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1.
Dalton Trans ; 48(11): 3566-3570, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789163

RESUMO

An octahedral {DyIII6} cage within a diamagnetic {ZnII4} rectangle is reported, with magnetic relaxation studies revealing single-molecule magnet behaviour for the complex under zero external dc field with Ueff = 43 K and τo = 1 × 10-5 s.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 47(4): 1106-1116, 2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265143

RESUMO

ortho-Vanillin in the presence of nickel and lanthanide ions yields three types of heteronuclear NiII-GdIII complexes, ranging from dinuclear to tetranuclear defect dicubane complexes, as demonstrated by their structural determinations. These complexes are dependent on the solvents used during the reaction processes and on the retained lanthanide ions, as characterized by an increase in their Lewis acid character on moving from lighter to heavier lanthanide ions. Intramolecular ferromagnetic NiII-GdIII interactions are present in the heterodinuclear NiII-GdIII entities, whereas ferromagnetic NiII-NiII and NiII-GdIII interactions dominate above 2 K in the tetranuclear Ni-Gd compounds, devoid of any GdIII-GdIII interaction. The effect of a magnetic field on the magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes is maximum near the liquid-helium boiling temperature, mainly determined by the relative weakness of the magnetic interactions.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 46(31): 10255-10263, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737787

RESUMO

The syntheses, structures, magnetic and thermodynamic properties of three related triethanolamine-based GdIII complexes are described. The smallest, a dimer ([Gd2]), can be viewed as the subunit from which the two larger complexes, a linear tetramer ([Gd2]2) and a cyclic hexamer ([Gd2]3), are composed by further deprotonation of the triethanolamine ligand. In all cases, nearest neighbour magnetic ions are weakly correlated by antiferromagnetic isotropic exchange, whose strength does not change significantly from one complex to another; J ranging from -0.10 to -0.13 cm-1. Therefore, rather than the strength of the coupling, it is the spin topology that is the dominant factor in determining the differences between the physical properties - specifically, the nuclearity and the transition from open (dimer and tetramer) to cyclic (hexamer) boundary conditions. Indeed the hexanuclear wheel reaches the continuum limit of classical Heisenberg spin chains. In terms of the magnetocaloric properties, the smaller the nuclearity, the larger the magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(35): 4799-4802, 2017 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405656

RESUMO

The adiabatic temperature change of the star-shaped {CoGd} magnetocaloric ring is enhanced via topological control over the assembly process, by using a pre-formed {CoII(H6L)} building block that undergoes oxidation to CoIII, successfully separating the GdIII ions.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 46(11): 3449-3452, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220920

RESUMO

The employment of 2-amino-isobutyric acid, Haib, and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, Hnaphth, in NiII/LnIII chemistry has led to the isolation and characterization of two new isostructural 3d-4f tetradecanuclear [NiLn] clusters (Ln = GdIII, DyIII), with the Dy analogue displaying temperature and frequency dependent out-of-phase signals, and the Gd analogue showing interesting magnetocaloric properties.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 45(46): 18591-18602, 2016 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27827484

