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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5068, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417460

RESUMO

p53 regulates several signaling pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and modulates the cellular response to stress. Deficiency or excess of nutrients causes cellular metabolic stress, and we hypothesized that p53 could be linked to glucose maintenance. We show here that upon starvation hepatic p53 is stabilized by O-GlcNAcylation and plays an essential role in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. More specifically, p53 binds to PCK1 promoter and regulates its transcriptional activation, thereby controlling hepatic glucose production. Mice lacking p53 in the liver show a reduced gluconeogenic response during calorie restriction. Glucagon, adrenaline and glucocorticoids augment protein levels of p53, and administration of these hormones to p53 deficient human hepatocytes and to liver-specific p53 deficient mice fails to increase glucose levels. Moreover, insulin decreases p53 levels, and over-expression of p53 impairs insulin sensitivity. Finally, protein levels of p53, as well as genes responsible of O-GlcNAcylation are elevated in the liver of type 2 diabetic patients and positively correlate with glucose and HOMA-IR. Overall these results indicate that the O-GlcNAcylation of p53 plays an unsuspected key role regulating in vivo glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
2.
Mol Metab ; 53: 101275, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neddylation is a druggable and reversible ubiquitin-like post-translational modification upregulated in many diseases, including liver fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and more recently, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we propose to address the effects of neddylation inhibition and the underlying mechanisms in pre-clinical models of NAFLD. METHODS: Hepatic neddylation measured by immunohistochemical analysis and NEDD8 serum levels measured by ELISA assay were evaluated in NAFLD clinical and pre-clinical samples. The effects of neddylation inhibition by using a pharmacological small inhibitor, MLN4924, or molecular approaches were assessed in isolated mouse hepatocytes and pre-clinical mouse models of diet-induced NAFLD, male adult C57BL/6 mice, and the AlfpCre transgenic mice infected with AAV-DIO-shNedd8. RESULTS: Neddylation inhibition reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-stimulated mouse primary hepatocytes and ameliorated liver steatosis, preventing lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the mouse models of diet-induced NAFLD. Under these conditions, increased Deptor levels and the concomitant repression of mTOR signaling were associated with augmented fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipid content. Moreover, Deptor silencing in isolated mouse hepatocytes abolished the anti-steatotic effects mediated by neddylation inhibition. Finally, serum NEDD8 levels correlated with hepatic neddylation during the disease progression in the clinical and pre-clinical models CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the upregulation of Deptor, driven by neddylation inhibition, is proposed as a novel effective target and therapeutic approach to tackle NAFLD.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(6): 555, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050139

RESUMO

Dysregulation of miRNAs is a hallmark of cancer, modulating oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and drug responsiveness. The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib is one of the first-line drugs for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although the outcome for treated patients is heterogeneous. The identification of predictive biomarkers and targets of sorafenib efficacy are sorely needed. Thus, selected top upregulated miRNAs from the C19MC cluster were analyzed in different hepatoma cell lines compared to immortalized liver human cells, THLE-2 as control. MiR-518d-5p showed the most consistent upregulation among them. Thus, miR-518d-5p was measured in liver tumor/non-tumor samples of two distinct cohorts of HCC patients (n = 16 and n = 20, respectively). Circulating miR-518d-5p was measured in an independent cohort of HCC patients receiving sorafenib treatment (n = 100), where miR-518d-5p was analyzed in relation to treatment duration and patient's overall survival. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed in human hepatoma BCLC3 and Huh7 cells to analyze the effect of miR-518d-5p inhibition/overexpression during the response to sorafenib. Compared with healthy individuals, miR-518d-5p levels were higher in hepatic and serum samples from HCC patients (n = 16) and in an additional cohort of tumor/non-tumor paired samples (n = 20). MiR-518d-5p, through the inhibition of c-Jun and its mitochondrial target PUMA, desensitized human hepatoma cells and mouse xenograft to sorafenib-induced apoptosis. Finally, serum miR-518d-5p was assessed in 100 patients with HCC of different etiologies and BCLC-stage treated with sorafenib. In BCLC-C patients, higher serum miR-518d-5p at diagnosis was associated with shorter sorafenib treatment duration and survival. Hence, hepatic miR-518d-5p modulates sorafenib resistance in HCC through inhibition of c-Jun/PUMA-induced apoptosis. Circulating miR-518d-5p emerges as a potential lack of response biomarker to sorafenib in BCLC-C HCC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670179

