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1.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 37, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of early osteoarthritis (OA) is of utmost interest since this stage holds the strongest promise for therapeutic interventions. The aims of this study were to analyze if synovial inflammation is already present in early OA and to characterize the involved cell populations, by investigating synovial fluid (SF) and synovial membrane (SM) of early OA patients for the presence and polarization status of CD4 T cells. METHODS: A quantitative analysis of CD4+ T cell infiltration in SF and SM compared to peripheral blood (PB) was performed in patients with early stages of OA. We further investigated intracellular staining (ICS), surface marker, and chemokine receptor expression profiles of CD4+ T cells in SF, SM, and PB, as well as cytokine expression in native SF and PB. Matched samples of SF, SM, and PB were harvested from 40 patients with early OA at the time of surgery. Early OA was confirmed by independent surgeons intraoperatively. Samples were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and cytokines, which are preferentially expressed by distinct T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, regulatory T cells). Furthermore, we analyzed native SF and PB supernatants using MACSPlex for multiple cytokine expression profiles. RESULTS: SF and SM showed a distinct infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes, with significantly increased expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3/CCR5, cytokine IFN-γ (preferentially expressed by Th1 cells), and CD161 (preferentially expressed by IL-17 producing Th17 cells) compared to PB. Furthermore, the percentage of CD4+ T cells polarized to Treg was significantly increased in SM compared to SF and PB. No significant differences were observed for CCR3 and CCR4 (preferentially expressed by Th2 cells), although IL-4 values were significantly higher in SM and SF compared to PB. Cytokine analysis showed comparable results between PB and SF, with only IL-6 being significantly increased in SF. CONCLUSIONS: Early OA joints show already significant inflammation through CD4+ T cell infiltration, with predominant Th1 cell polarization. Inflammation seems to be driven by direct proinflammatory cell interaction. Cytokine signaling seems to be negligible at the site of inflammation in early OA, with only IL-6 being significantly increased in SF compared to PB.

2.
RMD Open ; 7(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Whether patients with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) are at higher risk to develop severe courses of COVID-19 has not been fully elucidated. Aim of this analysis was to describe patients with RMD according to their COVID-19 severity and to identify risk factors for hospitalisation. METHODS: Patients with RMD with PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported to the German COVID-19 registry from 30 March to 1 November 2020 were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for hospitalisation due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Data from 468 patients with RMD with SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported. Most frequent diagnosis was rheumatoid arthritis, RA (48%). 29% of the patients were hospitalised, 5.5% needed ventilation. 19 patients died. Multivariable analysis showed that age >65 years (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.12 to 4.47), but even more>75 years (OR 3.94; 95% CI 1.86 to 8.32), cardiovascular disease (CVD; OR 3.36; 95% CI 1.5 to 7.55), interstitial lung disease/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ILD/COPD) (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.2 to 6.49), chronic kidney disease (OR 2.96; 95% CI 1.16 to 7.5), moderate/high RMD disease activity (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.02 to 3.76) and treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs) in dosages >5 mg/day (OR 3.67; 95% CI 1.49 to 9.05) were associated with higher odds of hospitalisation. Spondyloarthritis patients showed a smaller risk of hospitalisation compared with RA (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.91). CONCLUSION: Age was a major risk factor for hospitalisation as well as comorbidities such as CVD, ILD/COPD, chronic kidney disease and current or prior treatment with GCs. Moderate to high RMD disease activity was also an independent risk factor for hospitalisation, underlining the importance of continuing adequate RMD treatment during the pandemic.

3.
Cytokine ; 138: 155399, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overall clinical outcome of inflammatory conditions is the result of the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Because nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ĸB) is at the bottom of many inflammatory conditions, methods to evaluate the net effect of inflammation modulators on this master regulator have been conceptualized for years. METHODS: Using an ex vivo NF-ĸB reporter cell line-based assay, plasma samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 27), psoriasis (n = 15), or severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) (n = 21) were investigated for NF-ĸB activation compared to plasma samples from 9 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: When separated by C-reactive protein (CRP) threshold levels, samples of patients exhibiting increased CRP levels (≥5 mg/l) activated NF-ĸB more efficiently than samples from patients with levels below 5 mg/l (P = 0.0001) or healthy controls (P = 0.04). Overall, there was a moderate association of CRP levels with NF-ĸB activation (Spearman r = 0.66; p < 0.0001). Plasma from COVID-19 patients activated NF-ĸB more efficiently (mean 2.4-fold compared to untreated reporter cells) than samples from any other condition (healthy controls, 1.8-fold, P = 0.0025; rheumatoid arthritis, 1.7-fold, P < 0.0001; psoriasis, 1.7-fold, P < 0.0001). In contrast, effects of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, or healthy volunteer samples did not differ. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a NF-ĸB reporter cell line can be used to evaluate the net inflammatory effect of clinical plasma samples. Patients with chronic but stable rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis do not exhibit increased plasma levels of NF-ĸB-activating compounds as opposed to COVID-19 patients with high inflammatory burden.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 597863, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381119

