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1.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(10): 1369-1373, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients have a poor prognosis and few treatment options are available. Preclinical and clinical data demonstrated that the combination of poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors with immune checkpoint inhibitors could have a synergistic antitumor activity in this setting of patients. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of niraparib plus dostarlimab compared with chemotherapy in recurrent ovarian cancer patients not suitable for platinum treatment. STUDY HYPOTHESIS: This trial will assess the hypothesis that niraparib plus dostarlimab therapy is effective to increase overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to first subsequent therapy respect to chemotherapy alone, with an acceptable toxicity profile. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a phase III, multicenter trial, where recurrent ovarian cancer patients not eligible for platinum re-treatment will be randomized 1:1 to receive niraparib plus dostarlimab vs physician's choice chemotherapy until disease progression, intolerable toxicity, or withdrawal of patient consent. The study will be performed according to European Network for Gynaecological Oncological Trial groups (ENGOT) model B and patients will be recruited from 40 sites across MITO, CEEGOG, GINECO, HeCOG, MANGO, and NOGGO groups. MAJOR INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Eligible patients must have recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer not eligible for platinum retreatment. Patients who received previous treatment with poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors will be eligible. No more than two prior lines of treatment are allowed. PRIMARY ENDPOINT: The primary endpoint is overall survival defined as the time from the randomization to the date of death by any cause. SAMPLE SIZE: 427 patients will be randomized. ESTIMATED DATES FOR COMPLETING ACCRUAL AND PRESENTING RESULTS: June 2024 TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04679064.

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647981

RESUMO

Importance: A total of 1% to 3% of patients treated with a poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor for high-grade ovarian cancer (HGOC) develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs), which are rare but often fatal conditions. Although the cause of these t-MNs is unknown, clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) variants can increase the risk of primary myeloid malignant neoplasms and are more frequent among patients with solid tumors. Objectives: To examine whether preexisting CHIP variants are associated with the development of t-MNs after rucaparib treatment and how these CHIP variants are affected by treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective genetic association study used peripheral blood cell (PBC) samples collected before rucaparib treatment from patients in the multicenter, single-arm ARIEL2 (Study of Rucaparib in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive, Relapsed, High-Grade Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer) (n = 491; between October 30, 2013, and August 9, 2016) and the multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind ARIEL3 (Study of Rucaparib as Switch Maintenance Following Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive, High-Grade Serous or Endometrioid Epithelial Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal or Fallopian Tube Cancer) (n = 561; between April 7, 2014, and July 19, 2016), which tested rucaparib as HGOC therapy in the treatment and maintenance settings, respectively. The follow-up data cutoff date was September 1, 2019. Of 1052 patients in ARIEL2 and ARIEL3, PBC samples from 20 patients who developed t-MNs (cases) and 44 randomly selected patients who did not (controls) were analyzed for the presence of CHIP variants using targeted next-generation sequencing. Additional longitudinal analysis was performed on available ARIEL2 samples collected during treatment and at the end of treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Enrichment analysis of preexisting variants in 10 predefined CHIP-associated genes in cases relative to controls; association with clinical correlates. Results: Among 1052 patients (mean [SE] age, 61.7 [0.3] years) enrolled and dosed in ARIEL2 and ARIEL3, 22 (2.1%) developed t-MNs. The t-MNs were associated with longer overall exposure to prior platinum therapies (13.2 vs 9.0 months in ARIEL2, P = .04; 12.4 vs 9.6 months in ARIEL3, P = .003). The presence of homologous recombination repair gene variants in the tumor, either germline or somatic, was associated with increased prevalence of t-MNs (15 [4.1%] of 369 patients with HGOC associated with an HRR gene variant vs 7 [1.0%] of 683 patients with wild-type HGOC, P = .002). The prevalence of preexisting CHIP variants in TP53 but not other CHIP-associated genes at a variant allele frequency of 1% or greater was significantly higher in PBCs from cases vs controls (9 [45.0%] of 20 cases vs 6 [13.6%] of 44 controls, P = .009). TP53 CHIP was associated with longer prior exposure to platinum (mean 14.0 months of 15 TP53 CHIP cases vs 11.1 months of 49 non-TP53 CHIP cases; P = .02). Longitudinal analysis showed that preexisting TP53 CHIP variants expanded in patients who developed t-MNs. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this genetic association study suggest that preexisting TP53 CHIP variants may be associated with t-MNs after rucaparib treatment.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 415-423, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of randomised head-to-head trials, we conducted a population-adjusted indirect treatment comparison (PA-ITC) of phase III trial data to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of maintenance olaparib and bevacizumab alone and in combination in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation (BRCAm). METHODS: An unanchored PA-ITC was performed on investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) data. Individual patient data from SOLO1 (olaparib versus placebo) and from BRCA-mutated patients in PAOLA-1/ENGOT-ov25 (olaparib plus bevacizumab versus placebo plus bevacizumab) were pooled. Each arm of PAOLA-1 was weighted so that key baseline patient characteristics were similar to the SOLO1 cohort. Analyses were performed in patients with complete baseline data. Weighted Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the comparative efficacy of different maintenance therapy strategies, supplemented by weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS: Data from SOLO1 patients (olaparib, n = 254; placebo, n = 126) were compared with data from BRCA-mutated PAOLA-1 patients (olaparib plus bevacizumab, n = 151; placebo plus bevacizumab, n = 71). Adding bevacizumab to olaparib was associated with a numerical improvement in PFS compared with olaparib alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-1.09). Statistically significant improvements in PFS were seen with olaparib alone versus placebo plus bevacizumab (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.30-0.75), olaparib plus bevacizumab versus placebo (0.23; 0.14-0.34), and placebo plus bevacizumab versus placebo (0.65; 0.43-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Results of this hypothesis-generating PA-ITC analysis support the use of maintenance olaparib alone or with bevacizumab in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCAm.