RESUMO

A solvothermal reaction between Ln(NO3)3·6H2O (Ln: Gd, Tb and Dy), 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, 2-OH-naphth, and ethylenediamine, en, in MeOH in the presence of a base, NEt3, led to the formation of the 1D coordination polymers [Ln(L)(MeO)(MeOH)0.5]n·MeOH (Ln = Gd (1·MeOH), Tb(2), Dy (3·MeOH); H2L = 1,1'-((1E,1'E)-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(naphthalen-2-ol), the Schiff-base ligand derived from the condensation of 2-OH-naphth and en), while a similar reaction in an excess of NaN3 yielded 1D coordination polymers [Ln(L)(N3)0.75(MeO)0.25(MeOH)]n (Ln = Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6)). Finally, upon replacing ethylenediamine with o-phenylenediamine, o-phen, we managed to isolate the discrete dimers [Dy2(L')3(MeOH)]·2MeOH (7·2MeOH) and [Gd2(L')3(MeOH)]·2MeOH (8·2MeOH) (H2L' = 1,1'-((1E,1'E)-(1,2-phenylenebis(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis (naphthalen-2-ol), the Schiff-base ligand from the condensation of 2-OH-naphth and o-phen). Polymers 1-3 describe one-dimensional chains, containing alternating seven- and eight-coordinate LnIII metal centers, polymers 4-6 contain eight-coordinate lanthanide ions, while in both 7 and 8 the two LnIII centers are eight- and seven-coordinate, adopting square antiprismatic and "piano-stool" geometry, respectively. The magnetocaloric properties of the three GdIII analogues were determined from magnetic measurements, yielding the magnetic entropy change -ΔSm = 21.8, 23.0 and 16.0 J kg-1 K-1 at T = 3.0 K on demagnetization of 7 T to 0, for 1, 4 and 8, respectively. The study of the magnetic properties also revealed that all three DyIII analogues (3, 6 and 7) display out-of-phase signals, therefore suggesting slow magnetic relaxation, while such behaviour was not established in the TbIII analogues.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 55(20): 10535-10546, 2016 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27685336

RESUMO

The family of compounds of general formula [LnIII4TMII8(OH)8(L)8(O2CR)8(MeOH)y](ClO4)4 {[Gd4Zn8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (1a); [Y4Zn8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (1b); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (2a); [Y4Cu8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (2b); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(hep)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (3a); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(Hpdm)8(O2CtBu)8](ClO4)4 (4a); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(ea)8(O2CMe)8](ClO4)4 (5a); [Gd4Ni8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (6a); [Y4Ni8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (6b); [Gd4Co8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (7a); [Y4Co8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (7b)} can be formed very simply and in high yields from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·6H2O and TM(ClO4)2·6H2O and the appropriate ligand blend in a mixture of CH2Cl2 and MeOH in the presence of a suitable base. Remarkably, almost all the constituent parts, namely the lanthanide (or rare earth) ions LnIII (here Ln = Gd or Y), the transition metal ions TMII (here TM = Zn, Cu, Ni, Co), the bridging ligand L (Hhmp = 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine; Hhep = 2-(hydroxyethyl)pyridine; H2pdm = pyridine-2,6-dimethanol; Hea = 2-ethanolamine), and the carboxylates can be exchanged while maintaining the structural integrity of the molecule. NMR spectroscopy of diamagnetic complex 1b reveals the complex to be fully intact in solution with all signals from the hydroxide, ligand L, and the carboxylates equivalent on the NMR time scale, suggesting the complex possesses greater symmetry in solution than in the solid state. High resolution nano-ESI mass spectrometry on dichloromethane solutions of 2a and 2b shows both complexes are present in two charge states with little fragmentation; with the most intense peak in each spectrum corresponding to [Ln4Cu8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)22+. This family of compounds offers an excellent playground for probing how the magnetocaloric effect evolves by introducing either antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interactions, or magnetic anisotropy, by substituting the nonmagnetic ZnII (1a) with CuII (2a), NiII (6a) or CoII (7a), respectively. The largest magnetocaloric effect is found for the ferromagnetically coupled complex 6a, while the predominant antiferromagnetic interactions in 2a yield an inverse magnetocaloric effect; that is, the temperature increases on lowering the applied field, under the proper experimental conditions. In spite of increasing the magnetic density by adding ions that bring in antiferromagnetic interactions (2a) or magnetic anisotropy (7a), the magnetocaloric effect is overall smaller in 2a and 7a than in 1a, where only four GdIII spins per molecule contribute to the magnetocaloric properties.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 45(42): 16610-16615, 2016 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477766

RESUMO

Nine new complexes are reported involving linked heterometallic rings; one ring is designed as a ligand for the second, and the compounds produced can be regarded as molecular prototypes for implementing quantum gates featuring two subtly different qubits.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(10): 3360-3, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26834032

RESUMO

In contrast to the mainstream research on molecular refrigerants that seeks magnetically isotropic molecules, we show that the magnetic anisotropy of dysprosium acetate tetrahydrate, [{Dy(OAc)3 (H2 O)2}2]⋅4 H2O (1), can be efficiently used for cooling below liquid-helium temperature. This is attained by rotating aligned single-crystal samples in a constant applied magnetic field. The envisioned advantages are fast cooling cycles and potentially compact refrigerators.

