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1.
Food Res Int ; 139: 109976, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509521

RESUMO

Fish contains bioactive polar lipids (PL) and is mainly consumed cooked. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory characteristics of sous-vide cooked salmon and the in vitro cardio-protective properties of its PL. PL were extracted from brined and un-brined sous-vide preparations in 52 °C, 65 °C, and 80 °C, while their antithrombotic cardio-protective properties were assessed in human platelets and their fatty acid (FA) content was evaluated by LC-MS. Sensory tests were performed using napping followed by check-all-that apply (CATA). Mild temperatures (52 °C, 65 °C) did not affect the inhibitory effect of PL from brined and un-brined salmon, against human platelet aggregation induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF), thrombin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or collagen. In higher temperatures used for pasteurization (80 °C), a reduction of antithrombotic properties was observed in PL from both un-brined and brined salmon samples. This reduction was accompanied by a decrease of their n3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and overall polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content, but only in the PL of the un-brined salmon preparations. Thus, changes in the fatty acid content of PL of all sous vide salmon preparations, and especially of specific PUFA, seem to be associated with the observed changes in their antithrombotic potency. Changes in the content of the n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), a precursor of EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), seem to be associated with differences observed in the antithrombotic potency of PL from different sous vide salmon preparations. Taste attributes were not affected by the conditions of sous-vide preparations, whereas slight textural differences were observed in samples treated at 65 °C and 80 °C. These outcomes, if combined with the observed low values of the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in PL of all sous-vide preparations, further suggest a beneficial role for such a mild cooking procedure for preserving the antithrombotic and cardio-protective properties of salmon without affecting its sensory characteristics.

2.
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435162

RESUMO

Microalgae are at the start of the food chain, and many are known producers of a significant amount of lipids with essential fatty acids. However, the bioactivity of microalgal lipids for anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities have rarely been investigated. Therefore, for a sustainable source of the above bioactive lipids, the present study was undertaken. The total lipids of microalga Chlorococcum sp., isolated from the Irish coast, were fractionated into neutral-, glyco-, and phospho-lipids, and were tested in vitro for their anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities. All tested lipid fractions showed strong anti-platelet-activating factor (PAF) and antithrombin activities in human platelets (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging ~25-200 µg of lipid) with the highest activities in glyco- and phospho-lipid fractions. The structural analysis of the bioactive lipid fraction-2 revealed the presence of specific sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols (SQDG) bioactive molecules and the HexCer-t36:2 (t18:1/18:1 and 18:2/18:0) cerebrosides with a phytosphingosine (4-hydrosphinganine) base, while fraction-3 contained bioactive phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecules. These novel bioactive lipids of Chlorococcum sp. with putative health benefits may indicate that marine microalgae can be a sustainable alternative source for bioactive lipids production for food supplements and nutraceutical applications. However, further studies are required towards the commercial technology pathways development and biosafety analysis for the use of the microalga.

3.
Front Nutr ; 7: 583080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102511

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is a contagion that has rapidly spread around the globe. COVID-19 has caused significant loss of life and disrupted global society at a level never before encountered. While the disease was predominantly characterized by respiratory symptoms initially, it became clear that other systems including the cardiovascular and neurological systems were also involved. Several thrombotic complications were reported including venous thrombosis, vasculitis, cardiomyopathy, and stroke. Thrombosis and inflammation are implicated in various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This is of significant concern as people with pre-existing conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, renal disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes are at greater risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Consequently, the research surrounding the use of anticoagulants, antiplatelet, and antithrombotic strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 is of critical importance. The adoption of a healthy diet, physical exercise, and lifestyle choices can reduce the risk factors associated with NCDs and the thrombo-inflammatory complications. In this review, these thrombotic complications and potential foods, nutraceuticals, and the antithrombotic constituents within that may prevent the onset of severe thrombotic complications as a result of infection are discussed. While nutrition is not a panacea to tackle COVID-19, it is apparent that a patient's nutritional status may affect patient outcomes. Further intensive research is warranted to reduce to incidence of thrombotic complications.