4.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment strategy for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer has yet to be determined. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have demonstrated substantial improvement in progression-free survival as monotherapy maintenance treatment in the frontline setting versus active surveillance. Furthermore, preclinical and early clinical studies have shown that PARP inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors have synergistic antitumor activity and may provide an additional therapeutic option for patients in this population. PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: In women with newly diagnosed ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer, we wish to assess the efficacy of frontline maintenance treatment with the PARP inhibitor rucaparib versus placebo following response to platinum-based chemotherapy (ATHENA-MONO), and to assess the combination of rucaparib plus nivolumab (a programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1)-blocking monoclonal antibody) versus rucaparib alone (ATHENA-COMBO). STUDY HYPOTHESIS: (1) Maintenance therapy with rucaparib monotherapy may extend progression-free survival following standard treatment for ovarian cancer in the frontline setting. (2) The combination of nivolumab plus rucaparib may extend progression-free survival following standard treatment for ovarian cancer in the frontline setting compared with rucaparib alone. TRIAL DESIGN: ATHENA is an international, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial consisting of two independent comparisons (ATHENA-MONO and ATHENA-COMBO) in patients with newly diagnosed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Patients are randomized 4:4:1:1 to the following: oral rucaparib+ intravenous nivolumab (arm A); oral rucaparib + intravenous placebo (arm B); oral placebo+ intravenous nivolumab (arm C); and oral placebo + intravenous placebo (arm D). The starting dose of rucaparib is 600 mg orally twice a day and nivolumab 480 mg intravenously every 4 weeks. ATHENA-MONO compares arm B with arm D to evaluate rucaparib monotherapy versus placebo, and ATHENA-COMBO evaluates arm A versus arm B to investigate the effects of rucaparib and nivolumab in combination versus rucaparib monotherapy. ATHENA-MONO and ATHENA-COMBO share a common treatment arm (arm B) but each comparison is independently powered. MAJOR INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients ≥18 years of age with newly diagnosed advanced, high-grade epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer who have achieved a response after completion of cytoreductive surgery and initial platinum-based chemotherapy are enrolled. No other prior treatment for ovarian cancer, other than the frontline platinum regimen, is permitted. PRIMARY ENDPOINT: The primary endpoint is investigator-assessed progression-free survival by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. SAMPLE SIZE: Approximately 1000 patients have been enrolled and randomized. ESTIMATED DATES FOR COMPLETING ACCRUAL AND PRESENTING RESULTS: The trial completed accrual in 2020. While dependent on event rates, primary results of ATHENA-MONO are anticipated in early 2022 and results of ATHENA-COMBO are anticipated to mature at a later date. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03522246).

