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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether the incidence of death following myocardial infarction (MI) varied by season and latitude in the Swedish population. METHODS: We studied deaths following MI from January 1987 to December 2009, using the Swedish National Cause of Death Register. County of residence was used to determine latitude and population density. An extension of Poisson regression was used to study the relationship between risk of death following MI with age, latitude, time (from 1987), population density and calendar days. RESULTS: Over the study period, there was a secular decrease in the incidence of MI-related death. In men, MI-related death incidence increased by 1.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.5] per degree of latitude (northwards). In women, MI-related death incidence increased by 0.6% (95% CI = 0.4-0.9) per degree of latitude. There was seasonal variation in the risk of MI-related death with peak values in the late winter and a nadir in the summer months in both the north and the south of Sweden. Findings were similar with incident MI as the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of MI-related death varied markedly by season and latitude in Sweden, with summer months and more southerly latitude associated with lower rates than winter months and more northerly latitude.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626711

RESUMO

Preclinical studies on the role of erythropoietin (EPO) in bone metabolism are contradictory. Regeneration models indicate an anabolic effect on bone healing, whereas models on physiologic bone remodeling indicate a catabolic effect on bone mass. No human studies on EPO and fracture risk are available. It is known that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) affects bone mineralization and that serum concentration of FGF23 is higher in men with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Recently, a direct association between EPO and FGF23 has been shown. We have explored the potential association between EPO and bone mineral density (BMD), fracture risk, and FGF23 in humans. Plasma levels of EPO were analyzed in 999 men (aged 69 to 81 years), participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, MrOS Sweden. The mean ± SD EPO was 11.5 ± 9.0 IU/L. Results were stratified by eGFR 60 mL/min. For men with eGFR ≥60 mL/min (n = 728), EPO was associated with age (r = 0.13, p < 0.001), total hip BMD (r = 0.14, p < 0.001), intact (i)FGF23 (r = 0.11, p = 0.004), and osteocalcin (r = -0.09, p = 0.022). The association between total hip BMD and EPO was independent of age, body mass index (BMI), iFGF23, and hemoglobin (beta = 0.019, p < 0.001). During the 10-year follow-up, 164 men had an X-ray-verified fracture, including 117 major osteoporotic fractures (MOF), 39 hip fractures, and 64 vertebral fractures. High EPO was associated with higher risk for incident fractures (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.43 per tertile EPO, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.63), MOF (HR = 1.40 per tertile EPO, 95% CI 1.08-1.82), and vertebral fractures (HR = 1.42 per tertile EPO, 95% CI 1.00-2.01) in a fully adjusted Cox regression model. In men with eGFR<60 mL/min, no association was found between EPO and BMD or fracture risk. We here demonstrate that high levels of EPO are associated with increased fracture risk and increased BMD in elderly men with normal renal function. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