10.
Chem Sci ; 7(8): 4891-4895, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155137

RESUMO

We report the synthesis and structure of a molecular {Gd7} cage of the formula (iPr2NH2)6[Gd7(µ3-OH)3(CO3)6(O2C t Bu)12] which has crystallographic C3h symmetry. Low temperature specific heat and adiabatic demagnetization experiments (the latter achieving temperatures below 100 mK), lead to the observation of the effects of both intramolecular dipolar interactions and geometric spin frustration. The dipolar interaction leads to a massive rearrangement of energy levels such that specific heat and entropy below 2 K are strongly modified while magnetic susceptibility and magnetization above 2 K are not affected. The consequences of these phenomena for low temperature magnetocaloric applications are discussed.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(8): 1693-6, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26666673

RESUMO

A family of interwoven molecular inorganic knots, shaped like the 'Star of David', was prepared by the employment of naphthalene-2,3-diol in 3d/4f-metal cluster chemistry; the isoskeletal dodecanuclear compounds exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization and magnetocaloric properties, depending on the metal ion.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(2): 679-84, 2016 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26611354

RESUMO

Two nanosized Mn49 and Mn25Na4 clusters based on analogues of the high-spin (S=22) [Mn(III)6Mn(II)4(µ4-O)4](18+) supertetrahedral core are reported. Mn49 and Mn25Na4 complexes consist of eight and four decametallic supertetrahedral subunits, respectively, display high virtual symmetry (O(h)), and are unique examples of clusters based on a large number of tightly linked high nuclearity magnetic units. The complexes also have large spin ground-state values (Mn49: S=61/2; Mn25Na4: S=51/2) with the Mn49  cluster displaying single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior and being the second largest reported homometallic SMM.

13.
Chemistry ; 21(47): 16955-67, 2015 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420030

RESUMO

The reaction of a Schiff base ligand (LH3) with lanthanide salts, pivalic acid and triethylamine in 1:1:1:3 and 4:5:8:20 stoichiometric ratios results in the formation of decanuclear Ln10 (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), and Gd (3)) and pentanuclear Ln5 complexes (Ln = Gd (4), Tb (5), and Dy (6)), respectively. The formation of Ln10 and Ln5 complexes are fully governed by the stoichiometry of the reagents used. Detailed magnetic studies on these complexes (1-6) have been carried out. Complex 1 shows a SMM behavior with an effective energy barrier for the reversal of the magnetization (Ueff) = 16.12(8) K and relaxation time (τo) = 3.3×10(-5) s under 4000 Oe direct current (dc) field. Complex 6 shows the frequency dependent maxima in the out-of-phase signal under zero dc field, without achieving maxima above 2 K. Complexes 3 and 4 show a large magnetocaloric effect with the following characteristic values: -ΔSm = 26.6 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.2 K for 3 and -ΔSm = 27.1 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.4 K for 4, both for an applied field change of 7 T.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(75): 14207-10, 2015 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26256944

RESUMO

Layered gadolinium hydroxides have revealed to be excellent candidates for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration. These materials behave as pure 2D magnetic systems with a Heisenberg-Ising critical crossover, induced by dipolar interactions. This 2D character and the possibility offered by these materials to be delaminated open the possibility of rapid heat dissipation upon substrate deposition.