RESUMO

Introduction: Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies are pathogenic antibodies first detected in renal-limited anti-GBM disease and in Goodpasture disease, the latter characterized by rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis combined with intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Studies have suggested that anti-GBM antibody positivity may be of interest in lupus nephritis (LN). Moreover, severe anti-GBM vasculitis cases in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been described in the literature, but few studies have assessed the incidence of anti-GBM antibodies in SLE patients. Objective: The main study objective was to determine if positive anti-GBM antibodies were present in the serum of SLE patients with or without proliferative renal damage and compared to a healthy control group. Methodology: This retrospective study was performed on SLE patients' sera from a Franco-German European biobank, developed between 2011 and 2014, from 17 hospital centers in the Haut-Rhin region. Patients were selected according to their renal involvement, and matched by age and gender. The serum from healthy voluntary blood donors was also tested. Anti-GBM were screened by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA), and then by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in case of low reactivity detection (titer >6 U/ml). Results: The cohort was composed of 100 SLE patients with proliferative LN (27% with class III, 67% with class IV, and 6% with class V), compared to 100 SLE patients without LN and 100 controls. Patients were mostly Caucasian and met the ACR 1997 criteria and/or the SLICC 2012 criteria. Among the 300 tested sera, no significant levels of anti-GBM antibodies were detected (>10 U/ml) by the automated technique, three sera were found "ambivalent" (>7 U/ml): one in the SLE with LN group and two in the SLE without LN group. Subsequent IIF assays did not detect anti-GBM antibodies. Conclusion: Anti-GBM antibodies were not detected in the serum of Caucasian patients with SLE, even in case of renal involvement, a situation favoring the antigenic exposure of glomerular basement membranes. Our results reaffirm the central role of anti-GBM antibodies as a specific diagnostic biomarker for Goodpasture vasculitis and therefore confirm that anti-GBM antibody must not be carried out in patients with SLE (with or without LN) in the absence of disease-suggestive symptoms.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of fatigue is high in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we used latent class analysis to reveal patterns of fatigue, anxiety, depression and organ involvement in a large international cohort of SLE patients. METHODS: We used the Lupus BioBank of the upper Rhein to analyse patterns of fatigue using latent class analysis (LCA). After determining the optimal number of latent classes, patients were assigned according to model generated probabilities, and characteristics of classes were compared. RESULTS: A total of 502 patients were included. Significant fatigue, anxiety and depression were reported by 341 (67.9%), 159 (31.7%) and 52 (10.4%) patients, respectively. LCA revealed a first cluster (67.5% of patients) with low disease activity [median (25th-75th percentile interquartile range) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment (SELENA)-SLEDAI: 2 (0-4)], significant fatigue (55.5%, P < 0.0001), low anxiety (11.8%, P < 0.0001) and depression (0.9%, P < 0.0001). Cluster 2 (25.3%) also comprised patients with low disease activity [SELENA-SLEDAI: 2 (0-6)], but those patients had a very high prevalence of fatigue (100%, P < 0.0001), anxiety (89%, P < 0.0001) and depression (38.6%, P < 0.0001). Cluster 3 (7.2%) comprised patients with high disease activity [SELENA-SLEDAI: 12 (8-17), P < 0.0001] and high fatigue (72.2%, P < 0.0001) with low levels of anxiety (16.7%, P < 0.0001) and no depression (0%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: LCA revealed three patterns of fatigue with important practical implications. Based on these, it is crucial to distinguish patients with active disease (in whom remission will be achieved) from those with no or mild activity but high levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety, for whom psychological counselling should be prioritized.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi), commonly used in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma (MM) treatment, frequently cause arthralgia. Although this is one of the most common side effects, it has not been characterized yet. METHODS: We retrospectively included all patients treated with BRAFi +/- MEK inhibitors (MEKi) for MM at the National Center for Tumor Diseases (Heidelberg) between 2010 and 2018 and reviewed patient charts for the occurrence and management of arthralgia. The evaluation was supplemented by an analysis of frozen sera. RESULTS: We included 154 patients (63% males); 31% (48/154) of them reported arthralgia with a median onset of 21 days after the start of the therapy. Arthralgia mostly affected small joints (27/36, 75%) and less frequently large joints (19/36, 53%). The most commonly affected joints were in fingers (19/36, 53%), wrists (16/36, 44%), and knees (12/36, 33%). In 67% (24/36) of the patients, arthralgia occurred with a symmetrical polyarthritis, mainly of small joints, resembling the pattern typically observed in patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), for which a role of the MAPK signaling pathway was previously described. Patients were negative for antinuclear antibodies, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and rheumatoid factor; arthritis was visible in 10 of 13 available PET-CT scans. The development of arthralgia was linked to better progression-free survival and overall survival. CONCLUSION: Arthralgia is a common side effect in patients receiving BRAFi +/- MEKi therapy and often presents a clinical pattern similar to that observed in RA patients. Its occurrence was associated with longer-lasting tumor control.