3.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538675

RESUMO

Osteoporosis-related fractures are undertreated, due in part to misinformation about recommended approaches to patient care and discrepancies among treatment guidelines. To help bridge this gap and improve patient outcomes, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research assembled a multistakeholder coalition to develop clinical recommendations for the optimal prevention of secondary fracture among people aged 65 years and older with a hip or vertebral fracture. The coalition developed 13 recommendations (7 primary and 6 secondary) strongly supported by the empirical literature. The coalition recommends increased communication with patients regarding fracture risk, mortality and morbidity outcomes, and fracture risk reduction. Risk assessment (including fall history) should occur at regular intervals with referral to physical and/or occupational therapy as appropriate. Oral, intravenous, and subcutaneous pharmacotherapies are efficacious and can reduce risk of future fracture. Patients need education, however, about the benefits and risks of both treatment and not receiving treatment. Oral bisphosphonates alendronate and risedronate are first-line options and are generally well tolerated; otherwise, intravenous zoledronic acid and subcutaneous denosumab can be considered. Anabolic agents are expensive but may be beneficial for selected patients at high risk. Optimal duration of pharmacotherapy is unknown but because the risk for second fractures is highest in the early post-fracture period, prompt treatment is recommended. Adequate dietary or supplemental vitamin D and calcium intake should be assured. Individuals being treated for osteoporosis should be re-evaluated for fracture risk routinely, including via patient education about osteoporosis and fractures and monitoring for adverse treatment effects. Patients should be strongly encouraged to avoid tobacco, consume alcohol in moderation at most, and engage in regular exercise and fall prevention strategies. Finally, referral to endocrinologists or other osteoporosis specialists may be warranted for individuals who experience repeated fracture or bone loss and those with complicating comorbidities (e.g., hyperparathyroidism, chronic kidney disease). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Adv Ther ; 36(10): 2811-2824, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increased biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs) measured in serum are associated with bone loss, increased fracture risk and poor treatment adherence, but their role in clinical practice is presently unclear. The aim of this consensus group report is to provide guidance to clinicians on how to use BTMs in patient evaluation in postmenopausal osteoporosis, in fracture risk prediction and in the monitoring of treatment efficacy and adherence to osteoporosis medication. METHODS: A working group with clinical scientists and osteoporosis specialists was invited by the Scientific Advisory Board of European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO). RESULTS: Serum bone formation marker PINP and resorption marker ßCTX-I are the preferred markers for evaluating bone turnover in the clinical setting due to their specificity to bone, performance in clinical studies, wide use and relatively low analytical variability. BTMs cannot be used to diagnose osteoporosis because of low sensitivity and specificity, but can be of value in patient evaluation where high values may indicate the need to investigate some causes of secondary osteoporosis. Assessing serum levels of ßCTX-I and PINP can improve fracture prediction slightly, with a gradient of risk of about 1.2 per SD increase in the bone marker in addition to clinical risk factors and bone mineral density. For an individual patient, BTMs are not useful in projecting bone loss or treatment efficacy, but it is recommended that serum PINP and ßCTX-I be used to monitor adherence to oral bisphosphonate treatment. Suppression of the BTMs greater than the least significant change or to levels in the lower half of the reference interval in young and healthy premenopausal women is closely related to treatment adherence. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the currently available evidence indicates that the principal clinical utility of BTMs is for monitoring oral bisphosphonate therapy.

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(10): 1824-1836, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170332

RESUMO

In bone, sclerostin is mainly osteocyte-derived and plays an important local role in adaptive responses to mechanical loading. Whether circulating levels of sclerostin also play a functional role is currently unclear, which we aimed to examine by two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). A genetic instrument for circulating sclerostin, derived from a genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of serum sclerostin in 10,584 European-descent individuals, was examined in relation to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD; n = 32,744) in GEFOS and estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) by heel ultrasound (n = 426,824) and fracture risk (n = 426,795) in UK Biobank. Our GWAS identified two novel serum sclerostin loci, B4GALNT3 (standard deviation [SD]) change in sclerostin per A allele (ß = 0.20, p = 4.6 × 10-49 ) and GALNT1 (ß = 0.11 per G allele, p = 4.4 × 10-11 ). B4GALNT3 is an N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase, adding a terminal LacdiNAc disaccharide to target glycocoproteins, found to be predominantly expressed in kidney, whereas GALNT1 is an enzyme causing mucin-type O-linked glycosylation. Using these two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic instruments, MR revealed an inverse causal relationship between serum sclerostin and femoral neck BMD (ß = -0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.20 to -0.05) and eBMD (ß = -0.12, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.10), and a positive relationship with fracture risk (ß = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.21). Colocalization analysis demonstrated common genetic signals within the B4GALNT3 locus for higher sclerostin, lower eBMD, and greater B4GALNT3 expression in arterial tissue (probability >99%). Our findings suggest that higher sclerostin levels are causally related to lower BMD and greater fracture risk. Hence, strategies for reducing circulating sclerostin, for example by targeting glycosylation enzymes as suggested by our GWAS results, may prove valuable in treating osteoporosis. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

7.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(7): 1284-1296, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888730