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 612450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540651

RESUMO

Adjuvant therapy recommendations for endometrial cancer were historically based on the individual patient's risk of disease recurrence using clinicopathologic factors such as age, stage, histologic subtype, tumor grade, and lymphovascular space invasion. Despite the excellent prognosis for early stages, considerable under- and overtreatment remains. Integrated genomic characterization by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in 2013 defined four distinct endometrial cancer subgroups (POLE mutated, microsatellite instability, low copy number, and high copy number) with possible prognostic value. The validation of surrogate markers (p53, Mismatch repair deficiency, and POLE) to determine these subgroups and the addition of other molecular prognosticators (CTNNB1, L1CAM) resulted in a practical and clinically useful molecular classification tool. The incorporation of such molecular alterations into established clinicopathologic risk factors resulted in a refined, improved risk assessment. Thus, the ESGO/ESTRO/ESP consensus in 2020 defined for the first time different prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers. Finally, the feasibility and clinical utility of molecular profiling for tailoring adjuvant therapy in the high-intermediate-risk group is currently under investigation (NCT03469674).

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) represents the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among the female population. In an advanced setting, chemotherapy represents the first-choice treatment, despite a high recurrence rate. In the last ten years, immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has profoundly modified the therapeutic scenario of many solid tumors. We sought to summarize the main findings regarding the clinical use of ICIs in OC. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Databases, and conference abstracts from international congresses (such as ASCO, ESMO, SGO) for clinical trials, focusing on ICIs both as monotherapy and as combinations in the advanced OC. RESULTS: 20 studies were identified, of which 16 were phase I or II and 4 phase III trials. These trials used ICIs targeting PD1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), PD-L1 (avelumab, aterolizumab, durvalumab), and CTLA4 (ipilimumab, tremelimumab). There was no reported improvement in survival, and some trials were terminated early due to toxicity or lack of response. Combining ICIs with chemotherapy, anti-VEGF therapy, or PARP inhibitors improved response rates and survival in spite of a worse safety profile. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of biomarkers with a predictive role for ICIs' efficacy is mandatory. Moreover, genomic and immune profiling of OC might lead to better treatment options and facilitate the design of tailored trials.