RESUMO

Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) is the fifth enzyme in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. A deficiency in human FAH leads to hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1), an autosomal recessive disorder that results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as succinylacetone, maleylacetoacetate, and fumarylacetoacetate in the liver and kidney, among other tissues. The disease is severe and, when untreated, it can lead to death. A low tyrosine diet combined with the herbicidal nitisinone constitutes the only available therapy, but this treatment is not devoid of secondary effects and long-term complications. In this study, we targeted FAH for the first-time to discover new chemical modulators that act as pharmacological chaperones, directly associating with this enzyme. After screening several thousand compounds and subsequent chemical redesign, we found a set of reversible inhibitors that associate with FAH close to the active site and stabilize the (active) dimeric species, as demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy. Importantly, the inhibitors are also able to partially restore the normal phenotype in a newly developed cellular model of HT1.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Tirosinemias/tratamento farmacológico , Tirosinemias/enzimologia , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hidrolases/genética , Camundongos , Tirosinemias/genética
5.
J Hepatol ; 75(1): 34-45, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Perturbations of intracellular magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis have implications for cell physiology. The cyclin M family, CNNM, perform key functions in the transport of Mg2+ across cell membranes. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the role of CNNM4 in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Serum Mg2+ levels and hepatic CNNM4 expression were characterised in clinical samples. Primary hepatocytes were cultured under methionine and choline deprivation. A 0.1% methionine and choline-deficient diet, or a choline-deficient high-fat diet were used to induce NASH in our in vivo rodent models. Cnnm4 was silenced using siRNA, in vitro with DharmaFECT and in vivo with Invivofectamine® or conjugated to N-acetylgalactosamine. RESULTS: Patients with NASH showed hepatic CNNM4 overexpression and dysregulated Mg2+ levels in the serum. Cnnm4 silencing ameliorated hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis in the rodent NASH models. Mechanistically, CNNM4 knockdown in hepatocytes induced cellular Mg2+ accumulation, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increased microsomal triglyceride transfer activity, which promoted hepatic lipid clearance by increasing the secretion of VLDLs. CONCLUSIONS: CNNM4 is overexpressed in patients with NASH and is responsible for dysregulated Mg2+ transport. Hepatic CNNM4 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of NASH. LAY SUMMARY: Cyclin M4 (CNNM4) is overexpressed in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes the export of magnesium from the liver. The liver-specific silencing of Cnnm4 ameliorates NASH by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and promoting the activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261190

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that occurs in chronic liver disease. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that is crucial for a plethora of physiological processes. Even though the ubiquitin system has been implicated in several human diseases, the role of ubiquitination in liver fibrosis remains poorly understood. Here, multi-omics approaches were used to address this. Untargeted metabolomics showed that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis promotes changes in the hepatic metabolome, specifically in glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Gene ontology analysis of public deposited gene array-based data and validation in our mouse model showed that the biological process "protein polyubiquitination" is enriched after CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Finally, by using transgenic mice expressing biotinylated ubiquitin (bioUb mice), the ubiquitinated proteome was isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry in order to unravel the hepatic ubiquitinated proteome fingerprint in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Under these conditions, ubiquitination appears to be involved in the regulation of cell death and survival, cell function, lipid metabolism, and DNA repair. Finally, ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is induced during CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and associated with the DNA damage response (DDR). Overall, hepatic ubiquitome profiling can highlight new therapeutic targets for the clinical management of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Genômica , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Ubiquitinação , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Regeneração Hepática , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
7.
Hepatology ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The liver plays a central role in all metabolic processes in the body. However, precise characterization of liver metabolism is often obscured by its inherent complexity. Phosphorylated metabolites occupy a prominent position in all anabolic and catabolic pathways. Here, we develop a 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based method to study the liver "phosphorome" through the simultaneous identification and quantification of multiple hydrophilic and hydrophobic phosphorylated metabolites. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We applied this technique to define the metabolic landscape in livers from a mouse model of the rare disease disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) as well as two well-known murine models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: one genetic, methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice, and the other dietary, mice fed a high-fat choline-deficient diet. We report alterations in the concentrations of phosphorylated metabolites that are readouts of the balance between glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation and of phospholipid metabolism and apoptosis. Moreover, these changes correlate with the main histological features: steatosis, apoptosis, iron deposits, and fibrosis. Strikingly, treatment with the repurposed drug ciclopirox improves the phosphoromic profile of CEP mice, an effect that was mirrored by the normalization of liver histology. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMR-based phosphoromics may be used to unravel metabolic phenotypes of liver injury and to identify the mechanism of drug action.