9.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Plasma/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco Ajustado , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
RMD Open ; 6(2)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be at risk to develop a severe course of COVID-19. The influence of immunomodulating drugs on the course of COVID-19 is unknown. To gather knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with IRD, we established a registry shortly after the beginning of the pandemic in Germany. METHODS: Using an online questionnaire (www.COVID19-rheuma.de), a nationwide database was launched on 30 March 2020, with appropriate ethical and data protection approval to collect data of patients with IRD infected with SARS-CoV-2. In this registry, key clinical and epidemiological parameters-for example, diagnosis of IRD, antirheumatic therapies, comorbidities and course of the infection-are documented. RESULTS: Until 25 April 2020, data from 104 patients with IRD infected with SARS-CoV-2 were reported (40 males; 63 females; 1 diverse). Most of them (45%) were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, 59% had one or more comorbidities and 42% were treated with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Hospitalisation was reported in 32% of the patients. Two-thirds of the patients already recovered. Unfortunately, 6 patients had a fatal course. CONCLUSIONS: In a short time, a national registry for SARS-CoV2-infected patients with IRD was established. Within 4 weeks, 104 cases were documented. The registry enables to generate data rapidly in this emerging situation and to gain a better understanding of the course of SARS-CoV2-infection in patients with IRD, with a distinct focus on their immunomodulatory therapies. This knowledge is valuable for timely information of physicians and patients with IRD, and shall also serve for the development of guidance for the management of patients with IRD during this pandemic.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Psoriásica/complicações , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Alemanha , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Polimialgia Reumática/complicações , Polimialgia Reumática/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Doenças Reumáticas/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espondilite Anquilosante/complicações , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751139

RESUMO

Despite the growing body of literature demonstrating a crucial role of T helper cell (Th) responses in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), only few clinical studies have assessed interactions between Th cells and OA-related symptoms. Yet, the inclusion of clinical data in the interpretation of cellular analyses of Th cell infiltration is essential to reveal the mechanisms underlying the complex pathophysiology of OA pain and disability. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the infiltration pattern of Th cells in systemic (peripheral blood) and joint-derived (synovial membrane and fluid) samples from patients with knee OA in relation to OA-induced pain and disability. Therefore, radiographic OA severity, knee pain and function of 47 OA patients undergoing knee arthroplasty were evaluated prior to surgery. In parallel, samples of peripheral blood (PB), synovial membrane (SM) and synovial fluid (SF) were harvested and analyzed for different Th subsets using flow cytometry. According to surface marker expression Th cells (CD3+ CD4+ CD8-) were assigned to the Th subsets Th1 (CXCR3+, CCR5+), Th2 (CCR3+, CCR4+) and Th17 (CD161+, CCR6+). Interestingly, infiltration of the SM with all Th subtypes (Th1, Th2, Th17) significantly correlated with OA-induced disability. Most importantly, synovial CCR5+ and CCR3+ Th cell infiltration was associated with OA-related knee pain and disability. Furthermore, higher percentage rates of CXCR3+ Th cells in all tissue samples (PB, SM, SF) showed significant associations with OA severity. In contrast, increasing percentage rates of CD161+ Th cells in SM samples corresponded to a better functional outcome. In conclusion, the current study provides an extensive profile of the Th cell infiltration pattern in PB, SF and SM from patients with clinically relevant knee OA. Th cell infiltration of the SM might play a crucial role not only in the pathogenesis of OA but also in the development of OA-related knee pain and disability.