7.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The randomized phase 3 CORAIL trial evaluated whether lurbinectedin improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) or topotecan in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m2 1-h i.v. infusion q3wk (experimental arm), versus PLD 50 mg/m2 1-h i.v. infusion q4wk or topotecan 1.50 mg/m2 30-min i.v. infusion Days 1-5 q3wk (control arm). Stratification factors were PS (0 vs. ≥1), prior PFI (1-3 months vs. >3 months), and prior chemotherapy lines (1-2 vs. 3). The primary endpoint was PFS by Independent Review Committee in all randomized patients. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02421588. RESULTS: 442 patients were randomized: 221 in lurbinectedin arm and 221 in control arm (127 PLD and 94 topotecan). With a median follow-up of 25.6 months, median PFS was 3.5 months (95% CI, 2.1-3.7) in the lurbinectedin arm and 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.7-3.8) in the control arm (stratified log-rank p = 0.6294; HR = 1.057). Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were most frequent in the control arm: 64.8% vs. 47.9% (p = 0.0005), mainly due to hematological toxicities. The most common grade ≥ 3 AEs were: fatigue (7.3% of patients) and nausea (5.9%) with lurbinectedin; mucosal inflammation (8.5%) and fatigue (8.0%) in the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: The primary endpoint of improvement in PFS was not met. Lurbinectedin showed similar antitumor efficacy and was better tolerated than current standard of care in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab has efficacy in programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive metastatic or unresectable cervical cancer that has progressed during chemotherapy. We assessed the relative benefit of adding pembrolizumab to chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. METHODS: In a double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer in a 1:1 ratio to receive pembrolizumab (200 mg) or placebo every 3 weeks for up to 35 cycles plus platinum-based chemotherapy and, per investigator discretion, bevacizumab. The dual primary end points were progression-free survival and overall survival, each tested sequentially in patients with a PD-L1 combined positive score of 1 or more, in the intention-to-treat population, and in patients with a PD-L1 combined positive score of 10 or more. The combined positive score is defined as the number of PD-L1-staining cells divided by the total number of viable tumor cells, multiplied by 100. All results are from the protocol-specified first interim analysis. RESULTS: In 548 patients with a PD-L1 combined positive score of 1 or more, median progression-free survival was 10.4 months in the pembrolizumab group and 8.2 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 0.77; P<0.001). In 617 patients in the intention-to-treat population, progression-free survival was 10.4 months and 8.2 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79; P<0.001). In 317 patients with a PD-L1 combined positive score of 10 or more, progression-free survival was 10.4 months and 8.1 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.77; P<0.001). Overall survival at 24 months was 53.0% in the pembrolizumab group and 41.7% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.81; P<0.001), 50.4% and 40.4% (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.84; P<0.001), and 54.4% and 44.6% (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.84; P = 0.001), respectively. The most common grade 3 to 5 adverse events were anemia (30.3% in the pembrolizumab group and 26.9% in the placebo group) and neutropenia (12.4% and 9.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Progression-free and overall survival were significantly longer with pembrolizumab than with placebo among patients with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer who were also receiving chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. (Funded by Merck Sharp and Dohme; KEYNOTE-826 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03635567.).

9.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 7162-7173, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of rucaparib maintenance treatment in ARIEL3 were evaluated in subgroups based on best response to most recent platinum-based chemotherapy and baseline disease. METHODS: Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive either oral rucaparib at a dosage of 600 mg twice daily or placebo. Investigator-assessed PFS was assessed in prespecified, nested cohorts: BRCA-mutated, homologous recombination deficient (HRD; BRCA mutated or wild-type BRCA/high loss of heterozygosity), and the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. RESULTS: Median PFS for patients in the ITT population with a complete response to most recent platinum-based chemotherapy was 11.1 months in the rucaparib arm (126 patients) versus 5.6 months in the placebo arm (64 patients) (HR, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.23-0.48]), and in patients with a partial response (249 vs. 125), it was 9.0 versus 5.3 months (HR, 0.38 [0.30-0.49]). In subgroups of the ITT population based on baseline disease, median PFS was 8.2 versus 5.3 months (HR, 0.40 [0.28-0.57]) in patients with measurable disease (141 rucaparib vs. 66 placebo), 10.4 versus 4.5 months (HR, 0.31 [0.20-0.48]) in those with nonmeasurable but evaluable disease (104 vs. 56), and 14.1 versus 7.3 months (HR, 0.35 [0.24-0.51]) in those with no residual disease (130 vs. 67). Across subgroups, significantly longer median PFS was observed with rucaparib versus placebo in the BRCA-mutated and HRD cohorts. Objective responses were reported in patients with measurable disease and in patients with nonmeasurable but evaluable baseline disease. Safety was consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSION: Rucaparib maintenance treatment provided clinically meaningful efficacy benefits across subgroups based on response to last platinum-based chemotherapy or baseline disease.

