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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(10)2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336609

RESUMO

Bright surfaces across the western U.S. lead to uncertainties in satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) where AOD is typically overestimated. With this in mind, a compact and portable instrument was developed to measure surface albedo on an unmanned aircraft system (UAS). This spectral albedometer uses two Hamamatsu micro-spectrometers (range: 340⁻780 nm) for measuring incident and reflected solar radiation at the surface. The instrument was deployed on 5 October 2017 in Nevada's Black Rock Desert (BRD) to investigate a region of known high surface reflectance for comparison with albedo products from satellites. It was found that satellite retrievals underestimate surface reflectance compared to the UAS mounted albedometer. To highlight the importance of surface reflectance on the AOD from satellite retrieval algorithms, a 1-D radiative transfer model was used. The simple model was used to determine the sensitivity of AOD with respect to the change in albedo and indicates a large sensitivity of AOD retrievals to surface reflectance for certain combinations of surface albedo and aerosol optical properties. This demonstrates the need to increase the number of surface albedo measurements and an intensive evaluation of albedo satellite retrievals to improve satellite-derived AOD. The portable instrument is suitable for other applications as well.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 615: 1411-1427, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751446

RESUMO

Ambient air particulate matter (<2.5µm in diameter) samples were collected on two different filter types in 2014 and 2015 over 24h periods and analyzed for reactive mercury (gaseous oxidized mercury+particulate bound mercury) concentrations and lead isotopes to determine sources of pollution to three sites in Nevada, USA. Two sites were located on the western edge of Nevada (Reno, urban, 1370m and Peavine Peak, rural, high elevation, 2515m); the third location was ~485km east in rural Great Basin National Park, NV (2061m). Reactive mercury samples were collected on cation exchange membranes simultaneously with lead samples, collected on Teflon membranes. Lead isotopic ratios have previously identified trans-Pacific lead sources based on the 206/207 and 208/207 lead ratios. Influence from trans-Pacific air masses was higher from March to June associated with long-range transport of pollutants. Spring months are well known for increased transport across the Pacific; however, fall months were also influenced by trans-Pacific air masses in this study. Western North American background ozone concentrations have been measured and modeled at 50 to 55ppbv. Median ozone concentrations at both rural sites in Nevada were within this range. Sources leading to enhancements in ozone of 2 to 18ppbv above monthly medians in Nevada included emissions from Eurasia, regional urban centers, and global and regional wildfires, resulting in concentrations close to the USA air quality standard. At the high elevation locations, ozone was derived from pollutants being transported in the free troposphere that originate around the globe; however, Eurasia and Asia were dominant sources to the Western USA. Negative correlations between reactive mercury and percent Asian lead, Northern Eurasia and East Asia trajectories indicated reactive mercury concentrations at the two high elevation sites were produced by oxidants from local, regional, and marine boundary layer sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Isótopos , Chumbo , Nevada
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(22): 12225-12231, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27801579

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of chemical compounds and concentration of reactive mercury (RM), defined as the sum of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and <3 µm particulate bound mercury (PBM), are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to understand the chemistry, concentration, and spatial and temporal distribution of GOM at adjacent locations (12 km apart) with a difference in elevation of ∼1000 m. Atmospheric GOM measurements were made with passive and active samplers using membranes, and at one location, a Tekran mercury measurement system was used. The chemistry of GOM varied across time and location. On the basis of data collected, chemistry at the low elevation site adjacent to a highway was primarily influenced by pollutants generated by mobile sources (GOM = nitrogen and sulfur-based compounds), and the high elevation site (GOM = halogen-based compounds) was affected by long-range transport in the free troposphere over the marine boundary layer into Nevada. Data collected at these two locations demonstrate that different GOM compounds exist depending on the oxidants present in the air. Measurements of GOM made by the KCl denuder in the Tekran instrument located at the low elevation site were lower than that measured using membranes by 1.7-13 times. Accurate measurements of atmospheric concentrations and chemistry of RM are necessary for proper assessment of environmental impacts, and field measurements are essential for atmospheric models, which in turn influence policy decisions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Atmosfera/química , Mercúrio , Compostos de Mercúrio
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