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 47(6): 1095-100, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25912973

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of five feeding strategies on calf weaning weight, and cow milk production and composition in Brazilian Holstein × Zebu cows. A total of 60 cows and their calves were allocated to each of five treatments. Cows in treatments 1, 2 and 3 were milked for 270 days and cows in treatments 4 and 5 were milked for 180 days. Calves in treatment 1 (CON) were not supplemented with concentrate whereas calves from treatment 2 (CLPN) received 1 kg of concentrate daily from 90 to 270 days of age and calves from treatment 3 received 1 kg of concentrated from 180 to 270 days of age. Calves in treatment 4 (CCPS) were supplemented with 1 kg of concentrate from 90 to 180 days of age and calves in treatment 5 (CLPS) were supplemented with 1 kg of concentrate from 90 to 270 days of age. Calves from the CLPS treatment had greater milk and protein intakes (P < 0.05) and greater growth rate than calves from the other treatments. Our results indicate that the traditional system of feeding calves with no concentrate results in a weight gain of 600 g/day. The CLPS treatment produced calves with the highest live weight and growth rate. The nutritional strategy with restricted supply of milk for the calves with concomitantly short-term concentrate supplementation does not improve performance of calves but did increase feed costs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Masculino , Ganho de Peso
16.
J Dairy Res ; 81(3): 340-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25052435

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate heritability and crossbreeding parameters (breed and heterosis effects) of various fatty acid (FA) concentrations in milk fat of New Zealand dairy cattle. For this purpose, calibration equations to predict concentration of each of the most common FAs were derived with partial least squares (PLS) using mid-infrared (MIR) spectral data from milk samples (n=850) collected in the 2003-04 season from 348 second-parity crossbred cows during peak, mid and late lactation. The milk samples produced both, MIR spectral data and concentration of the most common FAs determined using gas chromatography (GC). The concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) between the concentration of a FA determined by GC and the PLS equation ranged from 0.63 to 0.94, suggesting that some prediction equations can be considered to have substantial predictive ability. The PLS calibration equations were then used to predict the concentration of each of the fatty acids in 26,769 milk samples from 7385 cows that were herd-tested during the 2007-08 season. Data were analysed using a single-trait repeatability animal model. Shorter chain FA (16:0 and below) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Jersey cows, while longer chain, including unsaturated longer chain FA were higher in Holstein-Friesian cows. The estimates of heritabilities ranged from 0.17 to 0.41 suggesting that selective breeding could be used to ensure milk fat composition stays aligned to consumer, market and manufacturing needs.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Feminino , Hibridização Genética/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária
17.
J Dairy Res ; 81(2): 223-32, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24666778

RESUMO

The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ⩽100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células , Leite/citologia , Leite/economia , Animais , Bovinos , Queijo/análise , Comércio , Custos e Análise de Custo , Indústria de Laticínios , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/economia , Irlanda , Lactose/análise , Mastite Bovina , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Água/análise
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 46(3): 509-12, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24338376

RESUMO

The objective of the present experiment work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of genomic information on the additive genetic variance of birth weight (BW) of Charolais cattle in Mexico. Variance components and heritability were estimated using four linear models. The first model was the base model (BM) from which single and composite effects of selected single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were evaluated (BM1, BM2, and a composite BM3). Genetic markers were included in a regression model and analyzed by stepwise regression against adjusted BW from a panel of growth-related traits candidate gene markers. After two regression rounds, two SNPs (R (2) > 0.02) were chosen to include into the animal models as fixed effects. Growth hormone receptor gene GHR 4.2 and GHR 6.1 SNPs were selected from a panel of 39 SNPs. GHR 4.2 had a negligible effect on BW, whilst GHR6.1, interestingly, explained ∼9 % of genetic variance (p = 0.0877) with an αG>A = 0.509. The inclusion of markers in M2 and M3 reduced 19 and 15 % of the additive genetic variance, respectively. Both adjusted significantly better the linear model (LRT = p < 0.01). Results obtained suggest that the previous selection of markers in a candidate gene approach and subsequent inclusion of selected SNPs into animal model might provide a better fit, avoiding the overestimation of genetic variance components and breeding values for BW.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ganho de Peso/genética , Animais , Marcadores Genéticos , Masculino , México , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo
19.
J Dairy Res ; 80(4): 467-74, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24000951

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to collect and analyse milking data from a sample of commercial farms with swingover herringbone parlours to evaluate milking efficiency over a range of parlour sizes (12-32 milking units). Data were collected from 19 farms around the Republic of Ireland equipped with electronic milk metres and herd management software that recorded data at individual milking sessions. The herd management software on each farm was programmed to record similar data for each milking plant type. Variables recorded included cow identification, milking date, identification time, cluster-attachment time, cluster/unit number, milk yield, milking duration, and average milk flow rate. Calculations were performed to identify efficiency benchmarks such as cow throughput (cows milked per h), milk harvesting efficiency (kg of milk harvested per h) and operator efficiency (cows milked per operator per h). Additionally, the work routine was investigated and used to explain differences in the benchmark values. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model that included the fixed effects of season-session (e.g. spring-AM), parlour size and their interaction, and the random effect of farm. Additionally, a mathematical model was developed to illustrate the potential efficiency gains that could be achieved by implementing a maximum milking time (i.e. removing the clusters at a pre-set time regardless of whether the cow had finished milking or not). Cow throughput and milk harvesting efficiency increased with increasing parlour size (12 to 32 units), with throughput ranging from 42 to 129 cows/h and milk harvesting efficiency from 497 to 1430 kg/h (1-2 operators). Greater throughput in larger parlours was associated with a decrease in operator idle time. Operator efficiency was variable across farms and probably dependent on milking routines in use. Both of these require consideration when sizing parlours so high levels of operator efficiency as well as cow throughput can be achieved simultaneously. The mathematical model indicated that application of a maximum milking time within the milking process could improve cow throughput (66% increase in an 18-unit parlour when truncating the milking time of 20% of cows). This could allow current herd milking durations to be maintained as herd size increases.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Ejeção Láctea/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Zoo Biol ; 32(5): 541-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24018906

RESUMO

Avian growth rate patterns represent a trade off between a tissue's functional maturity and its capacity for growth. At the time of hatch, the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) limb has a high level of maturity in order for the chick to be able to kick its way out of the shell and walk and forage independently from an early age. Growth curves of limb segments, bill length and bodyweight are presented for captive-reared, BNZ Operation Nest Egg™ chicks over a period of 3 months from the point of hatch. Some parameters were slightly larger in the females than in males at time of hatch, including the bill length. Growth in bodyweight began to slow earlier in males than in females. Regressions of limb and bill measurements over time showed linear patterns of growth instead of a sigmoidal curve as seen in other birds, probably due to the short period of observation. Bodyweight and bill length were then compared to these morphometrics in a wild population of kiwi. Captive-reared chicks were found to hatch with shorter bills and to increase in bodyweight at a faster rate than the wild birds. Rapid weight gain has been implicated in developmental limb deformities in other precocial and long-legged birds and should be avoided in captive kiwi.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Paleógnatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
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