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1.
Lancet ; 398(10307): 1230-1238, 2021 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, the care of patients with COVID-19 has changed and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased. We aimed to examine patient selection, treatments, outcomes, and ECMO centre characteristics over the course of the pandemic to date. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry and COVID-19 Addendum to compare three groups of ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19 (aged ≥16 years). At early-adopting centres-ie, those using ECMO support for COVID-19 throughout 2020-we compared patients who started ECMO on or before May 1, 2020 (group A1), and between May 2 and Dec 31, 2020 (group A2). Late-adopting centres were those that provided ECMO for COVID-19 only after May 1, 2020 (group B). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in a time-to-event analysis assessed 90 days after ECMO initiation. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit to compare the patient and centre-level adjusted relative risk of mortality among the groups. FINDINGS: In 2020, 4812 patients with COVID-19 received ECMO across 349 centres within 41 countries. For early-adopting centres, the cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO initiation was 36·9% (95% CI 34·1-39·7) in patients who started ECMO on or before May 1 (group A1) versus 51·9% (50·0-53·8) after May 1 (group A2); at late-adopting centres (group B), it was 58·9% (55·4-62·3). Relative to patients in group A2, group A1 patients had a lower adjusted relative risk of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO (hazard ratio 0·82 [0·70-0·96]), whereas group B patients had a higher adjusted relative risk (1·42 [1·17-1·73]). INTERPRETATION: Mortality after ECMO for patients with COVID-19 worsened during 2020. These findings inform the role of ECMO in COVID-19 for patients, clinicians, and policy makers. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Adulto , COVID-19/mortalidade , Duração da Terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Circulation ; 144(14): 1160-1171, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606302

RESUMO

Transit time flow measurement (TTFM) allows quality control in coronary artery bypass grafting but remains largely underused, probably because of limited information and the lack of standardization. We performed a systematic review of the evidence on TTFM and other methods for quality control in coronary artery bypass grafting following PRISMA standards and elaborated expert recommendations by using a structured process. A panel of 19 experts took part in the consensus process using a 3-step modified Delphi method that consisted of 2 rounds of electronic voting and a final face-to-face virtual meeting. Eighty percent agreement was required for acceptance of the statements. A 2-level scale (strong, moderate) was used to grade the statements based on the perceived likelihood of a clinical benefit. The existing evidence supports an association between TTFM readings and graft patency and postoperative clinical outcomes, although there is high methodological heterogeneity among the published series. The evidence is more robust for arterial, rather than venous, grafts and for grafts to the left anterior descending artery. Although TTFM use increases the duration and the cost of surgery, there are no data to quantify this effect. Based on the systematic review, 10 expert statements for TTFM use in clinical practice were formulated. Six were approved at the first round of voting, 3 at the second round, and 1 at the virtual meeting. In conclusion, although TTFM use may increase the costs and duration of the procedure and requires a learning curve, its cost/benefit ratio seems largely favorable, in view of the potential clinical consequences of graft dysfunction. These consensus statements will help to standardize the use of TTFM in clinical practice and provide guidance in clinical decision-making.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128309, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668946

