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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750761

RESUMO

The bioaccumulation of 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 107 freshwater fishes collected during 2017 in waterbodies of a contaminated area in Veneto Region (Italy) was evaluated. The contamination had been previously ascribed to a fluorochemical manufacturing plant that discharged mainly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), among other PFASs, into the surrounding environment. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, detected in almost 99% of the fish with an average concentration of 9.23 µg/kg wet weight (w/w). Other detected compounds were perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) (98%, 0.55 µg/kg w/w), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (98%, 2.87 µg/kg w/w), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) (93%, 1.51 µg/kg w/w), and PFOA (79%, 0.33 µg/kg w/w). Bioaccumulation of PFASs was species related, with Italian barbel being the most contaminated, followed by chub, wels catfish, and carp, reflecting animals' habitat use and feeding behavior. A significant negative linear relation between PFAS concentration and fish weight was observed no matter the considered species, with smaller fish having proportionally higher bioaccumulation. PFOS concentrations were strongly correlated with the concentrations of other PFASs, suggesting a similar source of contamination or a contamination from ubiquitous sources. Correlation analysis showed PFOA likely originated from a separated source, unlinked to other PFASs. Although the fishes studied are not usually consumed by local people, with the likely exception of freshwater anglers (and relatives), their consumption has been banned by Veneto Authority since the time this study was conducted. In fact, the study suggests that a medium/high consumption frequency (superior to 1 portion per month) of fish from the investigated area might result in a high exposure to PFASs.

2.
Explore (NY) ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243594

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Animal Assisted Interventions (AAI), which are generally defined as 'pet therapy', focus on the improvement of human health and wellbeing through a multidisciplinary approach and the involvement of domestic animals. An Italian survey conducted in 2017 revealed that donkeys were the third most involved species in AAI. Nevertheless, data on the main features of the providers of Donkey Assisted Interventions (DAI), especially in Italy, and their organisational models are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This questionnaire-based pilot study aimed to collect information about the features of DAI providers in the Veneto Region to have a general framework about the field. STUDY METHOD: In this descriptive mixed-method pilot study, we interviewed DAI providers through a computer assisted telephone interview. Respondents were selected by integrating data from the Veneto Region Livestock Database and from the Italian official register of AAI professionals. The questionnaire was designed following the advice from Equator Network. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Our outcome measures included the prevalent organisational system adopted by our respondents, main type of AAI programs, and users. Furthermore, we collected qualitative data about economic and income and respondents' personal opinions about DAI (strengths and weaknesses). MAIN RESULTS: Data analysis revealed a heterogeneous picture of the DAI field with a prevalence of non-profit organisations providing mainly Donkey Assisted Activities to a large range of user categories. Despite the poor economic framework and low income from DAI, DAI providers were strongly motivated and spent more time and efforts in delivering this service.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993093

RESUMO

According to the Directive 2007/43/EC, broiler farms can house animals up to 39 kg/m2, provided that specific environmental requirements are met. However, limited information is available about the effects of stocking density (SD) on broiler health and welfare, including the need for antimicrobial use. In this study, annual data on mortality, feed conversion rate, and antimicrobial use (AMU) are compared between broiler farms with stocking densities of 39 kg/m2 (N = 257) and 33 kg/m2 (N = 87). These farms were distributed throughout Italy and belonged to the same integrated poultry company. Antimicrobial use data were obtained from each farm and production cycle; AMU was expressed using the defined daily doses (DDD) method proposed by EMA. The annual AMU per farm was calculated as the median AMU over all cycles. Stratified analysis by sex and geographical area (Italy vs Northern Italy) showed no significant effect of stocking density on broiler mortality, feed conversion rate, and AMU. However, a higher AMU variability among farms with 39 kg/m2 stocking density vs. those with 33 kg/m2 was found. This study indicates that AMU does not apparently vary between animals reared at different stocking densities in intensive farms.

4.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104359, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407794

