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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183249

RESUMO

In this paper we introduce a mechanistic model through which exercise may enhance episodic memory, specifically via attenuating proactive and retroactive memory interference. We discuss the various types of memory, different stages of memory function, review the mechanisms behind forgetting, and the mechanistic role of exercise in facilitating pattern separation (to attenuate memory interference).

2.
Am J Health Behav ; 44(2): 169-179, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019650

RESUMO

Objective: There is suggestive evidence that exercise may have a greater effect on visuo-spatial memory, compared to other memory types. However, we have a limited understanding as to the mechanisms through which exercise may subserve visuo-spatial memory. Thus, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the extent to which exercise may influence visuo-spatial memory, whether exercise can attenuate drug- and diseased-induced declines in memory, and determine the underlying mechanisms of these relationships. Methods: We employed a systematic review approach. We identified studies using electronic databases, including PubMed, PsychInfo, Sports Discus and Google Scholar. Results: In total, we identified 32 articles. Among these, 2 were among humans and 30 were conducted in animal models. There was strong evidence sup- porting the facilitative role of chronic exercise in visuo-spatial memory improvements, as well as attenuation of drug- and diseased-induced memory decline. There are various mechanisms through which chronic exercise may influence visuo-spatial memory, including increased neuro-genesis, angiogenesis, improved neural efficiency, CB1 receptor signaling, activation of H2 receptors, and increased number of synaptic structures (eg, AMPA and NMDA receptors). Conclusion: Exercise may help to enhance visuo-spatial memory.

3.
Am J Health Promot ; 34(1): 25-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359765

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retroactive interference involves the disruption of previously encoded information from newly learned information and thus may impair the consolidation of long-term memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether acute exercise can attenuate retroactive memory interference. DESIGN: Three experimental studies were employed. Experiment 1 employed a between-subject randomized control trial (RCT) involving moderate-intensity walking (15 minutes). Experiment 2 employed a between-subject RCT involving high-intensity jogging (15 minutes). Experiment 3 employed a within-subject RCT involving moderate-intensity walking (15 minutes). SETTING: University setting. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twelve young adults. MEASURES: After exercise, memory interference was evaluated from an episodic word-list memory task, involving the recall of 2 word lists. RESULTS: The pooled effect size (standard difference in means: -0.35; 95% confidence interval: -0.64 to -0.06) across the 3 experiments was statistically significant (P = .01). CONCLUSION: We provide suggestive evidence that acute, short-duration exercise may help attenuate a retroactive memory interference effect. Implications of these findings for exercise to improve memory and attenuate memory decay are discussed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835745

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to explore the spatial distribution pattern and influencing factors of the Chinese marathon. Geographic Information System (GIS) related spatial analysis tools were used to calculate the following-averaged nearest neighbor index, nuclear density analysis and hot spot analysis among others. The spatial distribution evolution characteristics and the influencing factors of eighteen Chinese marathon events in 2010, 129 in 2015 and 342 in 2018 were analyzed. The results show that (a) in 2010 the nearest neighbor ratio was 1.164714, Moran's I was -0.010165 (type: Random), in 2015 it was 0.502146, Moran's I was 0.066267 (type: Clustered) and in 2018 it was 0.531149 and Moran's I was 0.083485 (type: Clustered); (b) in 2010 there was a 333.6 km search radius; the core circle of the Yangtze River Delta was adopted. In 2015 and 2018, a search radius of 556 km was adopted, which was respectively obtained from the core circle of the Yangtze River Delta, the core circle of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the core circle of East China; (c) according to the Z-value data, East China and North China in 2015 passed 95% confidence in five provinces and municipal hot spots, passed 90% confidence in three hot spots and passed 95% confidence in Chongqing Cold Point. In 2018, East China, North China, Central Region and eight other provinces and cities' hot spots passed 95% confidence, four hot spots passed 90% confidence, the Tibet Autonomous Region cold spot passed 90% confidence. Conclusion: The overall distribution of marathon events is greater in the eastern region than the western region, greater in the southern region than the northern region and greater in coastal regions than the inland regions; the nuclear density distribution has spread from the Yangtze River Delta mononuclear circle in 2010 to the core circle of the entire East China region. Moreover, it spread to North China, Central China and South China; the distribution of hot spots spread from Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the entire North China and East China regions. During the past thirty-eight years of development of the Chinese marathon, it has been divided into three stages due to different political, economic and social environments.