5.
Food Chem ; 332: 127384, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615384

RESUMO

Dairy polar lipids (PL) seem to exhibit antiplatelet effects. However, it is not known what molecular species may be responsible. In this study, we confirmed using C30 reversed-phase (C30RP) ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (HRAM-MS/MS) that fermentation of yoghurts from ovine milk using specific starter cultures altered the PL composition. These lipid alterations occurred concomitant with increased antithrombotic properties of the yoghurts PL fractions against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Specifically, elevation in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and their molecular species were observed following yoghurt fermentation. Furthermore, PC(18:0/18:1), PE(18:1/18:2), SM(d18:0/22:0) and several other molecular species were significantly inversely correlated with the inhibition of PAF and thrombin. These molecular species were abundant in the most bioactive yoghurts fermented by S. thermophilus and L. acidophilus, which suggest that fermentation by these microorganisms increases the antithrombotic properties of ovine milk PL.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/análise , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Trombina/farmacologia
6.
Biomolecules ; 10(7)2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708453

RESUMO

The structures of bioactive polar lipids (PLs) of Irish ale with potent antithrombotic and cardioprotective properties were elucidated. Ale PL was fractionated by preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) into subclasses, and their antithrombotic effect was assessed against human platelet aggregation induced by the pro-inflammatory mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF). The fatty acid content and the overall structures of ale PL were elucidated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and molecules of the sphingomyelin (SM) family exhibited the strongest anti-PAF effects, followed by phosphatidylethanolamines (PE). PC contained higher amounts of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and thus the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Bioactive diacyl and alkyl-acyl PC and PE molecules bearing n-3 PUFA at their sn-2 position, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) but mostly oleic acid (OA), were identified in both PC and PE subclasses. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was present only in bioactive PC molecules and not in PE, explaining the lower anti-PAF effects of PE. Bioactive sphingolipid and glycolipid molecules with reported anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties, such as specific ceramides and glucosylcerebrosides with sphingosine, phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine bases but also specific monogalactodiglycerides and SM species bearing ALA at their sn-2 position, were identified in the SM subclass, providing a rational for its strong bioactivities against the PAF pathway. Further studies are required on the health benefits of bioactive PL from beer and brewery by-products.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438620

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has engulfed the world, affecting more than 180 countries. As a result, there has been considerable economic distress globally and a significant loss of life. Sadly, the vulnerable and immunocompromised in our societies seem to be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 complications. Global public health bodies and governments have ignited strategies and issued advisories on various handwashing and hygiene guidelines, social distancing strategies, and, in the most extreme cases, some countries have adopted "stay in place" or lockdown protocols to prevent COVID-19 spread. Notably, there are several significant risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection. These include the presence of poor nutritional status and pre-existing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, and various other diseases that render the patient immunocompromised. These diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, which may be a common feature of these NCDs, affecting patient outcomes against COVID-19. In this review, we discuss some of the anti-inflammatory therapies that are currently under investigation intended to dampen the cytokine storm of severe COVID-19 infections. Furthermore, nutritional status and the role of diet and lifestyle is considered, as it is known to affect patient outcomes in other severe infections and may play a role in COVID-19 infection. This review speculates the importance of nutrition as a mitigation strategy to support immune function amid the COVID-19 pandemic, identifying food groups and key nutrients of importance that may affect the outcomes of respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Inflamação/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
8.
Blood Rev ; : 100694, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340775

RESUMO

Platelets are central to inflammation-related manifestations of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as atherosclerosis. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), thrombin, thromboxane A2 (TxA2), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) are some of the key agonists of platelet activation that are at the intersection between a plethora of inflammatory pathways that modulate pro-inflammatory and coagulation processes. The aim of this article is to review the role of platelets and the relationship between their structure, function, and the interactions of their constituents in systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis. Antiplatelet therapies are discussed with a view to primary prevention of CVD by the clinical reduction of platelet reactivity and inflammation. Current antiplatelet therapies are effective in reducing cardiovascular risk but increase bleeding risk. Novel therapeutic antiplatelet approaches beyond current pharmacological modalities that do not increase the risk of bleeding require further investigation. There is potential for specifically designed nutraceuticals that may become safer alternatives to pharmacological antiplatelet agents for the primary prevention of CVD but there is serious concern over their efficacy and regulation, which requires considerably more research.