13.
Z Rheumatol ; 79(7): 679-685, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757030

RESUMO

A few days after the SARS-CoV-2 infection was declared a pandemic, the German Society for Rheumatology (DGRh) compiled first recommendations for the care of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). These first recommendations were based on an expert consensus and were largely non-evidence-based. Now that the first scientific data from registers, cross-sectional studies, case reports and case series are available, the present update is intended to update the previous recommendations and to add new findings. The current recommendations are based on a literature search of publications available up to 15 June 2020 and address preventive measures (such as hygiene measures or vaccinations) and the use of immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive drugs. An important goal of the current recommendations is also to prevent harm to patients with IRD through unjustified restriction of care. The DGRh will continue to update its recommendations in the case of new aspects and will publish them as well as further information on the COVID-19 pandemic on its homepage ( www.dgrh.de ) in an ongoing process.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inflamação/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/terapia , Reumatologia/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Alemanha , Humanos , Pandemias , Sociedades Médicas
14.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(12): 2050-2064, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: CD8+ T cells contribute to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by releasing proinflammatory and cytolytic mediators, even in a challenging hypoxic and nutrient-poor microenvironment such as the synovial membrane. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanisms through which CD8+ T cells meet their metabolic demands in the blood and synovial membrane of patients with RA. METHODS: Purified blood CD8+ T cells from patients with RA, patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA), as well as healthy control subjects, and CD8+ T cells from RA synovial membrane were stimulated in medium containing 13 C-labeled metabolic substrates in the presence or absence of metabolic inhibitors, under conditions of normoxia or hypoxia. The production of metabolic intermediates was quantified by 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance. The expression of metabolic enzymes, transcription factors, and immune effector molecules was assessed at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. CD8+ T cell functional studies were performed. RESULTS: RA blood CD8+ T cells met their metabolic demands through aerobic glycolysis, production of uniformly 13 C-enriched lactate in the RA blood (2.6 to 3.7-fold higher than in patients with SpA, patients with PsA, and healthy controls; P < 0.01), and induction of glutaminolysis. Overexpression of Warburg effect-linked enzymes in all RA CD8+ T cell subsets maintained this metabolic profile, conferring to the cells the capacity to proliferate under hypoxia and low-glucose conditions. In all RA CD8+ T cell subsets, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was overexpressed at the mRNA level (P < 0.03 versus controls; n = 6 per group) and protein level (P < 0.05 versus controls; n = 17 RA patients, n = 9 controls). In RA blood, inhibition of LDHA with FX11 led to reductions in lipogenesis, migration and proliferation of CD8+ T cells, and CD8+ T cell effector functions, while production of reactive oxygen species was increased by 1.5-fold (P < 0.03 versus controls). Following inhibition of LDHA with FX11, RA CD8+ T cells lost their capacity to induce healthy B cells to develop a proinflammatory phenotype. Similar metabolic alterations were observed in RA CD8+ T cells from the synovial membrane. CONCLUSION: Remodeling glucose and glutamine metabolism in RA CD8+ T cells by targeting LDHA activity can reduce the deleterious inflammatory and cytolytic contributions of these cells to the development of autoimmunity.

