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1.
Lung Cancer ; 139: 1-8, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has resulted in striking clinical responses, but only in a subset of patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate transcriptional signatures previously reported in the literature in an independent cohort of NSCLC patients receiving ICB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed transcriptional profiles from pre-treatment tumor samples of 52 chemotherapy-refractory advanced NSCLC patients treated with anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy. Gene signatures based on published reports were created and examined for their association with response to therapy and progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS). RESULTS: Two signatures predicting response and outcomes were identified. One reflected the degree of immune infiltration and upregulation of interferon-gamma-induced genes. A second reflected the EMT status. Compared to those not responding to therapy, patients whose tumors responded to ICB had higher scores in an inflammatory gene signature (6.0 ±â€¯2.9 vs -5.5 ±â€¯3.4, p = 0.014) or a more epithelial phenotype (-1.7 ±â€¯1.0 vs 2.1 ±â€¯1.2, p = 0.016). Both signatures demonstrated a satisfactory predictive accuracy for response: AUC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.84) for the inflammatory and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.85) for EMT signatures, respectively. A weighted score combining EMT and inflammatory signatures showed increased predictive value with AUC of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.99). Kaplan-Meier curves for patients above and below the median combined score showed a significant separation for PFS and OS (all p < 0.01, log rank test). CONCLUSIONS: The EMT/Inflammation signature score may be useful in directing checkpoint inhibitor therapy in lung cancer and suggests that reversal of EMT might augment efficacy of ICB.

2.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 7(9): 1457-1471, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331945

RESUMO

The success of targeted or immune therapies is often hampered by the emergence of resistance and/or clinical benefit in only a subset of patients. We hypothesized that combining targeted therapy with immune modulation would show enhanced antitumor responses. Here, we explored the combination potential of erdafitinib, a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor under clinical development, with PD-1 blockade in an autochthonous FGFR2K660N/p53mut lung cancer mouse model. Erdafitinib monotherapy treatment resulted in substantial tumor control but no significant survival benefit. Although anti-PD-1 alone was ineffective, the erdafitinib and anti-PD-1 combination induced significant tumor regression and improved survival. For both erdafitinib monotherapy and combination treatments, tumor control was accompanied by tumor-intrinsic, FGFR pathway inhibition, increased T-cell infiltration, decreased regulatory T cells, and downregulation of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells. These effects were not observed in a KRASG12C-mutant genetically engineered mouse model, which is insensitive to FGFR inhibition, indicating that the immune changes mediated by erdafitinib may be initiated as a consequence of tumor cell killing. A decreased fraction of tumor-associated macrophages also occurred but only in combination-treated tumors. Treatment with erdafitinib decreased T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality, reflecting a broadening of the TCR repertoire induced by tumor cell death, whereas combination with anti-PD-1 led to increased TCR clonality, suggesting a more focused antitumor T-cell response. Our results showed that the combination of erdafitinib and anti-PD-1 drives expansion of T-cell clones and immunologic changes in the tumor microenvironment to support enhanced antitumor immunity and survival.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1772, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992440

RESUMO

Deep understanding of the genomic and immunological differences between Chinese and Western lung cancer patients is of great importance for target therapy selection and development for Chinese patients. Here we report an extensive molecular and immune profiling study of 245 Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte estimated using immune cell signatures is found to be significantly higher in adenocarcinoma (ADC, 72.5%) compared with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC, 54.4%). The correlation of genomic alterations with immune signatures reveals that low immune infiltration was associated with EGFR mutations in ADC samples, PI3K and/or WNT pathway activation in SQCC. While KRAS mutations are found to be significantly associated with T cell infiltration in ADC samples. The SQCC patients with high antigen presentation machinery and cytotoxic T cell signature scores are found to have a prolonged overall survival time.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Idoso , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/imunologia
4.
Oncotarget ; 9(78): 34856, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410683

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.191.].

5.
Cell ; 172(3): 578-589.e17, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373830

RESUMO

KRASG12C was recently identified to be potentially druggable by allele-specific covalent targeting of Cys-12 in vicinity to an inducible allosteric switch II pocket (S-IIP). Success of this approach requires active cycling of KRASG12C between its active-GTP and inactive-GDP conformations as accessibility of the S-IIP is restricted only to the GDP-bound state. This strategy proved feasible for inhibiting mutant KRAS in vitro; however, it is uncertain whether this approach would translate to in vivo. Here, we describe structure-based design and identification of ARS-1620, a covalent compound with high potency and selectivity for KRASG12C. ARS-1620 achieves rapid and sustained in vivo target occupancy to induce tumor regression. We use ARS-1620 to dissect oncogenic KRAS dependency and demonstrate that monolayer culture formats significantly underestimate KRAS dependency in vivo. This study provides in vivo evidence that mutant KRAS can be selectively targeted and reveals ARS-1620 as representing a new generation of KRASG12C-specific inhibitors with promising therapeutic potential.