10.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571723

RESUMO

Endometrial carcinoma is the most frequent cancer of the reproductive female organs. Most endometrial cancers are diagnosed at early stage (75%). Treatment options depend on pathogenetic, histopathologic and clinical characteristic at the diagnosis. To improve patient management in the near future, recent research has focused on new molecular features; evidence has shown that these give a better definition of patient prognosis and can help in tailoring adjuvant treatments by identifying specific subgroups of patients whose tumors may benefit from specific therapeutic approaches. In this review, we will focus on current knowledge of adjuvant treatment of endometrial carcinoma, using a prognostic-risk group stratification based on pathogenetic, clinical and molecular features, and will take a look at the ongoing trials that will further change the therapeutic approach in coming years.

11.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(10): 1348-1355, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of routine antithrombotic prophylaxis is not recommended for advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The effect of bevacizumab-containing therapy on the risk of thromboembolic events remains controversial in ovarian cancer patients. We report on the incidence of thromboembolic events and the prevalence of antithrombotic therapy in patients enrolled in the single arm, phase IV, MITO-16A/MaNGO-OV2A trial. METHODS: In this trial, potential prognostic factors for patients with previously untreated ovarian cancer receiving a combination of platinum-based chemotherapy and bevacizumab were explored and the final analysis has already been reported. In this secondary analysis, the occurrence of thromboembolic events and the use of antithrombotic therapy were described according to the clinical characteristics of the patients. The prognostic role of thromboembolic events for progression-free and overall survival were also evaluated. RESULTS: From October 2012 to November 2014, 398 eligible patients were enrolled. 76 patients (19.1%) were receiving some type of anticoagulant or anti-aggregant treatment at baseline. Overall, 24 thromboembolic events were reported (cumulative incidence of 6.0%). The occurrence of thromboembolic events was not associated with baseline patient characteristics and was not modified by the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.0). Occurrence of thromboembolic events was not associated with progression-free survival (HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.15) or overall survival (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.61). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, a 6.0% rate of thromboembolic events was reported during treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. Thromboembolic events were not associated with the clinical characteristics of the patients or with the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis, nor did they significantly affect the long-term prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01706120.

12.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 99: 102255, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332292

RESUMO

Poly-(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are a class of oral anticancer drugs first developed as "synthetically lethal" in cancers harboring BRCA1/BRCA2 inactivating mutations. In high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancers (HGOC), PARPi demonstrated benefit as maintenance therapy in relapsing BRCA-mutated and non-mutated tumors. Recently, they extended their indications to frontline maintenance therapy. This review summarizes the current place of PARPi (i) as maintenance or single agent in recurrent disease and (ii) frontline maintenance with different settings. We reviewed the course of biomarker identification, the challenge of overcoming resistance to PARPi and future combinations with targeted therapies, including anti-angiogenic, immune checkpoint inhibitors and DNA damage response inhibitors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(7): 949-958, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103386

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In ARIEL3 (NCT01968213), the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor rucaparib significantly improved progression-free survival versus placebo regardless of biomarker status when used as maintenance treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer. The aim of the current analyses was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rucaparib in subgroups based on progression-free interval following penultimate platinum, number of prior chemotherapies, and prior use of bevacizumab. METHODS: Patients were randomized 2:1 to rucaparib 600 mg twice daily or placebo. Within subgroups, progression-free survival was assessed in prespecified, nested cohorts: BRCA-mutant, homologous recombination deficient (BRCA-mutant or wild-type BRCA/high genomic loss of heterozygosity), and the intent-to-treat population. RESULTS: In the intent-to-treat population, median investigator-assessed progression-free survival was 8.2 months with rucaparib versus 4.1 months with placebo (n=151 vs n=76; HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.46, p<0.0001) for patients with progression-free interval 6 to ≤12 months, and 13.6 versus 5.6 months (n=224 vs n=113; HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.52, p<0.0001) for those with progression-free interval >12 months. Median progression-free survival was 10.4 versus 5.4 months (n=231 vs n=124; HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.54, p<0.0001) for patients who had received two prior chemotherapies, and 11.1 versus 5.3 months (n=144 vs n=65; HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.41, p<0.0001) for those who had received ≥3 prior chemotherapies. Median progression-free survival was 10.3 versus 5.4 months (n=83 vs n=43; HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.68, p=0.0004) for patients who had received prior bevacizumab, and 10.9 versus 5.4 months (n=292 vs n=146; HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.45, p<0.0001) for those who had not. Across subgroups, median progression-free survival was also significantly longer with rucaparib versus placebo in the BRCA-mutant and homologous recombination deficient cohorts. Safety was consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Rucaparib maintenance treatment significantly improved progression-free survival versus placebo irrespective of progression-free interval following penultimate platinum, number of lines of prior chemotherapy, and previous use of bevacizumab.