15.
Dalton Trans ; 44(22): 10315-20, 2015 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967745

RESUMO

The reaction of the pro-ligand H4L, which combines the complementary phenolic oxime and diethanolamine moieties within the same organic framework, with Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O in a basic methanolic solution generates a family of isostructural heterometallic coordination compounds of general formula [Ln6Zn2(CO3)5(OH)(H2L)4(H3L)2(H4L)]NO3·xMeOH [Ln = Gd, x = 30 (), Ln = Dy, x = 32 (), Ln = Sm, x = 31 (), Ln = Eu, x = 29 (), Ln = Tb, x = 30 ()]. The octametallic skeleton of the cage describes a heavily distorted [Gd] octahedron capped on two faces by Zn(II) ions. The metal core is stabilised by a series of µ3- and µ4-CO3(2-) ions, originating from the serendipitous fixation of atmospheric CO2. The magnetic properties of all family members were examined via SQUID magnetometry, with the χMT product and VTVB data of the Gd analogue () being independently fitted by numerical diagonalisation to afford the same best-fit parameter JGd-Gd = -0.004 cm(-1). The MCE of complex was elucidated from specific heat data, with the magnetic entropy change reaching a value of 22.6 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 1.7 K, close to the maximum entropy value per mole expected from six Gd(III) spins (SGd = 7/2), 23.7 J kg(-1) K(-1).

16.
Inorg Chem ; 53(16): 8624-37, 2014 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25072532

RESUMO

A comprehensive study of the complexes A4[U(NCS)8] (A = Cs, Et4N, (n)Bu4N) and A3[UO2(NCS)5] (A = Cs, Et4N) is described, with the crystal structures of [(n)Bu4N]4[U(NCS)8]·2MeCN and Cs3[UO2(NCS)5]·O0.5 reported. The magnetic properties of square antiprismatic Cs4[U(NCS)8] and cubic [Et4N]4[U(NCS)8] have been probed by SQUID magnetometry. The geometry has an important impact on the low-temperature magnetic moments: at 2 K, µeff = 1.21 µB and 0.53 µB, respectively. Electronic absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the uranium(IV) compounds have been measured. The redox chemistry of [Et4N]4[U(NCS)8] has been explored using IR and UV-vis spectroelectrochemical methods. Reversible 1-electron oxidation of one of the coordinated thiocyanate ligands occurs at +0.22 V vs Fc/Fc(+), followed by an irreversible oxidation to form dithiocyanogen (NCS)2 which upon back reduction regenerates thiocyanate anions coordinating to UO2(2+). NBO calculations agree with the experimental spectra, suggesting that the initial electron loss of [U(NCS)8](4-) is delocalized over all NCS(-) ligands. Reduction of the uranyl(VI) complex [Et4N]3[UO2(NCS)5] to uranyl(V) is accompanied by immediate disproportionation and has only been studied by DFT methods. The bonding in [An(NCS)8](4-) (An = Th, U) and [UO2(NCS)5](3-) has been explored by a combination of DFT and QTAIM analysis, and the U-N bonds are predominantly ionic, with the uranyl(V) species more ionic that the uranyl(VI) ion. Additionally, the U(IV)-NCS ion is more ionic than what was found for U(IV)-Cl complexes.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Teoria Quântica , Tiocianatos/química , Urânio/química , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Oxirredução
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(27): 9763-72, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24968057

RESUMO

Compounds of general formula [Cr7MF3(Etglu)(O2C(t)Bu)15(Phpy)] [H5Etglu = N-ethyl-d-glucamine; Phpy = 4-phenylpyridine; M = Zn (1), Mn (2), Ni (3)] have been prepared. The structures contain an irregular octagon of metal sites formed around the penta-deprotonated Etglu(5-) ligand; the chirality of N-ethyl-d-glucamine is retained in the final product. The seven Cr(III) sites have a range of coordination environments, and the divalent metal site is crystallographically identified and has a Phpy ligand attached to it. By using complementary experimental techniques, including magnetization and specific heat measurements, inelastic neutron scattering, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we have investigated the magnetic features of this family of {Cr7M} rings. Microscopic parameters of the spin Hamiltonian have been determined as a result of best fits of the different experimental data, allowing a direct comparison with corresponding parameters found in the parent compounds. We examine whether these parameters can be transferred between compounds and compare them with those of an earlier family of heterometallic rings.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 53(7): 3586-94, 2014 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24593019