8.
iScience ; 23(10): 101645, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043283

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a systemic infection that exerts significant impact on the metabolism. Yet, there is little information on how SARS-CoV-2 affects metabolism. Using NMR spectroscopy, we measured the metabolomic and lipidomic serum profile from 263 (training cohort) + 135 (validation cohort) symptomatic patients hospitalized after positive PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also established the profiles of 280 persons collected before the coronavirus pandemic started. Principal-component analysis discriminated both cohorts, highlighting the impact that the infection has on overall metabolism. The lipidomic analysis unraveled a pathogenic redistribution of the lipoprotein particle size and composition to increase the atherosclerotic risk. In turn, metabolomic analysis reveals abnormally high levels of ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone) and 2-hydroxybutyric acid, a readout of hepatic glutathione synthesis and marker of oxidative stress. Our results are consistent with a model in which SARS-CoV-2 infection induces liver damage associated with dyslipidemia and oxidative stress.

9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(34): 5101-5117, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arachidyl amido cholanoic acid (Aramchol) is a potent downregulator of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) protein expression that reduces liver triglycerides and fibrosis in animal models of steatohepatitis. In a phase IIb clinical trial in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 52 wk of treatment with Aramchol reduced blood levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c, an indicator of glycemic control. AIM: To assess lipid and glucose metabolism in mouse hepatocytes and in a NASH mouse model [induced with a 0.1% methionine and choline deficient diet (0.1MCD)] after treatment with Aramchol. METHODS: Isolated primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with 20 µmol/L Aramchol or vehicle for 48 h. Subsequently, analyses were performed including Western blot, proteomics by mass spectrometry, and fluxomic analysis with 13C-uniformly labeled glucose. For the in vivo part of the study, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly fed a control or 0.1MCD for 4 wk and received 1 or 5 mg/kg/d Aramchol or vehicle by intragastric gavage for the last 2 wk. Liver metabolomics were assessed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-MS for the determination of glucose metabolism-related metabolites. RESULTS: Combination of proteomics and Western blot analyses showed increased AMPK activity while the activity of nutrient sensor mTORC1 was decreased by Aramchol in hepatocytes. This translated into changes in the content of their downstream targets including proteins involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis and oxidation [P-ACCα/ß(S79), SCD1, CPT1A/B, HADHA, and HADHB], oxidative phosphorylation (NDUFA9, NDUFB11, NDUFS1, NDUFV1, ETFDH, and UQCRC2), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (MDH2, SUCLA2, and SUCLG2), and ribosome (P-p70S6K[T389] and P-S6[S235/S236]). Flux experiments with 13C-uniformely labeled glucose showed that TCA cycle cataplerosis was reduced by Aramchol in hepatocytes, as indicated by the increase in the number of rounds that malate remained in the TCA cycle. Finally, liver metabolomic analysis showed that glucose homeostasis was improved by Aramchol in 0.1MCD fed mice in a dose-dependent manner, showing normalization of glucose, G6P, F6P, UDP-glucose, and Rbl5P/Xyl5P. CONCLUSION: Aramchol exerts its effect on glucose and lipid metabolism in NASH through activation of AMPK and inhibition of mTORC1, which in turn activate FA ß-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Cólicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metionina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
10.
Cell Metab ; 31(3): 605-622.e10, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084378