RESUMO

Hip geometry is an important predictor of fracture. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS studies in adults to identify genetic variants that are associated with proximal femur geometry phenotypes. We analyzed four phenotypes: (i) femoral neck length; (ii) neck-shaft angle; (iii) femoral neck width, and (iv) femoral neck section modulus, estimated from DXA scans using algorithms of hip structure analysis. In the Discovery stage, 10 cohort studies were included in the fixed-effect meta-analysis, with up to 18,719 men and women ages 16 to 93 years. Association analyses were performed with ∼2.5 million polymorphisms under an additive model adjusted for age, body mass index, and height. Replication analyses of meta-GWAS significant loci (at adjusted genomewide significance [GWS], threshold p ≤ 2.6 × 10-8 ) were performed in seven additional cohorts in silico. We looked up SNPs associated in our analysis, for association with height, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture. In meta-analysis (combined Discovery and Replication stages), GWS associations were found at 5p15 (IRX1 and ADAMTS16); 5q35 near FGFR4; at 12p11 (in CCDC91); 11q13 (near LRP5 and PPP6R3 (rs7102273)). Several hip geometry signals overlapped with BMD, including LRP5 (chr. 11). Chr. 11 SNP rs7102273 was associated with any-type fracture (p = 7.5 × 10-5 ). We used bone transcriptome data and discovered several significant eQTLs, including rs7102273 and PPP6R3 expression (p = 0.0007), and rs6556301 (intergenic, chr.5 near FGFR4) and PDLIM7 expression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, we found associations between several genes and hip geometry measures that explained 12% to 22% of heritability at different sites. The results provide a defined set of genes related to biological pathways relevant to BMD and etiology of bone fragility. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

8.
J Intern Med ; 285(4): 381-394, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657216

RESUMO

Antiresorptive drugs, such as the bisphosphonates and the RANKL inhibitor denosumab, are currently the most widely used osteoporosis medications. These drugs increase bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce the risk of vertebral (by 40-70%), nonvertebral (by 25-40%) and hip fractures (by 40-53%) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Due to the risk of rare side-effects, the use of bisphosphonates has been limited to up to 10 years with oral bisphosphonates and 6 years with intravenous zoledronic acid. Despite their well-proven efficacy and safety, few women at high risk of fracture are started on treatment. Case finding strategies, such as fracture risk-based screening in primary care using the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) and Fracture Liaison Services, have proved effective in increasing treatment rates and reducing fracture rates. Recently, anabolic therapy with teriparatide was demonstrated to be superior to the bisphosphonate risedronate in preventing vertebral and clinical fractures in postmenopausal women with vertebral fracture. Treatment with the sclerostin antibody romosozumab increases BMD more profoundly and rapidly than alendronate and is also superior to alendronate in reducing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. For patients with severe osteoporosis and high fracture risk, bisphosphonates alone are unlikely to be able to provide long-term protection against fracture and restore BMD. For those patients, sequential treatment, starting with a bone-building drug (e.g. teriparatide), followed by an antiresorptive, will likely provide better long-term fracture prevention and should be the golden standard of future osteoporosis treatment.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although areal bone mineral density (aBMD) assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the clinical standard for determining fracture risk, most older adults who sustain a fracture have T scores greater than -2·5 and thus do not meet the clinical criteria for osteoporosis. Importantly, bone fragility is due to low BMD and deterioration in bone structure. We assessed whether indices of high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) were associated with fracture risk independently of femoral neck aBMD and the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score. METHODS: We assessed participants in eight cohorts from the USA (Framingham, Mayo Clinic), France (QUALYOR, STRAMBO, OFELY), Switzerland (GERICO), Canada (CaMos), and Sweden (MrOS). We used Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) to estimate the association between HR-pQCT bone indices (per 1 SD of deficit) and incident fracture, adjusting for age, sex, height, weight, and cohort, and then additionally for femoral neck DXA aBMD or FRAX. FINDINGS: 7254 individuals (66% women and 34% men) were assessed. Mean baseline age was 69 years (SD 9, range 40-96). Over a mean follow-up of 4·63 years (SD 2·41) years, 765 (11%) participants had incident fractures, of whom 633 (86%) had femoral neck T scores greater than -2·5. After adjustment for age, sex, cohort, height, and weight, peripheral skeleton failure load had the greatest association with risk of fracture: tibia HR 2·40 (95% CI 1·98-2·91) and radius 2·13 (1·77-2·56) per 1 SD decrease. HRs for other bone indices ranged from 1·12 (95% CI 1·03-1·23) per 1 SD increase in tibia cortical porosity to 1·58 (1·45-1·72) per 1 SD decrease in radius trabecular volumetric bone density. After further adjustment for femoral neck aBMD or FRAX score, the associations were reduced but remained significant for most bone parameters. A model including cortical volumetric bone density, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness at the distal radius and a model including these indices plus cortical area at the tibia were the best predictors of fracture. INTERPRETATION: HR-pQCT indices and failure load improved prediction of fracture beyond femoral neck aBMD or FRAX scores alone. Our findings from a large international cohort of men and women support previous reports that deficits in trabecular and cortical bone density and structure independently contribute to fracture risk. These measurements and morphological assessment of the peripheral skeleton might improve identification of people at the highest risk of fracture. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health National Institute of Arthritis Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423123