5.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-4, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738651

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Despite the primary motor efferent role of the cortico-spinal tract (CST), it is hardly understood whether the amount of physical activity is associated with the integrity of the CST.Materials and methods: We examined the association between the amount of physical activity and the integrity of the CST, using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data from 465 individuals. The CST was segmented by probabilistic tractography and the association of the fractional anisotropy (FA) within was tested against physical activity (PA) assessed by moderate-intensity physical activity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.Results: The FA and PA showed a positive association. Post-hoc analyses showed that the radial diffusivity (RD) of the CST was negatively associated with PA, suggesting a potential association with preserved myelination with PA.Conclusion: This study shows that the integrity of the CST is associated with its traffic in the general population.

6.
Brain Sci ; 9(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous research has evaluated the effects of acute hypoxia exposure on cognitive function, notably executive function. No studies, to date, have evaluated the effects of acute hypoxia exposure on memory interference, which was the purpose of this experiment. METHODS: A within-subjects, counterbalanced experimental design was employed, with condition (hypoxia vs. normoxia) and time (immediate vs. delayed) being the independent variables. Participants (N = 21; Mage = 21.0 years) completed two laboratory visits, involving 30 min of exposure to either hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.12) or normoxia (FIO2 = 0.21). Following this, they completed a memory interference task (AB/AC paradigm), assessing immediate and delayed proactive and retroactive interference. RESULTS: For retroactive interference, we observed a significant main effect for condition, F(1, 20) = 5.48, p = 0.03, ƞ2 = 0.10, condition by time interaction, F(1, 20) = 4.96, p = 0.03, ƞ2 = 0.01, but no main effect for time, F(1, 20) = 1.75, p = 0.20, ƞ2 = 0.004. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that acute hypoxia exposure was facilitative in reducing memory interference. We discuss these findings in the context of the potential therapeutic effects of acute hypoxia exposure on synaptic plasticity.

7.
Health Promot Perspect ; 9(4): 314-318, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777712

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the potential combined effects of acute exercise and mindfulness mediation on episodic memory. Methods: All data collection occurred in the authors' laboratory (January to May of 2019). In this three-arm, within-subject design, participants (N=20; Mage=21.6 years) completed three counterbalanced laboratory visits, including Exercise Only, Exercise + Meditation and Control. Learning and memory were assessed from a word-list task. A one-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was computed for two memory outcomes, including the learning outcome (average performance across the 6 trials) and the long-term memory recall (10-minute delay). Results: The exercise conditions had a greater learning effect when compared to the Control visit, Mdiff = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.10, 1.25), P = 0.02. The Exercise + Memory visit had better longterm memory when compared to Exercise Only, Mdiff = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.83), P = 0.03. Conclusion: The present experiment provides suggestive evidence that acute exercise may enhance learning and, when coupling acute exercise prior to encoding with meditation during early consolidation, long-term memory may be enhanced.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Memory interference occurs when information (or memory) to be retrieved is interrupted by competing stimuli. Proactive interference (PI) occurs when previously acquired information interferes with newly acquired information, whereas retroactive interference (RI) occurs when newly acquired information interferes with previously acquired information. In animal paradigms, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to help facilitate pattern separation, and ultimately, attenuate memory interference. Research evaluating the role of the PFC on memory interference among humans is, however, limited. The present study evaluated the relationship between PFC oxygenation on memory interference among humans, with the null hypothesis being that there is no association between PFC oxygenation and memory interference. METHODS: A total of 74 participants (Mage = 20.8 years) completed the study. Participants completed a computerized memory interference task using the AB-DE AC-FG paradigm, with PFC oxyhemoglobin levels measured via functional near-infrared spectroscopy. RESULTS: For PI, the change in oxygenated hemoglobin for encoding list 1 and retrieval of list 1 showed moderate evidence for the null hypothesis (BF01 = 4.05 and 3.28, respectively). For RI, the Bayesian analysis also established moderate evidence for the null hypothesis across all memory task time points. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates evidence of the null hypothesis regarding the relationship between PFC oxygenation and memory interference. Future work should continue to investigate this topic to identify mechanistic correlates of memory interference.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661938

RESUMO

This research aims to evaluate the effect of virtual reality (VR) games on balance recovery of children with cerebral palsy (CP) by quantitatively synthesizing the existing literature, and to further determine the impact of VR game intervention (the duration of each intervention, intervention frequency, intervention cycle, and total intervention time) on the balance recovery of children with CP. To this end, relevant literature up until 3 August 2019 was retrieved from Chinese databases (CNKI and Wanfang Data) and the databases in other languages (Web of Science, Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Informit, Scopus, Science Direct, and ProQuest), and bias analysis was conducted with the PEDro scale in this research. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected and underwent meta-analysis, and combined effect size was calculated with a random effects model. The results showed that VR games may improve the balance of children with CP (Hedge's g = 0.29; 95% CI 0.10-0.48), and no significant influence of the intervention on balance of children with CP was shown in the subgroup analysis. In conclusion, VR games played a positive role in the improvement of balance of children with CP, but these results should be viewed with caution owing to current methodological defects (difference in measurement, heterogeneity of control groups, intervention combined with other treatments, etc.).