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the accumulation of hepatic fat in an inflammatory/fibrotic background. Herein, we show that the hepatic high-activity glutaminase 1 isoform (GLS1) is overexpressed in NASH. Importantly, GLS1 inhibition reduces lipid content in choline and/or methionine deprivation-induced steatotic mouse primary hepatocytes, in human hepatocyte cell lines, and in NASH mouse livers. We suggest that under these circumstances, defective glutamine fueling of anaplerotic mitochondrial metabolism and concomitant reduction of oxidative stress promotes a reprogramming of serine metabolism, wherein serine is shifted from the generation of the antioxidant glutathione and channeled to provide one-carbon units to regenerate the methionine cycle. The restored methionine cycle can induce phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-mediated and CDP-choline pathways as well as by base-exchange reactions between phospholipids, thereby restoring hepatic phosphatidylcholine content and very-low-density lipoprotein export. Overall, we provide evidence that hepatic GLS1 targeting is a valuable therapeutic approach in NASH.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SerpinB3 (SB3) is a hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α-dependent cysteine-protease inhibitor up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), released by cancer cells and able to stimulate proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition. Methods: In the study we employed transgenic and knock out SerpinB3 mice, liver cancer cell line, human HCC specimens, and mice receiving diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN) administration plus choline-deficient L-amino acid refined (CDAA) diet (DEN/CDAA protocol). Results: We provide detailed and mechanistic evidence that SB3 can act as a paracrine mediator able to affect the behavior of surrounding cells by differentially up-regulating, in normoxic conditions, HIF-1α and HIF-2α. SB3 acts by (i) up-regulating HIF-1α transcription, facilitating cell survival in a harsh microenvironment and promoting angiogenesis, (ii) increasing HIF-2α stabilization via direct/selective NEDDylation, promoting proliferation of liver cancer cells, and favoring HCC progression. Moreover (iii) the highest levels of NEDD8-E1 activating enzyme (NAE1) mRNA were detected in a subclass of HCC patients expressing the highest levels of HIF-2α transcripts; (iv) mice undergoing DEN/CDAA carcinogenic protocol showed a positive correlation between SB3 and HIF-2α transcripts with the highest levels of NAE1 mRNA detected in nodules expressing the highest levels of HIF-2α transcripts. Conclusions: These data outline either HIF-2α and NEDDylation as two novel putative therapeutic targets to interfere with the procarcinogenic role of SerpinB3 in the development of HCC.

12.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817258

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver disease. Even though our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis has deeply improved in the last years, therapeutic approaches for liver fibrosis remain limited. Profiling and characterization of the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, and more specifically NEDDylation and SUMOylation ubiquitin-like (Ubls) modifications, can provide a better understanding of the liver fibrosis pathology as well as novel and more effective therapeutic approaches. On this basis, in the last years, several studies have described how changes in the intermediates of the Ubl cascades are altered during liver fibrosis and how specific targeting of particular enzymes mediating these ubiquitin-like modifications can improve liver fibrosis, mainly in in vitro models of hepatic stellate cells, the main fibrogenic cell type, and in pre-clinical mouse models of liver fibrosis. The development of novel inhibitors of the Ubl modifications as well as novel strategies to assess the modified proteome can provide new insights into the overall role of Ubl modifications in liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Animais , Humanos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/metabolismo , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo
13.
J Vis Exp ; (153)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736480