RESUMO

Context: Treatment with statins has been associated with increased bone mineral density (BMD), but if this association depends on differences in cortical or trabecular volumetric bone microstructure is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if treatment with statins is associated with bone microstructure and geometry in older women. Design setting and participants: Older women were included in a population-based study of 3,028 women (mean age ± SD: 77.8 ± 1.6 years) from the greater Gothenburg area in Sweden. Information regarding medical history, medication and life-style factors was obtained from validated questionnaires. Main outcome: Bone geometry and microstructure were measured at the ultradistal and distal (14%) site of radius and tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT; XtremeCT). Results: The 803 women in the cohort who used statins had higher body weight, worse physical function and more frequently cardiovascular disease and diabetes than nonusers (p<0.05). Statin users had lower cortical porosity (radius 2.2± 1.9 vs. 2.5± 2.0%; tibia 5.2± 2.4 vs. 5.4± 2.5, p=0.01), higher cortical bone density (radius 1008 ± 39.1 vs. 1001 ± 38.4 mg/cm3; tibia 919 ± 42.6 vs. 914 ± 41.5, p<0.01), and greater cortical area (radius 60.5 ± 9.6 vs. 58.6 ± 9.7 mm2; tibia 150.0 ± 23.6 vs. 146.7 ± 23.8, p<0.01) than non-users, also after adjustment for a large number of confounders, including age, weight, smoking, other medications and prevalent diseases. Conclusions: Use of statins was associated with better cortical bone characteristics in older women.

13.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494818801628, 2018 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269679

RESUMO

AIMS: Falls are common in the elderly population, and fall-related injuries are a major health issue. We investigated the ability of simple physical tests to predict incident falls. METHODS: The Swedish Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study includes 3014 population-based men aged 69-81 years at the start of the study. These men performed five different physical tests at baseline: right-hand grip strength, left-hand grip strength, timed stand test, 6 m walking test (time and steps) and narrow walking test. During the first study year, we asked participants to fill out questionnaires regarding falls 4, 8 and 12 months after baseline. A total of 2969 men completed at least one questionnaire and were included in this study. We used generalised estimating equations and logarithmic regression models to estimate odds ratios for fallers and recurrent fallers (more than one fall during the one-year examination period) in each quartile of men for each physical test. RESULTS: The proportions of fallers and recurrent fallers were higher in the lowest quartile of the physical tests than in the other three quartiles combined for all physical tests. A reduction of one standard deviation in respective physical test resulted in a 13-21% higher risk of becoming a faller and a 13-31% higher risk of becoming a recurrent faller. CONCLUSIONS: Low results on simple physical tests is a risk factor for incident falls in elderly Swedish men and may facilitate identification of high-risk individuals suitable for fall-intervention programs.

14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(12): 2122-2131, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011091

RESUMO

Gastric bypass surgery constitutes the most common and effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity. Gastric bypass leads to bone loss, but fracture risk following surgery has been insufficiently studied. Furthermore, the association between gastric bypass and fracture risk has not been studied in patients with diabetes, which is a risk factor for fracture and affected by surgery. In this retrospective cohort study using Swedish national databases, 38,971 obese patients undergoing gastric bypass were identified, 7758 with diabetes and 31,213 without. An equal amount of well-balanced controls were identified through multivariable 1:1 propensity score matching. The risk of fracture and fall injury was investigated using Cox proportional hazards and flexible parameter models. Fracture risk according to weight loss and degree of calcium and vitamin D supplementation 1-year postsurgery was investigated. During a median follow-up time of 3.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.7 to 4.6) years, gastric bypass was associated with increased risk of any fracture, in patients with and without diabetes using a multivariable Cox model (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.53; and HR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.47; respectively). Using flexible parameter models, the fracture risk appeared to increase with time. The risk of fall injury without fracture was also increased after gastric bypass. Larger weight loss or poor calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery were not associated with increased fracture risk. In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery is associated with an increased fracture risk, which appears to be increasing with time and not associated with degree of weight loss or calcium and vitamin D supplementation following surgery. An increased risk of fall injury was seen after surgery, which could contribute to the increased fracture risk. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 103(3): 278-288, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730704