15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An imbalance between CD4+-regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and CD4+-responder T-cells (Tresps) correlates with active disease flares in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Both cell subsets consist of highly proliferating Tregs/Tresps expressing inducible T-cell co-stimulatory molecule (ICOS) and less proliferating ICOS--Tregs/Tresps. METHODS: Six-colour-flow-cytometric analysis was used to examine the effect of ICOS+- and ICOS--Treg/Tresp cell differentiation on the composition of the total CD4+-T-helper cell pool with ICOS+- and ICOS--Tregs/Tresps. Functionality of Tregs was examined using suppression assays. RESULTS: In 83 healthy volunteers, the ratio of ICOS+-Tregs/ICOS+-Tresps increased significantly with age, while that of ICOS--Tregs/ICOS--Tresps did not change. In 86 SLE patients (SLEDAI <7), disease activity was associated with an age-independently increased ratio of both ICOS+-Tregs/ICOS+-Tresps and ICOS--Tregs/ICOS--Tresps. In these patients, the functional activity of ICOS+-Tregs, but not of ICOS--Tregs, was preserved. In 13 markedly active disease patients (SLEDAI >7), the percentage of both ICOS+-Tregs and ICOS+-Tresps, was strongly increased within total CD4+-T-helper cells. However, the increased ratio of ICOS+-Tregs/ICOS+-Tresps was not maintained in these patients, due to terminal differentiation and accumulation of naïve cells within total ICOS+-Tregs. Despite increased differentiation of both ICOS--Tregs and ICOS--Tresps, the percentage of ICOS--Tregs increased within CD4+-T-helper cells, while that of ICOS--Tresps decreased, resulting in a significantly increased ratio of ICOS--Tregs/ICOS--Tresps independent of age. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal a crucial role of Treg immune senescence for the occurrence of disease flares in SLE patients, with ICOS+-Treg cells being most affected.