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important threat for both wild and domestic carnivores. Since 2006, the North-Eastern regions in Italy have been experiencing severe and widespread recurring outbreaks of CDV affecting the wild carnivore population. In this study we performed an extensive phylogeographic analysis of CDV strains belonging to the Wildlife-Europe genetic group identified between 2006 and 2018 in Veneto, Trentino Alto Adige and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions. Our analysis revealed that viruses from the first (2006-2009) and the second (2011-2018) epidemic wave cluster separately, suggesting the introduction of two distinct genetic variants. These two events were characterized by different diffusion rates and spatial distribution, thus suggesting the existence of a connection between infection spread and host population dynamics. We also report the first spillover event of this strain to a non-vaccinated dog in a rural area of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The increasing prevalence of the infection in wildlife population, the broad host range of CDV circulating in the Alpine wildlife and the first reported transmission of a wild-adapted strain to a domestic dog in this region raise concerns over the vulnerability of wildlife species and the exposure of our pets to new threatening strains. Understanding the dynamic of CDV epidemics will also improve preparedness for re-emerging diseases affecting carnivore species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Animais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(9): 2784-2787, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial usage (AMU) in livestock plays a key role in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Analysis of AMU data in livestock is therefore relevant for both animal and public health. OBJECTIVES: To assess AMU in 470 broiler and 252 turkey farms of one of Italy's largest poultry companies, accounting for around 30% of national poultry production, to identify trends and risk factors for AMU. METHODS: Antimicrobial treatments administered to 5827 broiler and 1264 turkey grow-out cycles in 2015-17 were expressed as DDDs for animals per population correction unit (DDDvet/PCU). A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the effect of geographical area, season and prescribing veterinarian on AMU. Management and structural interventions implemented by the company were also assessed. RESULTS: AMU showed a 71% reduction in broilers (from 14 to 4 DDDvet/PCU) and a 56% reduction in turkeys (from 41 to 18 DDDvet/PCU) during the study period. Quinolones, macrolides and polymyxins decreased from 33% to 6% of total AMU in broilers, and from 56% to 32% in turkeys. Broiler cycles during spring and winter showed significantly higher AMU, as well as those in densely populated poultry areas. Different antimicrobial prescribing behaviour was identified among veterinarians. CONCLUSIONS: This study evidenced a decreasing trend in AMU and identified several correlates of AMU in broilers and turkeys. These factors will inform the design of interventions to further reduce AMU and therefore counteract antimicrobial resistance in these poultry sectors.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Galinhas , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Perus , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
6.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213515, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861028

RESUMO

Information on the population dynamics of a reservoir species have been increasingly adopted to understand and eventually predict the dispersal patterns of infectious diseases throughout an area. Although potentially relevant, to date there are no studies which have investigated the genetic structure of the red fox population in relation to infectious disease dynamics. Therefore, we genetically and spatially characterised the red fox population in the area stretching between the Eastern and Dinaric Alps, which has been affected by both distemper and rabies at different time intervals. Red foxes collected from north-eastern Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia between 2006-2012, were studied using a set of 21 microsatellite markers. We confirmed a weak genetic differentiation within the fox population using Bayesian clustering analyses, and we were able to differentiate the fox population into geographically segregated groups. Our finding might be due to the presence of geographical barriers that have likely influenced the distribution of the fox population, limiting in turn gene flow and spread of infectious diseases. Focusing on the Italian red fox population, we observed interesting variations in the prevalence of both diseases among distinct fox clusters, with the previously identified Italy 1 and Italy 2 rabies as well as distemper viruses preferentially affecting different sub-groups identified in the study. Knowledge of the regional-scale population structure can improve understanding of the epidemiology and spread of diseases. Our study paves the way for an integrated approach for disease control coupling pathogen, host and environmental data to inform targeted control programs in the future.


Assuntos
Cinomose , Raposas/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Raiva , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Croácia/epidemiologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/genética , Cinomose/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/genética , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/veterinária , Eslovênia/epidemiologia
7.
Open Vet J ; 7(2): 81-85, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616387

RESUMO

Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and its relation to biosecurity level. A field team of 7 Veterinarians belongs to the National Center of Animal Health was assigned for data recording and collection of blood samples. Personal information of the producers, geographical locations, biosecurity measures and description of the poultry farms were recorded. The total number of poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Region is 461 farms distributed in 13 cities. Out of these, 102 broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm (10 houses) which were in operation during team visit were included in this study. Following collection of blood, sera were separated and tested by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies against Mycoplasma (General antigen for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae). The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in the region was 28% (29 poultry farms out of 103 were infected). About 50% (23 out of 47) of poultry farms located in Garian city were infected with Mycoplasma and one significant cluster of Mycoplasma infection in the city was identified. Low level of biosecurity was found in poultry farms of the region. Out of the 103 farms included, 63% of poultry houses has a ground of soil and 44% of them has uncoated walls which may influence the proper cleaning and disinfection. Almost 100% of the farms are at risk of exposure to diseases transmitted by wild birds such as avian influenza and Newcastle disease due to absence of wild birds control program. Although, 81% of the farms have entry restrictions, only 20% have disinfectants at entry which increase the risk of exposure to pathogens. The results of this study highlight the weakness points of biosecurity measures in poultry farms of Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region and high seroprevalence of mycoplasma. Data collected in this study will assist the Veterinary authorities to apply effective disease control strategies.

8.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173097, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28278292