RESUMO

Depression in the elderly is today often treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) because of their favorable adverse effect profile. However, treatment with SSRIs is associated with increased risk of fractures. Whether this increased risk depends on reduced bone strength or increased fall risk due to reduced physical function is not certain. The aim was therefore to investigate if treatment with SSRIs is associated with impaired bone microstructure, bone density, or physical function in older women. From an ongoing population-based study, 1057 women (77.7 ± 1.5 years) were included. Validated questionnaires were used to assess information regarding medical history, medications, smoking, mental and physical health, and physical activity. Physical function was measured using clinically used tests: timed up and go, walking speed, grip strength, chair stand test, and one leg standing. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the hip and spine with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Discovery A). Bone geometry and microstructure were measured at the ultradistal and distal (14%) site of radius and tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT; XtremeCT). Treatment with SSRIs was associated with higher BMD at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine, whereas no associations were found for any HR-pQCT-derived measurements. The use of SSRIs was associated with lower grip strength, walking speed, and fewer chair stand rises. These associations were valid also after adjustments for known risk factors for falls. Treatment with SSRIs was, independently of covariates, associated with worse physical function without any signs of inferior bone geometry and microstructure.

16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(9): 1560-1567, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750841

RESUMO

Because several studies have implicated serotonin as a regulator of bone mass, we here explore its potential association on fracture risk and falls, as on bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, in humans. Serum levels of serotonin were analyzed in 950 men (aged 69 to 81 years), participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based study MrOS Sweden. Men taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had a mean value of 31.2 µg/L compared with 159.4 µg/L in those not taking SSRIs. SSRI users were excluded from further analysis. During 10-year follow-up, 224 men exhibited fractures, including 97 nonvertebral osteoporotic fractures (57 hip fractures), and 86 vertebral fractures. Serotonin was associated with hip fracture in linear analysis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.58) and to all fractures in a nonlinear manner, when quintiles of serotonin was included in quadratic terms (HR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21). Men in serotonin quintile 5 had, in multivariable analysis, a HR of 2.30 (95% CI 1.31-4.02) for hip fracture and 1.82 (95% CI 1.17-2.85) for nonvertebral fractures compared with men in quintiles 1 to 4. Men in quintile 1 had, in multivariable analysis, a HR of 1.76 (95% CI 1.03-2.99) for nonvertebral fractures compared with men in quintiles 2 to 4. No association was found with vertebral fractures. Individuals in serotonin quintile 1 had higher prevalence of falls compared with quintiles 2 to 5 (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). Serotonin was positively associated with hand-grip strength (r = 0.08, p = 0.02) and inversely with hip BMD (r = -0.10, p = 0.003). To assess the association between SSRIs and falls and fractures, the total MrOS Sweden cohort was examined (n = 3014). SSRI users (n = 90) had increased prevalence of falls (16% versus 33%, p = 0.0001) and increased rate of incident fractures (28.0 versus 44.7 per 1000 person-years, p = 0.018). We present novel data showing that high levels of serotonin predict an increased risk for hip fracture and nonvertebral osteoporotic fractures. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

17.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(7): 1242-1251, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29578618

RESUMO

Bone adapts to loading in several ways, including redistributing bone mass and altered geometry and microarchitecture. Because of previous methodological limitations, it is not known how the bone material strength is affected by mechanical loading in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 3-month unilateral high-impact exercise program on bone material properties and microarchitecture in healthy postmenopausal women. A total of 20 healthy and inactive postmenopausal women (aged 55.6 ± 2.3 years [mean ± SD]) were included and asked to perform an exercise program of daily one-legged jumps (with incremental number, from 3×10 to 4×20 jumps/d) during 3 months. All participants were asked to register their performed jumps in a structured daily diary. The participants chose one leg as the intervention leg and the other leg was used as control. The operators were blinded to the participant's choice of leg for intervention. The predefined primary outcome was change in bone material strength index (BMSi), measured at the mid tibia with a handheld reference probe indentation instrument (OsteoProbe). Bone microstructure, geometry, and density were measured with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (XtremeCT) at the ultradistal and at 14% of the tibia bone length (distal). Differences were analyzed by related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall compliance to the jumping program was 93.6%. Relative to the control leg, BMSi of the intervention leg increased 7% or 0.89 SD (p = 0.046), but no differences were found for any of the XtremeCT-derived bone parameters. In conclusion, a unilateral high-impact loading program increased BMSi in postmenopausal women rapidly without affecting bone microstructure, geometry, or density, indicating that intense mechanical loading has the ability to rapidly improve bone material properties before changes in bone mass or structure. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(3): 991-1004, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325096