16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(4): 499-506, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The differential diagnosis of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (negRA) and psoriasis arthritis (PsA) is often difficult due to the similarity of symptoms and the unavailability of reliable clinical markers. Since chronic inflammation induces major changes in the serum metabolome and lipidome, we tested whether differences in serum metabolites and lipids could aid in improving the differential diagnosis of these diseases. METHODS: Sera from negRA and PsA patients with established diagnosis were collected to build a biomarker-discovery cohort and a blinded validation cohort. Samples were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Metabolite concentrations were calculated from the spectra and used to select the variables to build a multivariate diagnostic model. RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated differences in serological concentrations of amino acids: alanine, threonine, leucine, phenylalanine and valine; organic compounds: acetate, creatine, lactate and choline; and lipid ratios L3/L1, L5/L1 and L6/L1, but yielded area under the curve (AUC) values lower than 70%, indicating poor specificity and sensitivity. A multivariate diagnostic model that included age, gender, the concentrations of alanine, succinate and creatine phosphate and the lipid ratios L2/L1, L5/L1 and L6/L1 improved the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis with an AUC of 84.5%. Using this biomarker model, 71% of patients from a blinded validation cohort were correctly classified. CONCLUSIONS: PsA and negRA have distinct serum metabolomic and lipidomic signatures that can be used as biomarkers to discriminate between them. After validation in larger multiethnic cohorts this diagnostic model may become a valuable tool for a definite diagnosis of negRA or PsA patients.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Acetatos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Artrite Psoriásica/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Colina/sangue , Creatina/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfocreatina/sangue , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ácido Succínico/sangue
17.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 170(5-6): 132-140, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AbataCepT In rOutiNe clinical practice (ACTION; NCT02109666) was a 2-year international observational study of patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Baseline characteristics, abatacept retention rates, and clinical outcomes were compared by treatment line in the Austrian cohort of ACTION. RESULTS: Of 100 patients enrolled in Austria, 98 (98.0%) were evaluable: 33/98 (33.7%) biologic naïve and 65/98 (66.3%) with ≥1 prior biologic failure. At baseline, biologic-naïve patients had shorter disease duration and lower concomitant corticosteroid use than biologic-failure patients. Overall crude abatacept retention rate was 60.5% and retention rate was higher in biologic-naïve (65.1%) versus biologic-failure (58.0%) patients. Good/moderate EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) response rates were 85.7% in biologic-naïve and 100% in biologic-failure patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the Austrian cohort of ACTION, overall abatacept retention at 2 years was high, with higher retention rates in patients receiving abatacept as an earlier treatment line. Good/moderate EULAR response rate was higher in biologic-failure than in biologic-naïve patients.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Áustria , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(3): 370-378, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the impact of the new haemodynamic definition of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as proposed by the 6th PH World Symposium on phenotypes and survival in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: In SSc patients who were prospectively and consecutively screened for PAH including right heart catheterisation in Heidelberg or Zurich, haemodynamic and clinical variables have been reassessed according to the new PAH definition. Patients have been followed for 3.7±3.7 (median 3.4) years; Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. Patients with significant lung or left heart disease were excluded from comparative analyses. RESULTS: The final dataset included 284 SSc patients, 146 patients (49.2%) had mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≤20 mm Hg, 19.3% had mPAP 21-24 mm Hg and 29.4% had mPAP ≥25 mm Hg. In the group of mildly elevated mPAP, only four patients (1.4% of the whole SSc cohort) had pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) values ≥3 Wood Units (WU) and could be reclassified as manifest SSc-APAH. Twenty-eight (9.8%) patients with mPAP of 21-24 mm Hg and PVR ≥2 WU already presented with early pulmonary vascular disease with decreased 6 min walking distance (6MWD) (p<0.001), TAPSE (p=0.004) and pulmonary arterial compliance (p<0.001). A PVR ≥2 WU was associated with reduced long-term survival (p=0.002). PVR and 6MWD were independent prognostic predictors in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The data of this study show that a PVR threshold ≥3 WU is too high to enable an early diagnosis of PAH. A PVR threshold ≥2 WU was already associated with pulmonary vascular disease, significantly reduced survival and would be more appropriate in SSc patients with mild PAH.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/mortalidade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/mortalidade , Idoso , Pressão Arterial/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Resistência Vascular/genética
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(5): 1148-1158, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The development of RA is linked to local infiltration of immune cells and to changes in the phenotype of synovial fibroblasts. Synovial fibroblasts possess the capacity to suppress T cell responses through indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-mediated tryptophan metabolism. However, synovial fibroblasts from RA patients are restricted in this immune-modulatory function. Moreover, hypoxic conditions are detected within synovial tissues of RA patients, with oxygen tensions of only 3.2% O2. This study aims at investigating the effects of hypoxia on the interaction between T cells and synovial fibroblasts, particularly on the T cell-suppressive capacities of synovial fibroblasts. METHODS: Synovial fibroblasts were cultured with Th cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (3% O2). Th cell proliferation was detected by flow cytometry. Tryptophan and kynurenine amounts were measured by HPLC. IDO1 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation were quantified by real-time PCR or western blot, and cytokine secretion by ELISA. RESULTS: Hypoxic conditions strongly diminished the Th cell-suppressive capacities of both OA synovial fibroblasts and RA synovial fibroblasts. Accordingly, IDO1 mRNA and protein expression, STAT1 phosphorylation and tryptophan metabolism were greatly reduced in OA synovial fibroblasts by hypoxia. MMP-3, IL-6, IL-10 and IFNγ secretion were significantly decreased under hypoxia in synovial fibroblast-Th cell co-cultures, while IL-17A levels were elevated. Supplementation with IFNγ, a well-known inducer of IDO1 expression, could rescue neither IDO1 expression nor Th cell suppression under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia strongly affected the crosstalk between synovial fibroblasts and Th cells. By reducing the efficiency of synovial fibroblasts to restrict Th cell proliferation and by increasing the expression of IL-17A, hypoxia might have implications on the pathophysiology of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação para Baixo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Hipóxia , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Membrana Sinovial/citologia , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo
20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 277, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the last few years, anti-CD20 antibody rituximab profoundly changed the therapeutic landscape of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Here, we investigated whether natural killer (NK) cells may play a role in rituximab's mechanism of action in GPA. METHODS: B cell depletion, NK cell degranulation, and the expression of CD69 and CD16 on NK cells were measured in a series of in vitro experiments using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In vivo activation of NK cells was investigated in patients receiving rituximab infusions. Cells were analyzed by seven-color flow cytometry. RESULTS: NK cells from GPA patients were activated by immobilized rituximab. Also soluble rituximab activated NK cells, provided that B cells were present. NK cells degranulated and expressed the activation marker CD69 while CD16 expression was decreased. This activation of NK cells by soluble rituximab was accompanied by a reduction of B cells. The next-generation anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab showed stronger effects compared to rituximab on both the reduction of B cells and the activation of NK cells. Finally, we found that rituximab led to the activation of NK cells in vivo, provided that B cells were not depleted due to prior rituximab infusions. CONCLUSION: B cell-bound rituximab activates NK cells in GPA. While NK cells therefore participate in rituximab's mechanism of action in humans, their potential may be more efficiently exploited, e.g., by Fc engineering of therapeutic antibodies.


Assuntos
Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia
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