9.
Foods ; 9(4)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224958

RESUMO

Tea provides health benefits, while oxidation is part of tea processing. The effect of oxidation on the antithrombotic properties of tea lipid extracts was evaluated for the first time. Total lipids (TL) extracted from fresh tea leaves and commercial tea powder, before and after 30-60 min of oxidation, were further fractionated into neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL). The antithrombotic bioactivities of tea TL, PL, and NL were assessed in human platelets against the inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor. PL were further assessed against thrombin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate, while their fatty acid composition was evaluated by GC-MS. PL exhibited the strongest antithrombotic effects against all platelet agonists and were rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated (ω3 PUFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids. A decline was observed in the antithrombotic activities, against all platelet agonists tested, for PL after 60 min of oxidation, and on their MUFA content, while their overall ω3 PUFA content and ω6/ω3 ratio remained unaffected. A synergistic effect between tea phenolic compounds and PL protects them against oxidation, which seems to be the rational for retaining the antithrombotic biofunctionalities of PL at a considerable favorable cardioprotective level, even after 60 min of tea oxidation. More studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of the favorable synergism in tea PL extracts.

10.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 2861-2885, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270798

RESUMO

Since the discovery that Greenlandic Innuits had a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) due to their diet of fish and as a consequence high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake, scientific interest in the therapeutic value of n-3 PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has grown. It is well-accepted that fish consumption is associated with the prevention of inflammation and CVD. As a result, fish oil supplements and nutraceuticals are widely consumed. Conversely, recent meta-analyses have cast doubt over the benefits n-3 PUFA due to heterogenous outcomes of numerous randomized controlled trials. However, the majority of clinical studies conducted have used n-3 PUFA supplements in their neutral forms as free fatty acids or bound to triacylglycerides (TAG) or ethyl esters. Current research indicates that n-3 PUFA bound to polar lipids (PL) such as phospholipids seem to exert differential bioavailability and biological effects upon consumption in contrast to neutral forms of n-3 PUFA. In this review, we discuss the promising health benefits of marine PL rich in n-3 PUFA that seem to go beyond those of neutral n-3 PUFA. However, further intensive research is required to discern the full extent of the biological activities of marine n-3 PL and their potential use in functional foods and nutraceuticals.

11.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816871

RESUMO

In the late 1960s, Barbaro and Zvaifler described a substance that caused antigen induced histamine release from rabbit platelets producing antibodies in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Henson described a 'soluble factor' released from leukocytes that induced vasoactive amine release in platelets. Later observations by Siraganuan and Osler observed the existence of a diluted substance that had the capacity to cause platelet activation. In 1972, the term platelet-activating factor (PAF) was coined by Benveniste, Henson, and Cochrane. The structure of PAF was later elucidated by Demopoulos, Pinckard, and Hanahan in 1979. These studies introduced the research world to PAF, which is now recognised as a potent phospholipid mediator. Since its introduction to the literature, research on PAF has grown due to interest in its vital cell signalling functions and more sinisterly its role as a pro-inflammatory molecule in several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. As it is forty years since the structural elucidation of PAF, the aim of this review is to provide a historical account of the discovery of PAF and to provide a general overview of current and future perspectives on PAF research in physiology and pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/química , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Foods ; 8(9)2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540159

RESUMO

Marine polar lipids (PLs) have exhibited promising cardioprotection. In this study, marine by-products such as salmon heads (SHs), their brain, eyes and main optic nerves (SBEON), and head-remnants after SBEON removal (RemSH), as well as herring fillets (HFs), herring heads (HHs) and minced boarfish (MB), were evaluated as potential sustainable sources of such bioactive PLs. The antithrombotic bioactivities of PLs derived from these marine by-products were assessed for the first time in human platelets against platelet-activating factor (PAF), thrombin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), while their fatty acid composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PLs from all marine by-products tested possess strong antithrombotic activities against aggregation of human platelets induced by all platelet agonists tested. RemSH, SBEON, HHs, HFs, and MB exhibited strong anti-PAF effects, similar to those previously reported for salmon fillets. PLs from MB had the strongest anti-collagen effects and PLs from SHs and SBEON were the most active against thrombin and ADP. PLs from HHs had similar antithrombotic effects with those from HFs in all agonists. RemSH was less active in all agonists, suggesting that SBEON is the main source of bioactive PLs in SHs. All PLs were rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid, with favourable low values of the ω6/ω3 ratio. Salmon, herring, and boarfish by-products are rich sources of bioactive marine PLs with potent antithrombotic and cardioprotective properties.