10.
Am J Health Behav ; 43(6): 1016-1029, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662162

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we evaluated whether exercise prior to memory encoding or during memory consolidation can influence episodic memory function after being exposed to a stressful environment. Methods: We conducted 3 between-group randomized controlled experiments among young adults. We assessed episodic memory (via logic memory task) at the beginning of the experiment and approximately 45 minutes later. Across the 3 experiments, we varied the temporal period (eg, before memory encoding or during consolidation) of the acute bout of exercise (15-minute moderate-intensity exercise) and psychological stress induction. Results: Across all 3 experiments there was a statistically significant main effect for time for memory function, but there were no time x group interaction effects. Conclusion: Memory declined across the 2 assessment periods, but for all 3 experiments, exercise was not associated with memory function after being exposed to a stressful stimulus.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of electronic products, smartphones have become an indispensable tool in our daily life. On the other hand, smartphone addiction has become a public health issue. To help reduce smartphone addiction, cost-effective interventions such as exercise are encouraged. PURPOSE: We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating existing literature on the rehabilitative effects of exercise interventions for individuals with a smartphone addiction. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI, and Wanfang from inception to September 2019. Nine eligible randomized controlled trials (RCT) were finally included for meta-analysis (SMD represents the magnitude of effect of exercise) and their methodological quality were assessed using the PEDro scale. RESULTS: We found significant positive effects of exercise interventions (Taichi, basketball, badminton, dance, run, and bicycle) on reducing the total score (SMD = -1.30, 95% CI -1.53 to -1.07, p < 0.005, I2 = 62%) of smartphone addiction level and its four subscales (withdrawal symptom: SMD = -1.40, 95% CI -1.73 to -1.07, p < 0.001, I2 = 81%; highlight behavior: SMD = -1.95, 95% CI -2.99 to -1.66, p < 0.001, I2 = 79%; social comfort: SMD = -0.99, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.81, p = 0.27, I2 = 21%; mood change: SMD = -0.50, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.69, p = 0.25, I2 = 25%). Furthermore, we found that individuals with severe addiction level (SMD = -1.19, I2 = 0%, 95%CI:-1.19 to -0.98) benefited more from exercise engagement, as compared to those with mild to moderate addiction levels (SMD = - 0.98, I2 = 50%, 95%CI:-1.31 to -0.66); individuals with smartphone addiction who participated in exercise programs of 12 weeks and above showed significantly greater reduction on the total score (SMD = -1.70, I2 = 31.2%, 95% CI -2.04 to -1.36, p = 0.03), as compared to those who participated in less than 12 weeks of exercise intervention (SMD = -1.18, I2 = 0%, 95% CI-1.35 to -1.02, p < 0.00001). In addition, individuals with smartphone addiction who participated in exercise of closed motor skills showed significantly greater reduction on the total score (SMD = -1.22, I2 = 0 %, 95% CI -1.41 to -1.02, p = 0.56), as compared to those who participated in exercise of open motor skills (SMD = -1.17, I2 = 44%, 95% CI-1.47 to -0.0.87, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise interventions may have positive effects on treating smartphone addiction and longer intervention durations may produce greater intervention effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Smartphone , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623285

RESUMO

Cognitive function is associated with longevity and is of critical importance for optimal daily functioning[...].

13.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507472

RESUMO

Background: Exercise modes can be divided into open skill exercise (OSE) and closed skill exercise (CSE). While research has shown that these two exercise modes may have different effects on cognitive function, this possibility has not been systematically reviewed. Objective: The purpose of the present review was to objectively evaluate the research literature regarding the effects of OSE versus CSE on cognitive function. Methods: Six electronic databases (Web of Science, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from inception dates to December 2018 for studies examining the associations of OSE and CSE with cognitive function. The literature searches were conducted using the combinations of two groups of relevant search items related to exercise modes (i.e., OSE and CSE) and cognitive function. Articles were limited to human studies in all age groups. Both intervention and observational studies with full text published in English-language peer-reviewed journals were considered eligible. The search process, study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were carried out independently by two researchers. Results: A total of 1,573 articles were identified. Fourteen observational and five intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of the 14 observational studies found that OSE benefits cognitive function, and seven of these 14 observational studies supported superior effects of OSE compared with CSE for enhancing cognitive function. Three of the five intervention studies found that OSE (versus CSE) led to greater improvements in cognitive function in both children and older adults. Conclusion: Although the majority of studies in this review were observational cross-sectional designs, the review tends to support that OSE is more effective for improving some aspects of cognitive function compared with CSE. More rigorous randomized control trials with long-term follow-ups are needed in order to confirm these differential cognitive effects of the two exercise modes.