RESUMO

Post-translational modification is a key mechanism regulating protein homeostasis and function in eukaryotic cells. Among all ubiquitin-like proteins in liver cancer, the modification by SUMO (Small Ubiquitin MOdifier) has been given the most attention. Isolation of endogenous SUMOylated proteins in vivo is challenging due to the presence of active SUMO-specific proteases. Initial studies of SUMOylation in vivo were based on the molecular detection of specific SUMOylated proteins (e.g., by western blot). However, in many cases, antibodies, generally made with non-modified recombinant protein, did not immunoprecipitate SUMOylated forms of the protein of interest. Nickel chromatography has been the other approach to study SUMOylation by capturing histidine-tagged versions of SUMO molecules. This approach is mainly used in cells stably expressing or transiently transfected with His-SUMO molecules. To overcome these limitations, SUMO-binding entities (SUBEs) were developed to isolate endogenous SUMOylated proteins. Herein, we describe all the steps required for the enrichment, isolation, and identification of SUMOylated substrates from human hepatoma cells and hepatic tissues from a liver cancer mouse model by using SUBEs. Firstly, we describe methods involved in the preparation and lysis of the human hepatoma cells and liver tumor tissue samples. Then, a thorough explanation of the preparation of SUBEs and controls is detailed along with the protocol for the protein pull-down assays. Finally, some examples are provided regarding the options available for the identification and characterization of the SUMOylated proteome, namely the use of western-blot analysis for the detection of a specific SUMOylated substrate from liver tumors or the use of proteomics by mass spectrometry for high-throughput characterization of the SUMOylated proteome and interactome in hepatoma cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Sumoilação , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
14.
Mol Metab ; 29: 40-54, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex pathology in which several dysfunctions, including alterations in metabolic pathways, mitochondrial functionality and unbalanced lipid import/export, lead to lipid accumulation and progression to inflammation and fibrosis. The enzyme glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), the most important enzyme implicated in S-adenosylmethionine catabolism in the liver, is downregulated during NAFLD progression. We have studied the mechanism involved in GNMT downregulation by its repressor microRNA miR-873-5p and the metabolic pathways affected in NAFLD as well as the benefit of recovery GNMT expression. METHODS: miR-873-5p and GNMT expression were evaluated in liver biopsies of NAFLD/NASH patients. Different in vitro and in vivo NAFLD murine models were used to assess miR-873-5p/GNMT involvement in fatty liver progression through targeting of the miR-873-5p as NAFLD therapy. RESULTS: We describe a new function of GNMT as an essential regulator of Complex II activity in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. In NAFLD, GNMT expression is controlled by miR-873-5p in the hepatocytes, leading to disruptions in mitochondrial functionality in a preclinical murine non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Upregulation of miR-873-5p is shown in the liver of NAFLD/NASH patients, correlating with hepatic GNMT depletion. Importantly, NASH therapies based on anti-miR-873-5p resolve lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis by enhancing fatty acid ß-oxidation in the mitochondria. Therefore, miR-873-5p inhibitor emerges as a potential tool for NASH treatment. CONCLUSION: GNMT participates in the regulation of metabolic pathways and mitochondrial functionality through the regulation of Complex II activity in the electron transport chain. In NAFLD, GNMT is repressed by miR-873-5p and its targeting arises as a valuable therapeutic option for treatment.


Assuntos
Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Antagomirs/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/deficiência , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
15.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 6: 85-91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240204

RESUMO

Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) also referred to as serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) encodes a 50 kDa evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed in adult and fetal tissues. LKB1 is a master kinase known to phosphorylate and activate several kinases including AMP-activated protein kinase, a crucial cellular energy sensor. LKB1 shows pleiotropic activity playing diverse roles in multiple processes, including cell polarity and other processes relevant in cancer pathology, such as energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis. In spite of the fact that LKB1 is often considered a tumor suppressor in a wide variety of organs, in the last years, several studies have shown that LKB1 is unexpectedly high in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer. Post-translational modifications of LKB1 are potentially relevant in HCC. Herein, we provide a comprehensive revision of post-translational modifications of LKB1 in HCC and how they modulate LKB1 function by different mechanisms such as regulation of its activity, localization or stability. Overall, the signature post-translational modifications of LKB1 in HCC appear to play an important role in the rather unique role of LKB1 as an oncogenic driver in liver cancer and may provide an alternative valuable therapeutic approach to regulate LKB1 expression and/or activity in HCC.