14.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(6): 444-453, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128936

RESUMO

The development of biological drugs, which began in the 1980s, has revolutionized the treatment of numerous oncological diseases and severely disabling autoimmune diseases, with widely demonstrated evidence of benefit. Today, biological drugs represent an important and continuously developing category and are used both as a support therapy in onco-hematology and as molecules with their own therapeutic activity, such as monoclonal antibodies. Among these, bevacizumab represents a drug of relevant clinical value, used as antiangiogenic therapy in numerous cancers, in particular colorectal and ovarian cancers. The expiry of the patent period of monoclonal antibodies, including bevacizumab, has opened up to the development of biosimilar drugs, represented by structurally similar molecules with pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and clinical characteristics equivalent to a biological drug already present in clinical use (originator biologic). The development process of these drugs is contained in the guidelines of the major regulatory bodies (FDA/EMA) and is faster than that provided for the originator biologic. Since biosimilars have a lower cost than reference drugs, their use represents a possibility of containing health care costs and of satifying the growing demand in terms of efficacy and personalization of pharmacological therapies. Considering the particular severity of the diseases treated, including colorectal and ovarian cancers, biosimilar drugs must be used with full awareness, in terms of efficacy and safety, since their approval is based on a rigorous analytical process, as well as preclinical and clinical evaluation.

15.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(6): 875-882, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical and biological prognostic factors for advanced ovarian cancer patients receiving first-line treatment with carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab. METHODS: A multicenter, phase IV, single arm trial was performed. Patients with advanced (FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IIIB-IV) or recurrent, previously untreated, ovarian cancer received carboplatin (AUC (area under the curve) 5), paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) on day 1 for six 3-weekly cycles followed by bevacizumab single agent (15 mg/kg) until progression or unacceptable toxicity up to a maximum of 22 total cycles. Here we report the final analysis on the role of clinical prognostic factors. The study had 80% power with a two-tailed 0.01 α error to detect a 0.60 hazard ratio with a factor expressed in at least 20% of the population. Both progression-free and overall survival were used as endpoints. RESULTS: From October 2012 to November 2014, 398 eligible patients were treated. After a median follow-up of 32.3 months (IQR 24.1-40.4), median progression-free survival was 20.8 months (95% CI 19.1 to 22.0) and median overall survival was 41.1 months (95% CI 39.1 to 43.5). Clinical factors significantly predicting progression-free and overall survival were performance status, stage, and residual disease after primary surgery. Neither baseline blood pressure/antihypertensive treatment nor the development of hypertension during bevacizumab were prognostic. There were two deaths possibly related to treatment, but no unexpected safety signal was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel and as maintenance were comparable to previous data. Hypertension, either at baseline or developed during treatment, was not prognostic. Performance status, stage, and residual disease after primary surgery remain the most important clinical prognostic factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT 2012-003043-29; NCT01706120.