14.
Brain Sci ; 9(9)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540407

RESUMO

Mental imagery is used extensively in the sporting domain. It is used for performance-enhancement purposes, arousal regulation, affective and cognitive modification, and rehabilitation purposes. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate whether acute exercise and mental imagery of acute exercise have similar effects on cognitive performance, specifically memory function. A within-subject randomized controlled experiment was employed. Participants (N = 24; Mage = 21.5 years) completed two exercise-related visits (i.e., actual exercise and mental imagery of exercise), in a counterbalanced order. The acute-exercise session involved 10 min of intermittent sprints. The mental-imagery session involved a time-matched period of mental imagery. After each manipulation (i.e., acute exercise or mental imagery of acute exercise), memory was evaluated from a paired-associative learning task and a comprehensive evaluation of memory, involving spatial-temporal integration (i.e., what, where, and when aspects of memory). Bayesian analyses were computed to evaluate the effects of actual exercise and mental imagery of exercise on memory function. For the paired-associative learning task, there was moderate evidence in favor of the null hypothesis for a main effect for condition (BF01 = 2.85) and time by condition interaction (BF01 = 3.30). Similarly, there was moderate evidence in favor of the null hypothesis for overall (what-where-when) memory integration (BF01 = 3.37), what-loop (BF01 = 2.34), where-loop (BF01 = 3.45), and when-loop (BF01 = 3.46). This experiment provides moderate evidence in support of the null hypothesis. That is, there was moderate evidence to support a non-differential effect of acute exercise and mental imagery of acute exercise on memory function.

15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Long-term potentiation (LTP), the functional connectivity among neurons, is considered a mechanism of episodic memory. Both acute exercise and learning are thought to influence memory via an LTP-related mechanism. Limited research has evaluated the individual and combined effects of acute exercise and learning strategy implementation (e.g., 3-R technique, cue-integration) on memory, which was the purpose of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For Experiment 1, participants (n = 80; Mage = 20.9 years) were randomized into one of four experimental groups, including Exercise + Learning (E + L), Learning Only (L), Exercise Only (E), and Control Group (C; no exercise and no learning strategy implementation). The exercise stimulus involved an acute 15-min bout of lower-intensity (60% of heart rate max) walking exercise and the learning strategy involved the implementation of the 3-R technique. Experiment 2 (n = 77; Mage = 21.1 years) replicated Experiment 1 but addressed limitations (e.g., exposure level of the memory task) from Experiment 1 and employed a higher-intensity bout of exercise (77% of heart rate max). Experiment 3 (n = 80; Mage = 21.0 years) evaluated these same four experimental conditions but employed a cue-integration learning strategy and a moderate-intensity bout of acute exercise (64% of heart rate max). RESULTS: These three experiments demonstrate that both learning techniques were effective in enhancing memory and we also provided evidence of a main effect for acute exercise (Experiment 3). However, we did not observe consistent evidence of a learning by exercise interaction effect. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that both acute exercise and different learning techniques are effective in enhancing long-term memory function.

16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390821

RESUMO

Background and Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential independent and interactive effects of handedness and grip strength on episodic memory function, and whether biological sex moderated these relationships. Materials and Methods: 162 young adults (Mage = 20.7 years) completed a series of memory assessments including a subjective memory complaint evaluation and several objective measures of memory. Handedness (i.e., left-hand dominant, inconsistent handedness (ICH), and right-hand dominant) was evaluated using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Handgrip strength was determined from a handgrip dynamometer. Results: When compared to ICH individuals, retrospective memory scores were statistically significantly worse for left-handed (p = 0.02) and right-handed (p = 0.03) individuals. Higher grip strength was statistically significantly associated with fewer retrospective memory complaints (b = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.19, p = 0.04). Conclusions: The present study provides some suggestive evidence that ICH (inconsistent handedness) and greater grip strength are associated with fewer retrospective memory complaints. However, we did not observe any evidence of an interaction effect of handedness and grip strength on memory, and similarly, biological sex did not interact with these parameters to influence memory.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mississippi , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394736