6.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 16(8): 1717-1726, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416604

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations are frequently observed in cancer, suggesting that FGFR inhibition may be a promising therapy in patients harboring these lesions. Identification of predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers to select and monitor patients most likely to respond to FGFR inhibition will be the key to clinical development of this class of agents. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition and correlation with FGFR pathway activation status were determined in molecularly annotated panels of cancer cell lines and xenograft models. Pathway inhibition in response to FGFR inhibitor treatment was assessed in cell lines (both in vitro and in vivo) and in samples from patients treated with the FGFR inhibitor JNJ-42756493 (erdafitinib). Frequency of FGFR aberrations was assessed in a panel of NSCLC, breast, prostate, ovarian, colorectal, and melanoma human tumor tissue samples. FGFR translocations and gene amplifications present in clinical specimens were shown to display potent transforming activity associated with constitutive pathway activation. Tumor cells expressing these FGFR activating mutants displayed sensitivity to the selective FGFR inhibitor erdafitinib and resulted in suppression of FGFR phosphorylation and downstream signal transduction. Clinically, patients receiving erdafitinib showed decreased Erk phosphorylation in tumor biopsies and elevation of serum phosphate. In a phase I study, a heavily pretreated bladder cancer patient with an FGFR3-TACC3 translocation experienced a partial response when treated with erdafitinib. This preclinical study confirmed pharmacodynamics and identified new predictive biomarkers to FGFR inhibition with erdafitinib and supports further clinical evaluation of this compound in patients with FGFR genetic alterations. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(8); 1717-26. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Oncogenes , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Quinoxalinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos Nus , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
7.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 16(6): 1010-1020, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28341788

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays critical roles in key biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to wound healing and has strong links to several hallmarks of cancer. Genetic alterations in FGF receptor (FGFR) family members are associated with increased tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and decreased survival. JNJ-42756493, erdafitinib, is an orally active small molecule with potent tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity against all four FGFR family members and selectivity versus other highly related kinases. JNJ-42756493 shows rapid uptake into the lysosomal compartment of cells in culture, which is associated with prolonged inhibition of FGFR signaling, possibly due to sustained release of the inhibitor. In xenografts from human tumor cell lines or patient-derived tumor tissue with activating FGFR alterations, JNJ-42756493 administration results in potent and dose-dependent antitumor activity accompanied by pharmacodynamic modulation of phospho-FGFR and phospho-ERK in tumors. The results of the current study provide a strong rationale for the clinical investigation of JNJ-42756493 in patients with tumors harboring FGFR pathway alterations. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(6); 1010-20. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Quinoxalinas/administração & dosagem , Quinoxalinas/farmacocinética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Cancer Res ; 76(13): 3942-53, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27216193

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with activating EGFR mutations become resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), often through second-site mutations in EGFR (T790M) and/or activation of the cMet pathway. We engineered a bispecific EGFR-cMet antibody (JNJ-61186372) with multiple mechanisms of action to inhibit primary/secondary EGFR mutations and the cMet pathway. JNJ-61186372 blocked ligand-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and cMet and inhibited phospho-ERK and phospho-AKT more potently than the combination of single receptor-binding antibodies. In NSCLC tumor models driven by EGFR and/or cMet, JNJ-61186372 treatment resulted in tumor regression through inhibition of signaling/receptor downmodulation and Fc-driven effector interactions. Complete and durable regression of human lung xenograft tumors was observed with the combination of JNJ-61186372 and a third-generation EGFR TKI. Interestingly, treatment of cynomolgus monkeys with JNJ-61186372 resulted in no major toxicities, including absence of skin rash observed with other EGFR-directed agents. These results highlight the differentiated potential of JNJ-61186372 to inhibit the spectrum of mutations driving EGFR TKI resistance in NSCLC. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3942-53. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Mutação/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(8): 845-9, 2015 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288682

RESUMO

Early hit to lead work on a pyrrolopyridine chemotype provided access to compounds with biochemical and cellular potency against Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Structure-based drug design along the extended hinge region of JAK2 led to the identification of an important H-bond interaction with the side chain of Tyr 931, which improved JAK family selectivity. The 4,5-dimethyl thiazole analogue 18 demonstrated high levels of JAK family selectivity and was identified as a promising lead for the program.

10.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(8): 850-5, 2015 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288683

RESUMO

JAK2 kinase inhibitors are a promising new class of agents for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms and have potential for the treatment of other diseases possessing a deregulated JAK2-STAT pathway. X-ray structure and ADME guided refinement of C-4 heterocycles to address metabolic liability present in dialkylthiazole 1 led to the discovery of a clinical candidate, BMS-911543 (11), with excellent kinome selectivity, in vivo PD activity, and safety profile.