RESUMO

Context: Serum estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) levels exhibit substantial heritability. Objective: To investigate the genetic regulation of serum E2 and E1 in men. Design, Setting, and Participants: Genome-wide association study in 11,097 men of European origin from nine epidemiological cohorts. Main Outcome Measures: Genetic determinants of serum E2 and E1 levels. Results: Variants in/near CYP19A1 demonstrated the strongest evidence for association with E2, resolving to three independent signals. Two additional independent signals were found on the X chromosome; FAMily with sequence similarity 9, member B (FAM9B), rs5934505 (P = 3.4 × 10-8) and Xq27.3, rs5951794 (P = 3.1 × 10-10). E1 signals were found in CYP19A1 (rs2899472, P = 5.5 × 10-23), in Tripartite motif containing 4 (TRIM4; rs17277546, P = 5.8 × 10-14), and CYP11B1/B2 (rs10093796, P = 1.2 × 10-8). E2 signals in CYP19A1 and FAM9B were associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Mendelian randomization analysis suggested a causal effect of serum E2 on BMD in men. A 1 pg/mL genetically increased E2 was associated with a 0.048 standard deviation increase in lumbar spine BMD (P = 2.8 × 10-12). In men and women combined, CYP19A1 alleles associated with higher E2 levels were associated with lower degrees of insulin resistance. Conclusions: Our findings confirm that CYP19A1 is an important genetic regulator of E2 and E1 levels and strengthen the causal importance of E2 for bone health in men. We also report two independent loci on the X-chromosome for E2, and one locus each in TRIM4 and CYP11B1/B2, for E1.


Assuntos
Aromatase/genética , Densidade Óssea/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Cromossomos Humanos X , Estudos de Coortes , Estradiol/genética , Estradiol/fisiologia , Estrona/sangue , Estrona/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Testosterona/sangue
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 260, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343764

RESUMO

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone precursor that is associated with a range of human traits and diseases. Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci (GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1). In this study, we expand the previous SUNLIGHT Consortium GWAS discovery sample size from 16,125 to 79,366 (all European descent). This larger GWAS yields two additional loci harboring genome-wide significant variants (P = 4.7×10-9 at rs8018720 in SEC23A, and P = 1.9×10-14 at rs10745742 in AMDHD1). The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. Further investigation identifies signal enrichment in immune and hematopoietic tissues, and clustering with autoimmune diseases in cell-type-specific analysis. Larger studies are required to identify additional common SNPs, and to explore the role of rare or structural variants and gene-gene interactions in the heritability of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(2): 250-260, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926125

RESUMO

Vertebral fractures (VFs) are among the most severe and prevalent osteoporotic fractures. Their association with bone microstructure have been investigated in several retrospective case-control studies with spine radiography for diagnosis of VF. The aim of this population-based cross-sectional study of 1027 women aged 75 to 80 years was to investigate if prevalent VF, identified by vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), was associated with appendicular volumetric bone density, structure, and bone material strength index (BMSi), independently of hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD). aBMD was measured using DXA (Discovery; Hologic); BMSi with microindentation (Osteoprobe); and bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and microstructure with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) (XtremeCT; Scanco Medical AG). aBMD was lower (spine 3.2%, total hip [TH] 3.8%) at all sites in women with VF, but tibia BMSi did not differ significantly compared to women without VF. In multivariable adjusted logistic regression models, radius trabecular bone volume fraction and tibia cortical area (odds ratio [OR] 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.06 to 1.49]; and OR 1.27 [95% CI, 1.08 to 1.49], respectively) were associated with VF prevalence, whereas BMSi and cortical porosity were not. The risk of having one, two, or more than two VFs was increased 1.27 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.54), 1.83 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.61), and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.03 to 3.09) times, respectively, for each SD decrease in TH aBMD. When including either cortical area, trabecular bone volume fraction or TBS in the model together with TH aBMD and covariates, only TH aBMD remained independently associated with presence of any VF. In conclusion, TH aBMD was consistently associated with prevalent VFA-verified VF, whereas neither trabecular bone volume fraction, cortical area, cortical porosity, nor BMSi were independently associated with VF in older women. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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