13.
Foods ; 8(5)2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137500

RESUMO

The in vitro antithrombotic properties of polar lipid constituents of malted grain (MG), pelleted hops (PH), brewer's spent grain (BSG), spent hops (SH), wort, and bottled beer from the same production line were assessed in human platelets. The total lipids (TL) were extracted according to the Bligh and Dyer method and further separated into the total neutral lipids (TNL) and total polar lipids (TPL) extracts by counter-current distribution. The TL, TNL, and TPL extracts of all samples were assessed for their ability to inhibit platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation. The raw materials, by-products, wort, and beer lipid extracts all exhibited antithrombotic properties against PAF and thrombin. However, the beer TPL exhibited the lowest IC50 values against PAF-induced (7.8 ± 3.9 µg) and thrombin-induced (4.3 ± 3.0 µg) platelet aggregation indicating that these polar lipids were the most antithrombotic. The lipid extracts tended to be more bioactive against the thrombin pathway. The fatty acid content of all the TPL extracts were assessed using GC-MS. The fatty acid composition of the most bioactive TPL extracts, the wort and the beer, shared similar fatty acid profiles. Indeed, it was noted that fermentation seems to play a role in increasing the antithrombotic properties of polar lipids against PAF and thrombin by moderately altering the polar lipid fatty acid composition. Furthermore, the use of brewing by-products as a source of functional cardioprotective lipids warrants further investigation and valorisation.

14.
Adv Nutr ; 10(1): 148-164, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721934

RESUMO

Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. The role of unresolved inflammation in cancer progression and metastasis is well established. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a key proinflammatory mediator in the initiation and progression of cancer. Evidence suggests that PAF is integral to suppression of the immune system and promotion of metastasis and tumor growth by altering local angiogenic and cytokine networks. Interactions between PAF and its receptor may have a role in various digestive, skin, and hormone-dependent cancers. Diet plays a critical role in the prevention of cancer and its treatment. Research indicates that the Mediterranean diet may reduce the incidence of several cancers in which dietary PAF inhibitors have a role. Dietary PAF inhibitors such as polar lipids have demonstrated inhibitory effects against the physiological actions of PAF in cancer and other chronic inflammatory conditions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, experimental models of radiotherapy and chemotherapy demonstrate that inhibition of PAF as adjuvant therapy may lead to more favorable outcomes. Although promising, there is limited evidence on the potential benefits of dietary PAF inhibitors on cancer prevention or treatment. Therefore, further extensive research is required to assess the effects of various dietary factors and PAF inhibitors and to elucidate the mechanisms in prevention of cancer progression and metastasis at a molecular level.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Dieta Mediterrânea , Progressão da Doença , Humanos
15.
MethodsX ; 6: 63-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619728

RESUMO

Platelet aggregometry assays are generally used for the analysis of platelet function but can also be adapted for further research and therapy focused applications. This method describes the procedures for the preparation of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) for the assessment of human platelet aggregation induced by agonists such as platelet-activating factor (PAF), thrombin, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, etc. •This method can be applied in vitro to evaluate the aggregatory effects of these agonists and to assess the antiaggregatory effects of several bioactive antiplatelet agents (compounds of natural or pharmacological origin) in human PRP.•This versatile method can be used in both basic and clinical research for the assessment of platelet aggregation (a major cardiovascular risk factor), platelet agonists, and inhibitors, in physiological or pathological conditions.•This method can be adapted to assess platelet activity in postprandial and intervention studies ex vivo.

16.
Mar Drugs ; 17(1)2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669323

RESUMO

Marine and salmon polar lipids (PLs) extracted by conventional extractions with non-food-grade solvents (CE-salmon-PLs) possess antithrombotic bioactivities against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin. Similar effects of food-grade-extracted (FGE) marine PLs have not yet been reported. In this study, food-grade solvents were used to extract PLs from Irish organic farmed salmon (Salmo salar) fillets (FGE-salmon-PLs), while their antithrombotic bioactivities were assessed in human platelets induced by platelet aggregation agonists (PAF/thrombin). FGE-salmon-PLs were further separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) into lipid subclasses, and the antithrombotic bioactivities of each subclass were also assessed. LC-MS was utilized to elucidate the structure-activity relationships. FGE-salmon-PLs strongly inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation, while their relevant anti-thrombin effects were at least three times more potent than the previously reported activities of CE-salmon-PLs. TLC-derived lipid fractions corresponding to phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the most bioactive lipid subclasses obtained, especially against thrombin. Their LC-MS analysis elucidated that they are diacyl- or alkyl-acyl- PC and PE moieties baring ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) at their sn-2 position, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Our results concerning the potent antithrombotic effects of FGE-salmon-PLs against both PAF and thrombin pathways strongly suggest that such food-grade extracts are putative candidates for the development of novel cardioprotective supplements and nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmo salar , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Solventes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trombina/metabolismo
17.
ChemMedChem ; 13(23): 2484-2487, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381909