16.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(7): 1031-1036, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of cytoreductive surgery in the poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors era is not fully investigated. We evaluated the impact of surgery performed prior to platinum-based chemotherapy followed by olaparib maintenance in platinum-sensitive BRCA-mutated recurrent ovarian cancer. METHODS: This retrospective study included platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer BRCA-mutated patients from 13 Multicenter Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer and gynecological malignancies centers treated between September 2015 and May 2019. The primary outcomes were progression-free survival and overall survival. Data on post-progression treatment was also assessed. RESULTS: Among 209 patients, 72 patients (34.5%) underwent cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy and olaparib maintenance, while 137 patients (65.5%) underwent chemotherapy treatment alone. After a median follow-up of 37.3 months (95% CI: 33.4 to 40.8), median progression-free survival in the surgery group was not reached, compared with 11 months in patients receiving chemotherapy alone (P<0.001). Median overall survival was nearly double in patients undergoing surgery before chemotherapy (55 vs 28 months, P<0.001). Post-progression therapy was assessed in 127 patients: response rate to chemotherapy was 29.2%, 8.8%, and 9.0% in patients with platinum-free interval >12 months, between 6 and 12 months, and <6 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cytoreductive surgery performed before platinum therapy and olaparib maintenance was associated with longer progression-free survival and overall survival in BRCA-mutated platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer patients. In accordance with our preliminary results, the response rate to chemotherapy given after progression during olaparib was associated with platinum-free interval.

17.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(1): 226-234, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934848

RESUMO

Serous endometrial cancer represents a relative rare entity accounting for about 10% of all diagnosed endometrial cancer, but it is responsible for 40% of endometrial cancer-related deaths. Patients with serous endometrial cancer are often diagnosed at earlier disease stage, but remain at higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis when compared stage-for-stage with endometrioid subtype endometrial cancer. Serous endometrial cancers are characterized by marked nuclear atypia and abnormal p53 staining in immunohistochemistry. The mainstay of treatment for newly diagnosed serous endometrial cancer includes a multi-modal therapy with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, despite these efforts, survival outcomes still remain poor. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network classified all endometrial cancer types into four categories, of which, serous endometrial cancer mostly is found within the "copy number high" group. This group is characterized by the increased cell cycle deregulation (e.g., CCNE1, MYC, PPP2R1A, PIKCA, ERBB2 and CDKN2A) and TP53 mutations (90%). To date, the combination of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib is an effective treatment modality in second-line therapy, with a response rate of 50% in advanced/recurrent serous endometrial cancer. Owing to the unfavorable outcomes of serous endometrial cancer, clinical trials are a priority. At present, ongoing studies are testing novel combinations of various targeted and immunotherapeutic agents in newly diagnosed and advanced/recurrent endometrial cancer - an important strategy for serous endometrial cancer, whereby tumors are usually p53+ and pMMR, making response to PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy unlikely. Here, the rare tumor working group (including members from the European Society of Gynecologic Oncology (ESGO), Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG), and Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG)), performed a narrative review reporting on the current landscape of serous endometrial cancer and focusing on standard and emerging therapeutic options for patients affected by this difficult disease.

18.
Gynecol Oncol ; 161(3): 755-761, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Around 15% of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients (pts) harbor a germline BRCA1 or 2 mutation, showing different features than BRCA wild-type pts. The clinical and pathological features of an Italian BRCA mutated EOC cohort were described. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, pathological and mutational data from a cohort of Italian BRCA mutated EOC pts. treated in 15 MITO centers between 1995 and 2017. RESULTS: Three-hundred thirty-one pts. were recorded. Two-hundred forty (72%) and 91 (27.5%) pts. harbored a BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation, respectively. Median age at diagnosis was 52 years. The most frequent diagnosis was a high grade serous FIGO III or IV EOC and platinum doublet in first-line was administered to almost all pts. Fifty-three % of them had no residual disease (R = 0) at surgery. Median progression-free-survival (mPFS) after first-line chemotherapy was 29 months. Expected percentage of pts. alive at 5 years was 72.5% (CI 60.2-80.8%) and R = 0 predicted a significantly longer overall survival (OS). Sixty-six pts. (19,9%) had both an EOC and a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. The first diagnosis was BC in 81,8% of cases with a mean interval between the two diagnoses (IBTDs) of 132.4 months. Mutational data show that the founder mutation c.5266dupC in BRCA1 was the most frequently recorded. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Italian BRCA mutEOC cohort. The only predictor of longer OS was R = 0. EOC pts. that developed subsequently a BC are long-term survivors.