RESUMO

Commercial poultry farms (n° 523), located in all the six regions of Nigeria were sampled with a view to generate baseline information about the distribution of Salmonella serovars in this country. Five different matrices (litter, dust, faeces, feed and water) were collected from each visited farm. Salmonella was isolated from at least one of the five matrices in 228 farms, with a farm prevalence of 43.6% (CI95[39.7-48.3%]). Altogether, 370 of 2615 samples collected (14.1%, CI95[12.8; 15.5%]) contained Salmonella. Considering the number of positive farms and the number of positive samples, it was evident that for the majority of the sampled farms, few samples were positive for Salmonella. With regard to the matrices, there was no difference in Salmonella prevalence among the five matrices considered. Of the 370 isolates serotyped, eighty-two different serotypes were identified and Salmonella Kentucky was identified as having the highest isolation rate in all the matrices sampled (16.2%), followed by S. Poona and S. Elisabethville. S. Kentucky was distributed across the country, whereas the other less frequent serovars had a more circumscribed diffusion. This is one of few comprehensive studies on the occurrence and distribution of Salmonella in commercial chicken layer farms from all the six regions of Nigeria. The relatively high prevalence rate documented in this study may be attributed to the generally poor infrastructure and low biosecurity measures in controlling stray animals, rodents and humans. Data collected could be valuable for instituting effective intervention strategies for Salmonella control in Nigeria and also in other developing countries with a similar poultry industry structure, with the final aim of reducing Salmonella spread in animals and ultimately in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas , Poeira/análise , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Prevalência , Salmonella/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Sorogrupo , Microbiologia da Água
9.
Front Public Health ; 3: 21, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699249

RESUMO

The objective of this study was the estimation of the exposure over time to heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, and lead) due to shellfish consumption in the Veneto Region, Italy. Shellfish consumption was investigated by a food frequency consumption survey. Altogether, 1949 households, stratified into the five most populated areas of the Veneto Region, were involved in the study. Exposure estimation to heavy metals was carried out taking into account the level of metal measured in samples of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and grooved carpet shell (Ruditapes decussatus), collected in the frame of the monitoring activities of mollusk production areas of Veneto Region, between January 2007 and December 2012. A general high contribution of the considered shellfish to the Tolerable Weekly Intake was noticed in the case of cadmium, especially in 2011, when a considerable increase in cadmium intake was estimated. This was probably due to a heavy rainfall event that triggered catastrophic flooding with high impact on shellfish capture areas in November 2010. The results strongly emphasize the importance of dealing with food safety in a holistic way, taking into account the potential impact of extraordinary natural events on food chain contamination, in order to identify food hazards at an early stage, before developing into a real risk for consumers.

10.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e61588, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23630599

RESUMO

Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Epidemias/veterinária , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Cinomose/transmissão , Cinomose/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Raposas , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão
11.
Pathog Glob Health ; 107(7): 346-53, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24392677

RESUMO

After more than 10 years of absence, in 2008 rabies re-emerged and spread in wild foxes in north-eastern Italy. In order to control the infection and to minimize the risk of human exposure, three oral foxes vaccination campaigns were first carried out by manual distribution of baits between January and September 2009, followed by four emergency oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns by aerial distribution in the affected regions starting in December 2009. Ordinary aerial ORV campaigns followed in spring and fall 2011 and 2012, although no cases were reported after February 2011. In our paper, we describe the main characteristics of the rabies epidemic that occurred in north-eastern Italy in 2008-2011, with particular focus on the innovative systems that were implemented to manage and evaluate the efficacy of the aerial ORV. The Italian experience in containing and eliminating rabies in less than 3 years may provide information and suggestions for countries affected by rabies, and sharing a similar geomorphological conformation as Italy.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Emergências/veterinária , Saúde Pública , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Raposas/virologia , Humanos , Itália , Vigilância da População , Raiva/veterinária , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Vacinação/veterinária
12.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 60(5): 375-82, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22971022

RESUMO

Since 2008, West Nile Virus (WNV) has expanded its range in several Italian regions, and its yearly recurrence suggests the virus may have become endemic in some areas. In 2011, a new plan based also on the detection of IgM antibodies was implemented in the north-eastern Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia, aiming to early detect WNV infections in areas where the virus had already circulated during the previous summers, and in adjacent zones. From July to November 2011, 1880 sera from 521 equine premises were screened by a commercial IgM capture ELISA. Mosquitoes were captured by CDC-CO2 traps at 61 locations in the two regions. Collected mosquitoes were identified, pooled by species/date/location and examined by real-time RT-PCR and sequencing. Passive surveillance was carried out on clinically affected horses and non-migratory wild birds found dead. IgM sero-positive equines were detected in 19 holdings, five in the area with WNV circulation (AWC) and 14 in the surveillance area (SA); 10 more horse premises tested positive to further serological controls within 4 km of the positive holdings. A total of 85,398 mosquitoes of 15 species were collected and 2732 pools examined. Five Culex pipiens pools tested positive for the presence of WNV. Passive surveillance on non-migratory wild birds allowed detection of the virus only in one found dead collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto), of 82 birds sampled. The WNV belonged to the lineage 2, which had been isolated for the first time in Italy earlier in 2011. By the first week of October, nine human cases had been confirmed in the same area. The implementation of a protocol combining IgM screening of horses with surveillance on mosquito vectors proved to be valuable for early detecting WNV circulation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Culicidae/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Aves , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/isolamento & purificação , Itália/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Zoonoses
13.
Geospat Health ; 5(2): 275-83, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21590678

RESUMO

This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS) developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV), defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability), development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI) for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i) collection of data and information; (ii) building a geodatabase; and (iii) development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access) were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework). Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Administrativas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/organização & administração , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Itália
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