RESUMO

The anti-atherogenic (anti-inflammatory) properties of various aurate(I) salts, of the general formula [NHC⋅H][AuCl2 ] (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) were investigated. The aurates were easily synthesized and obtained in analytically pure form. In addition, the biological activity of these compounds against atheromatosis via in vitro inhibition of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation was probed. All complexes were found to possess anti-aggregatory properties in vitro with [IPr*⋅H][AuCl2 ] (6) being the most potent inhibitor of PAF at micromolar concentration. Based on our findings, we conclude that these simply assembled aurates are a very promising class of PAF inhibitors and anti-inflammatory drugs.


Assuntos
Metano/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organoáuricos/química , Compostos Organoáuricos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Humanos , Metano/química , Metano/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/metabolismo
18.
Mar Drugs ; 16(6)2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882848

RESUMO

While several marine polar lipids (PL) have exhibited cardioprotective properties through their effects on the platelet-activating factor (PAF) pathways, salmon PL have not been tested so far. In this study, the antithrombotic activities of salmon PL were assessed in human platelets and the structural characterisation of bioactive salmon PL was performed by GC-MS and LC-MS analyses. PL from fillets of Irish organic farmed salmon (Salmo salar) were extracted and separated into several lipid subclasses by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), while their fatty acid profile was fully characterised by GC-MS. Salmon total lipids (TL), total neutral lipids (TNL), total polar lipids (TPL), and each PL subclass obtained by TLC were further assessed for their in vitro effects towards PAF-induced and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in human platelets. Salmon PL exhibited antithrombotic effects on human platelet aggregation, mostly through their strong inhibitory effects against the PAF pathway with IC50 values comparable to other marine PL, but with lower effects towards the thrombin pathway. PL fractions corresponding to phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives exhibited the most potent anti-PAF effects, while LC-MS analysis putatively elucidated their structure/function relationship. Several diacyl-PC/PE and alkyl-acyl-PC/PE species containing mostly docosahexaenoic acid at their sn-2 glycerol-backbone may be responsible for the bioactivity. The data presented suggests that salmon contains PL with strong antithrombotic bioactivities.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmo salar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Fibrinolíticos/química , Fibrinolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Pesqueiros , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Irlanda , Lipídeos/química , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Nutrients ; 10(5)2018 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757226

RESUMO

Since the Seven Countries Study, dietary cholesterol and the levels of serum cholesterol in relation to the development of chronic diseases have been somewhat demonised. However, the principles of the Mediterranean diet and relevant data linked to the examples of people living in the five blue zones demonstrate that the key to longevity and the prevention of chronic disease development is not the reduction of dietary or serum cholesterol but the control of systemic inflammation. In this review, we present all the relevant data that supports the view that it is inflammation induced by several factors, such as platelet-activating factor (PAF), that leads to the onset of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) rather than serum cholesterol. The key to reducing the incidence of CVD is to control the activities of PAF and other inflammatory mediators via diet, exercise, and healthy lifestyle choices. The relevant studies and data supporting these views are discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
20.
Foods ; 7(3)2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494487

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due to their association with increased cholesterol levels upon consumption and the increased risk of CVD development. Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past. As a result, the consumption of dairy products was considered detrimental to our cardiovascular health. In western societies, dietary trends indicate that generally there is a reduction of full-fat dairy product consumption and increased low-fat dairy consumption. However, recent research and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefits of full-fat dairy consumption, based on higher bioavailability of high-value nutrients and anti-inflammatory properties. In this review, the relationship between dairy consumption, cardiometabolic risk factors and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases are discussed. Functional dairy foods and the health implications of dairy alternatives are also considered. In general, evidence suggests that milk has a neutral effect on cardiovascular outcomes but fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, kefir and cheese may have a positive or neutral effect. Particular focus is placed on the effects of the lipid content on cardiovascular health.

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