19.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(5): 609-619, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few effective second-line treatments exist for women with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tisotumab vedotin, a tissue factor-directed antibody-drug conjugate, in this patient population. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study was done across 35 academic centres, hospitals, and community practices in Europe and the USA. The study included patients aged 18 years or older who had recurrent or metastatic squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous cervical cancer; disease progression on or after doublet chemotherapy with bevacizumab (if eligible by local standards); who had received two or fewer previous systemic regimens for recurrent or metastatic disease; had measurable disease based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST; version 1.1); and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received 2·0 mg/kg (up to a maximum of 200 mg) tisotumab vedotin intravenously once every 3 weeks until disease progression (determined by the independent review committee) or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was confirmed objective response rate based on RECIST (version 1.1), as assessed by the independent review committee. Activity and safety analyses were done in patients who received at least one dose of the drug. This study is ongoing with recruitment completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03438396. FINDINGS: 102 patients were enrolled between June 12, 2018, and April 11, 2019; 101 patients received at least one dose of tisotumab vedotin. Median follow-up at the time of analysis was 10·0 months (IQR 6·1-13·0). The confirmed objective response rate was 24% (95% CI 16-33), with seven (7%) complete responses and 17 (17%) partial responses. The most common treatment-related adverse events included alopecia (38 [38%] of 101 patients), epistaxis (30 [30%]), nausea (27 [27%]), conjunctivitis (26 [26%]), fatigue (26 [26%]), and dry eye (23 [23%]). Grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were reported in 28 (28%) patients and included neutropenia (three [3%] patients), fatigue (two [2%]), ulcerative keratitis (two [2%]), and peripheral neuropathies (two [2%] each with sensory, motor, sensorimotor, and neuropathy peripheral). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 13 (13%) patients, the most common of which included peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy (two [2%] patients) and pyrexia (two [2%]). One death due to septic shock was considered by the investigator to be related to therapy. Three deaths unrelated to treatment were reported, including one case of ileus and two unknown causes. INTERPRETATION: Tisotumab vedotin showed clinically meaningful and durable antitumour activity with a manageable and tolerable safety profile in women with previously treated recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Given the poor prognosis for this patient population and the low activity of current therapies in this setting, tisotumab vedotin, if approved, would represent a new treatment for women with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. FUNDING: Genmab, Seagen, Gynaecologic Oncology Group, and European Network of Gynaecological Oncological Trial Groups.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Oligopeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Tromboplastina/análise , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
20.
J Pers Med ; 11(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921621

RESUMO

Traditional healthcare paradigms rely on the disease-centered approach aiming at reducing human nature by discovering specific drivers and biomarkers that cause the advent and progression of diseases. This reductive approach is not always suitable to understand and manage complex conditions, such as multimorbidity and cancer. Multimorbidity requires considering heterogeneous data to tailor preventing and targeting interventions. Personalized Medicine represents an innovative approach to address the care needs of multimorbid patients considering relevant patient characteristics, such as lifestyle and individual preferences, in opposition to the more traditional "one-size-fits-all" strategy focused on interventions designed at the population level. Integration of omic (e.g., genomics) and non-strictly medical (e.g., lifestyle, the exposome) data is necessary to understand patients' complexity. Artificial Intelligence can help integrate and manage heterogeneous data through advanced machine learning and bioinformatics algorithms to define the best treatment for each patient with multimorbidity and cancer. The experience of an Italian research hospital, leader in the field of oncology, may help to understand the multifaceted issue of managing multimorbidity and cancer in the framework of Personalized Medicine.

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