16.
EBioMedicine ; 40: 406-421, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is usually described as a tumor suppressor in a wide variety of tissues, it has been shown that LKB1 aberrant expression is associated with bad prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Herein we have overexpressed LKB1 in human hepatoma cells and by using histidine pull-down assay we have investigated the role of the hypoxia-related post-translational modification of Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO)ylation in the regulation of LKB1 oncogenic role. Molecular modelling between LKB1 and its interactors, involved in regulation of LKB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and LKB1 activity, was performed. Finally, high affinity SUMO binding entities-based technology were used to validate our findings in a pre-clinical mouse model and in clinical HCC. FINDINGS: We found that in human hepatoma cells under hypoxic stress, LKB1 overexpression increases cell viability and aggressiveness in association with changes in LKB1 cellular localization. Moreover, by using site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that LKB1 is SUMOylated by SUMO-2 at Lys178 hampering LKB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and fueling hepatoma cell growth. Molecular modelling of SUMO modified LKB1 further confirmed steric impedance between SUMOylated LKB1 and the STe20-Related ADaptor cofactor (STRADα), involved in LKB1 export from the nucleus. Finally, we provide evidence that endogenous LKB1 is modified by SUMO in pre-clinical mouse models of HCC and clinical HCC, where LKB1 SUMOylation is higher in fast growing tumors. INTERPRETATION: Overall, SUMO-2 modification of LKB1 at Lys178 mediates LKB1 cellular localization and its oncogenic role in liver cancer. FUND: This work was supported by grants from NIH (US Department of Health and Human services)-R01AR001576-11A1 (J.M.M and M.L.M-C.), Gobierno Vasco-Departamento de Salud 2013111114 (to M.L.M.-C), ELKARTEK 2016, Departamento de Industria del Gobierno Vasco (to M.L.M.-C), MINECO: SAF2017-87301-R and SAF2014-52097-R integrado en el Plan Estatal de Investigación Cientifica y Técnica y Innovación 2013-2016 cofinanciado con Fondos FEDER (to M.L.M.-C and J.M.M., respectively), BFU2015-71017/BMC MINECO/FEDER, EU (to A.D.Q. and I.D.M.), BIOEF (Basque Foundation for Innovation and Health Research): EITB Maratoia BIO15/CA/014; Instituto de Salud Carlos III:PIE14/00031, integrado en el Plan Estatal de Investigación Cientifica y Técnica y Innovacion 2013-2016 cofinanciado con Fondos FEDER (to M.L.M.-C and J.M.M), Asociación Española contra el Cáncer (T.C.D, P·F-T and M.L.M-C), Daniel Alagille award from EASL (to T.C.D), Fundación Científica de la Asociación Española Contra el Cancer (AECC Scientific Foundation) Rare Tumor Calls 2017 (to M.L.M and M.A), La Caixa Foundation Program (to M.L.M), Programma di Ricerca Regione-Università 2007-2009 and 2011-2012, Regione Emilia-Romagna (to E.V.), Ramón Areces Foundation and the Andalusian Government (BIO-198) (A.D.Q. and I.D.M.), ayudas para apoyar grupos de investigación del sistema Universitario Vasco IT971-16 (P.A.), MINECO:SAF2015-64352-R (P.A.), Institut National du Cancer, FRANCE, INCa grant PLBIO16-251 (M.S.R.), MINECO - BFU2016-76872-R to (E.B.). Work produced with the support of a 2017 Leonardo Grant for Researchers and Cultural Creators, BBVA Foundation (M.V-R). Finally, Ciberehd_ISCIII_MINECO is funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III. We thank MINECO for the Severo Ochoa Excellence Accreditation to CIC bioGUNE (SEV-2016-0644). Funding sources had no involvement in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Oncogênicas/química , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sumoilação
17.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(10): 958, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237481