RESUMO

Background and Objective: The transient hypofrontality hypothesis predicts that memory function will be impaired during high-intensity exercise, as a result of a need for metabolic and cognitive resources to be allocated toward sustaining movement, as opposed to performing a cognitive task. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate this transient hypofrontality hypothesis. Materials and Methods: Experiment 1 involved participants (n = 24; Mage = 21.9 years) completing four counterbalanced visits. Two visits evaluated working memory function, either at rest or during a high-intensity bout of acute exercise. The other two visits evaluated episodic memory function, either at rest or during a high-intensity bout of acute exercise. Experiment 2 (n = 24; Mage = 20.9 years) extended Experiment 1 by evaluating memory function (working memory) across 4 counterbalanced conditions, including at rest and during light (30% of heart rate reserve; HRR), moderate (50% HRR) and high-intensity (80% HRR) acute exercise. Results: Experiment 1 demonstrated that, when compared to rest, both working memory and episodic memory were impaired during high-intensity acute exercise. Experiment 2 replicated this effect, but then also showed that, unlike high-intensity acute exercise, memory function was not impaired during low- and moderate-intensity acute exercise. Conclusions: Our experiments provide support for the transient hypofrontality hypothesis. Both working memory and episodic memory are impaired during high-intensity acute exercise. Working memory does not appear to be impaired during lower exercise intensities.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Exercício/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite accumulating research demonstrating that acute exercise may enhance memory function, very little research has evaluated whether acute exercise can effectuate intentional directed forgetting (DF), an adaptative strategy to facilitate subsequent memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled intervention was employed. Participants were randomized into one of three groups, including: (1) exercise plus DF (Ex + DF), (2) DF (directed forgetting) only (DF) and (3) R (remember) only (R). The acute bout of exercise included 15 min of high-intensity treadmill exercise. The memory assessment involved the presentation of two-word lists. After encoding the first word list, participants were either instructed to forget all of those words (DF) or to remember them. Following this, participants encoded the second word list. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant main effect for list F(1, 57) = 12.27, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.18, but no main effect for group F(2, 57) = 1.32, p = 0.27, η2p = 0.04, or list by group interaction, F(2, 57) = 2.89, p = 0.06, η2p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a directed forgetting effect in that cueing an individual to forget a previously encoded list of items facilitates memory performance on a subsequent list of items. However, we failed to demonstrate any beneficial effect of acute exercise in facilitating directed forgetting. These findings are discussed in the context of directed forgetting theories, particularly the attention inhibition mechanism, as well as the timing of the acute bout of exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Mississippi , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370283

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Episodic specific induction (ESI) is a manipulation shown to enhance episodic memory function. Episodic specificity induction involves thoroughly unpacking a recently encoded memory, with this enhanced retrieval-induced process helping to facilitate subsequent cognitions. In addition to ESI, emerging work suggests that acute exercise may also help to facilitate episodic memory function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential individual and combined effects of acute exercise and ESI on subsequent episodic memory performance. Materials and Methods: Participants (n = 120) were randomly assigned into one of four groups, (1) ESI and exercise (ESI + E), (2) ESI only (ESI), (3) exercise only (E), and (4) no ESI and no exercise (Control; C). The ESI protocol involved watching a short video and then recalling details about the setting, people, and actions in the video. The exercise protocol involved an acute bout (15 min) of treadmill exercise. After these tasks, episodic memory function was evaluated with an autobiographical interview assessment and a computerized episodic memory task involving what-where-when integration. Results: We did not observe significant main effects for exercise or ESI on memory function but did observe some suggestive evidence of an interaction effect of these two parameters on episodic memory. That is, for the exercise group, memory performance was higher when combined with ESI as opposed to without ESI. Conclusions: Acute exercise and ESI may interact to influence episodic memory function.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/normas , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438638

RESUMO

Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) as a typical mind-body practice has been investigated for its preventive role on negative emotions and has demonstrated its efficacy in healthy populations. However, the results are not consistent. We performed a meta-analysis and systematically evaluated the effect of TCC on selected negative emotions (i.e., anxiety and depression). Fourteen experimental studies from three English-and two Chinese-language databases were evaluated. The results showed that the positive effects of TCC on negative emotions were moderately to largely significant. In addition, although TCC significantly improved negative emotions in both the young adults and the older adults, old adults benefited more from TCC than young adults. These findings suggest that TCC is a worthy complementary non-pharmacological resource towards depression and anxiety and, thus, has great implications for the public health domain.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Tai Ji , Humanos
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