11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 25(14): 2809-12, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25987372
12.
Oncotarget ; 5(18): 8637-50, 2014 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25226617

RESUMO

Imatinib Mesylate (IM) and other tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies have had a major impact on the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, TKI monotherapy is not curative, with relapse and persistence of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) remaining a challenge. We have recently identified an AHI-1-BCR-ABL-JAK2 protein complex that contributes to the transforming activity of BCR-ABL and IM-resistance in CML stem/progenitor cells. JAK2 thus emerges as an attractive target for improved therapies, but off-target effects of newly developed JAK2 inhibitors on normal hematopoietic cells remain a concern. We have examined the biological effects of a highly selective, orally bioavailable JAK2 inhibitor, BMS-911543, in combination with TKIs on CD34+ treatment-naïve IM-nonresponder cells. Combination therapy reduces JAK2/STAT5 and CRKL activities, induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation and colony growth, and eliminates CML LSCs in vitro. Importantly, BMS-911543 selectively targets CML stem/progenitor cells while sparing healthy stem/progenitor cells. Oral BMS-911543 combined with the potent TKI dasatinib more effectively eliminates infiltrated leukemic cells in hematopoietic tissues than TKI monotherapy and enhances survival of leukemic mice. Dual targeting BCR-ABL and JAK2 activities in CML stem/progenitor cells may consequently lead to more effective disease eradication, especially in patients at high risk of TKI resistance and disease progression.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dasatinibe , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/enzimologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
J Transl Med ; 11: 198, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23981300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model is likely to reflect human tumor biology more accurately than cultured cell lines because human tumors are implanted directly into animals; maintained in an in vivo, three-dimensional environment; and never cultured on plastic. PDX models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have been developed previously but were not well characterized at the molecular level. HNSCC is a deadly and disfiguring disease for which better systemic therapy is desperately needed. The development of new therapies and the understanding of HNSCC biology both depend upon clinically relevant animal models. We developed and characterized the patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model because it is likely to recapitulate human tumor biology. METHODS: We transplanted 30 primary tumors directly into mice. The histology and stromal components were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression analysis was conducted on patient tumors and on PDXs and cell lines derived from one PDX and from independent, human tumors. RESULTS: Five of 30 (17%) transplanted tumors could be serially passaged. Engraftment was more frequent among HNSCC with poor differentiation and nodal disease. The tumors maintained the histologic characteristics of the parent tumor, although human stromal components were lost upon engraftment. The degree of difference in gene expression between the PDX and its parent tumor varied widely but was stable up to the tenth generation in one PDX. For genes whose expression differed between parent tumors and cell lines in culture, the PDX expression pattern was very similar to that of the parent tumor. There were also significant expression differences between the human tumors that subsequently grew in mice and those that did not, suggesting that this model enriches for cancers with distinct biological features. The PDX model was used successfully to test targeted drugs in vivo. CONCLUSION: The PDX model for HNSCC is feasible, recapitulates the histology of the original tumor, and generates stable gene expression patterns. Gene expression patterns and histology suggested that the PDX more closely recapitulated the parental tumor than did cells in culture. Thus, the PDX is a robust model in which to evaluate tumor biology and novel therapeutics.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Células Estromais/patologia , Quinases da Família src/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
15.
Oncotarget ; 1(7): 563-577, 2010 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21317452

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a unique subset of cells within a tumor that possess self-renewal capacity and pluripotency, and can drive tumor initiation and maintenance. First identified in hematological malignancies, CSCs are now thought to play an important role in a wide variety of solid tumors such as NSCLC, breast and colorectal cancer. The role of CSCs in driving tumor formation illustrates the dysregulation of differentiation in tumorigenesis. The Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog (HH) pathways are developmental pathways that are commonly activated in many types of cancer. While substantial progress has been made in developing therapeutics targeting Notch and HH, the Wnt pathway has remained an elusive therapeutic target. This review will focus on the clinical relevance of the Wnt pathway in CSCs and tumor cell biology, as well as points of therapeutic intervention and recent advances in targeting Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Wnt/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/fisiologia
18.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(2): 634-9, 2008 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18055203

RESUMO

2-Amino-5-(thioaryl)thiazoles are potent inhibitors of TrkA (e.g., 20h, TrkA IC(50)=0.6 nM) that show anti-proliferative effect in cellular assays. A proposed inhibitor binding mode to TrkA active site is consistent with key SAR observations.


Assuntos
Receptor trkA/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Receptor trkA/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/química
19.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 5(6): 1571-6, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16818516

RESUMO

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) remain an area of therapeutic interest because of their role in epithelial tumors, and experimental models specific to these targets are highly desirable. Chimeric receptors were prepared by in-frame fusion of the CD8 extracellular sequence with the cytoplasmic sequences of RTKs. A CD8HER2 fusion protein was shown to form disulfide-mediated homodimers and to transform fibroblasts and epithelial cells. CD8RTK fusion proteins transform rat kidney epithelial cells and impart phenotypes that may reflect signaling specificity inherent in the native receptors. Transgenic expression of CD8HER2 and CD8Met in mice resulted in the formation of salivary and mammary gland tumors. The transgenic tumors allow the derivation of allograft tumors and cell lines that are sensitive to inhibition by small molecule kinase inhibitors. This approach provides excellent cell and tumor models for the characterization of signaling properties of diverse RTKs and for the evaluation of rationally designed antagonists targeting these kinases.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/genética , Animais , Western Blotting , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Dimerização , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/etiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Plasmídeos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/etiologia , Transfecção
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