RESUMO

Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is the most abundant methyltransferase in the liver and a master regulator of the transmethylation flux. GNMT downregulation leads to loss of liver function progressing to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, GNMT deficiency aggravates cholestasis-induced fibrogenesis. To date, little is known about the mechanisms underlying downregulation of GNMT levels in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. On this basis, microRNAs are epigenetic regulatory elements that play important roles in liver pathology. In this work, we aim to study the regulation of GNMT by microRNAs during liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Luciferase assay on the 3'UTR-Gnmt was used to confirm in silico analysis showing that GNMT is potentially targeted by the microRNA miR-873-5p. Correlation between GNMT and miR-873-5p in human cholestasis and cirrhosis together with miR-873-5p inhibition in vivo in different mouse models of liver cholestasis and fibrosis [bile duct ligation and Mdr2 (Abcb4)-/- mouse] were then assessed. The analysis of liver tissue from cirrhotic and cholestatic patients, as well as from the animal models, showed that miR-873-5p inversely correlated with the expression of GNMT. Importantly, high circulating miR-873-5p was also detected in cholestastic and cirrhotic patients. Preclinical studies with anti-miR-873-5p treatment in bile duct ligation and Mdr2-/- mice recovered GNMT levels in association with ameliorated inflammation and fibrosis mainly by counteracting hepatocyte apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation. In conclusion, miR-873-5p emerges as a novel marker for liver fibrosis, cholestasis, and cirrhosis and therapeutic approaches based on anti-miR-873-5p may be effective treatments for liver fibrosis and cholestatic liver disease.


Assuntos
Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050997

RESUMO

Liver cancer is the sixth most prevailing cancer worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer, has a rather heterogeneous pathogenesis making it highly refractive to current therapeutic approaches. Hence, HCC patients have a poor and gloomy prognosis making liver cancer the second leading cause of global cancer-related deaths. On this basis, a more global mechanism, such as post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, may provide a valuable therapeutic approach for HCC clinical management by simultaneously regulating multiple disrupted signaling pathways. In the last years, the ubiquitin-like molecule NEDD8 (Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated-8) conjugation pathway, neddylation, was shown to be aberrant in HCC patients with a significant positive correlation found among global levels of neddylation and poorer prognosis. Even though the best-established role for NEDD8 is the activation of ubiquitin E3 ligase family of cullin-RING ligases, the putative role for other NEDD8 substrates has been explored in recent years leading to the identification of novel neddylation targets in HCC. Importantly, treatment with the small pharmacological inhibitor Pevonedistat (MLN4924) (Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Takeda Pharmaceutical), currently in clinical trials for the treatment of some types of leukemias and other advanced solid tumors, was shown to suppress the outgrowth of hepatoma cells and liver cancer in pre-clinical mouse models. Overall, considering that the neddylation inhibitor Pevonedistat was well-tolerated and displayed a significant antitumor effect in pre-clinical models, combinatory pharmacological treatment based on Pevonedistat are highly recommended to enter clinical trials targeting advanced HCC.

19.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2068, 2017 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233977

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (APAP) is the active component of many medications used to treat pain and fever worldwide. Its overuse provokes liver injury and it is the second most common cause of liver failure. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to APAP-induced liver injury but the mechanism by which APAP causes hepatocyte toxicity is not completely understood. Therefore, we lack efficient therapeutic strategies to treat this pathology. Here we show that APAP interferes with the formation of mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes via the mitochondrial negative regulator MCJ, and leads to decreased production of ATP and increased generation of ROS. In vivo treatment with an inhibitor of MCJ expression protects liver from acetaminophen-induced liver injury at a time when N-acetylcysteine, the standard therapy, has no efficacy. We also show elevated levels of MCJ in the liver of patients with acetaminophen overdose. We suggest that MCJ may represent a therapeutic target to prevent and rescue liver injury caused by acetaminophen.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/antagonistas & inibidores , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Rotenona/farmacologia , Rotenona/uso terapêutico , Desacopladores/farmacologia , Desacopladores/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173914, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28319158

RESUMO

Hyperammonemia is a metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of ammonia and a common event in acute liver injury/failure and chronic liver disease. Even though hepatic ammonia levels are potential predictive factors of patient outcome, easy and inexpensive methods aiming at the detection of liver ammonia accumulation in the clinical setting remain unavailable. Thus, herein we have developed a morphological method, based on the utilization of Nessler´s reagent, to accurately and precisely detect the accumulation of ammonia in biological tissue. We have validated our method against a commercially available kit in mouse tissue samples and, by using this modified method, we have confirmed the hepatic accumulation of ammonia in clinical and animal models of acute and chronic advanced liver injury as well as in the progression of fatty liver disease. Overall, we propose a morphological method for ammonia detection in liver that correlates well with the degree of liver disease severity and therefore can be potentially used to predict patient outcome.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Iodetos/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Compostos de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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