RESUMO

The reaction of the compartmental ligand N,N',N″-trimethyl-N,N″-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine (H2L) with Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and subsequently with Ln(NO3)3·5H2O (Ln(III) = Gd and Yb) and triethylamine in MeOH using a 1:1:1:1 molar ratio leads to the formation of the tetranuclear complexes {(µ3-CO3)2[Zn(µ-L)Gd(NO3)]2}·4CH3OH (1) and{(µ3-CO3)2[Zn(µ-L)Yb(H2O)]2}(NO3)2·4CH3OH (2). When the reaction was performed in the absence of triethylamine, the dinuclear compound [Zn(µ-L)(µ-NO3)Yb(NO3)2] (3) is obtained. The structures of 1 and 2 consist of two diphenoxo-bridged Zn(II)-Ln(III) units connected by two carbonate bridging ligands. Within the dinuclear units, Zn(II) and Ln(III) ions occupy the N3O2 inner and the O4 outer sites of the compartmental ligand, respectively. The remaining positions on the Ln(III) ions are occupied by oxygen atoms belonging to the carbonate bridging groups, by a bidentate nitrate ion in 1, and by a coordinated water molecule in 2, leading to rather asymmetric GdO9 and trigonal dodecahedron YbO8 coordination spheres, respectively. Complex 3 is made of acetate-diphenoxo triply bridged Zn(II)Yb(III) dinuclear units, where the Yb(III) exhibits a YbO9 coordination environment. Variable-temperature magnetization measurements and heat capacity data demonstrate that 1 has a significant magneto-caloric effect, with a maximum value of -ΔSm = 18.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 1.9 K and B = 7 T. Complexes 2 and 3 show slow relaxation of the magnetization and single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior under an applied direct-current field of 1000 Oe. The fit of the high-temperature data to the Arrhenius equation affords an effective energy barrier for the reversal of the magnetization of 19.4(7) K with τo = 3.1 × 10(-6) s and 27.0(9) K with τo = 8.8 × 10(-7) s for 2 and 3, respectively. However, the fit of the full range of temperature data indicates that the relaxation process could take place through a Raman-like process rather than through an activated Orbach process. The chromophoric L(2-) ligand is able to act as an "antenna" group, sensitizing the near-infrared (NIR) Yb(III)-based luminescence in complexes 2 and 3 through an intramolecular energy transfer to the excited states of the accepting Yb(III) ion. These complexes show several bands in the 945-1050 nm region, corresponding to (2)F5/2→(2)F7/2 transitions arising from the ligand field splitting of both multiplets. The observed luminescence lifetimes τobs are 0.515 and 10 µs for 2 and 3, respectively. The shorter lifetime for 2 is due to the presence of one coordinated water molecule on the Yb(III) center (and to a lesser extent noncoordinated water molecules), facilitating vibrational quenching via O-H oscillators. Therefore, complexes 2 and 3, combining field-induced SMM behavior and NIR luminescence, can be considered to be dual magneto-luminescent materials.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(26): 3498-500, 2014 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24557013

RESUMO

A CO3(2-)-panelled [Gd(III)6Cu(II)3] cage conforming to a tridiminished icosahedron is synthesised by bubbling CO2 through a solution of Gd(III) and Cu(II) ions.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(9): 2394-7, 2014 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24574031

RESUMO

The reaction of fac-[M(III)F3(Me3tacn)]⋅x H2O with Gd(NO3)3⋅5H2O affords a series of fluoride-bridged, trigonal bipyramidal {Gd(III)3M(III)2} (M = Cr (1), Fe (2), Ga (3)) complexes without signs of concomitant GdF3 formation, thereby demonstrating the applicability even of labile fluoride-complexes as precursors for 3d-4f systems. Molecular geometry enforces weak exchange interactions, which is rationalized computationally. This, in conjunction with a lightweight ligand sphere, gives rise to large magnetic entropy changes of 38.3 J kg(-1) K(-1) (1) and 33.1 J kg(-1) K(-1) (2) for the field change 7 T→0 T. Interestingly, the entropy change, and the magnetocaloric effect, are smaller in 2 than in 1 despite the larger spin ground state of the former secured by intramolecular Fe-Gd ferromagnetic interactions. This observation underlines the necessity of controlling not only the ground state but also close-lying excited states for successful design of molecular refrigerants.

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