RESUMO

Importance: Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a rare but life-threatening mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction associated with high mortality despite prompt treatment. Surgery represents the standard of care; however, only small single-center series or national registries are usually available in literature, whereas international multicenter investigations have been poorly carried out, therefore limiting the evidence on this topic. Objectives: To assess the clinical characteristics and early outcomes for patients who received surgery for postinfarction VSR and to identify factors independently associated with mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Mechanical Complications of Acute Myocardial Infarction: an International Multicenter Cohort (CAUTION) Study is a retrospective multicenter international cohort study that includes patients who were treated surgically for mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction. The study was conducted from January 2001 to December 2019 at 26 different centers worldwide among 475 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for postinfarction VSR. Exposures: Surgical treatment of postinfarction VSR, independent of the technique, alone or combined with other procedures (eg, coronary artery bypass grafting). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was early mortality; secondary outcomes were postoperative complications. Results: Of the 475 patients included in the study, 290 (61.1%) were men, with a mean (SD) age of 68.5 (10.1) years. Cardiogenic shock was present in 213 patients (44.8%). Emergent or salvage surgery was performed in 212 cases (44.6%). The early mortality rate was 40.4% (192 patients), and it did not improve during the nearly 20 years considered for the study (median [IQR] yearly mortality, 41.7% [32.6%-50.0%]). Low cardiac output syndrome and multiorgan failure were the most common causes of death (low cardiac output syndrome, 70 [36.5%]; multiorgan failure, 53 [27.6%]). Recurrent VSR occurred in 59 participants (12.4%) but was not associated with mortality. Cardiogenic shock (survived: 95 [33.6%]; died, 118 [61.5%]; P < .001) and early surgery (time to surgery ≥7 days, survived: 105 [57.4%]; died, 47 [35.1%]; P < .001) were associated with lower survival. At multivariate analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; P = .001), preoperative cardiac arrest (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.18-6.27; P = .02) and percutaneous revascularization (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.003-2.65; P = .048), and postoperative need for intra-aortic balloon pump (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.46-6.09; P = .003) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.30-7.38; P = .01) were independently associated with mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, surgical repair of postinfarction VSR was associated with a high risk of early mortality; this risk has remained unchanged during the last 2 decades. Delayed surgery seemed associated with better survival. Age, preoperative cardiac arrest and percutaneous revascularization, and postoperative need for intra-aortic balloon pump and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with early mortality. Further prospective studies addressing preoperative and perioperative patient management are warranted to hopefully improve the currently suboptimal outcome.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20458, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650063

RESUMO

Refractory cardiogenic shock (CS) often requires veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) to sustain end-organ perfusion. Current animal models result in heterogenous cardiac injury and frequent episodes of refractory ventricular fibrillation. Thus, we aimed to develop an innovative, clinically relevant, and titratable model of severe cardiopulmonary failure. Six sheep (60 ± 6 kg) were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated. VA-ECMO was commenced and CS was induced through intramyocardial injections of ethanol. Then, hypoxemic/hypercapnic pulmonary failure was achieved, through substantial decrease in ventilatory support. Echocardiography was used to compute left ventricular fractional area change (LVFAC) and cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) was quantified. After 5 h, the animals were euthanised and the heart was retrieved for histological evaluations. Ethanol (58 ± 23 mL) successfully induced CS in all animals. cTnI levels increased near 5000-fold. CS was confirmed by a drop in systolic blood pressure to 67 ± 14 mmHg, while lactate increased to 4.7 ± 0.9 mmol/L and LVFAC decreased to 16 ± 7%. Myocardial samples corroborated extensive cellular necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. In conclusion, we present an innovative ovine model of severe cardiopulmonary failure in animals on VA-ECMO. This model could be essential to further characterize CS and develop future treatments.

5.
Intensive Care Med ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505911

RESUMO

Rates of survival with functional recovery for both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are notably low. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is emerging as a modality to improve prognosis by augmenting perfusion to vital end-organs by utilizing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during conventional CPR and stabilizing the patient for interventions aimed at reversing the aetiology of the arrest. Implementing this emergent procedure requires a substantial investment in resources, and even the most successful ECPR programs may nonetheless burden healthcare systems, clinicians, patients, and their families with unsalvageable patients supported by extracorporeal devices. Non-randomized and observational studies have repeatedly shown an association between ECPR and improved survival, versus conventional CPR, for in-hospital cardiac arrest in select patient populations. Recently, randomized controlled trials suggest benefit for ECPR over standard resuscitation, as well as the feasibility of performing such trials, in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest within highly coordinated healthcare delivery systems. Application of these data to clinical practice should be done cautiously, with outcomes likely to vary by the setting and system within which ECPR is initiated. ECPR introduces important ethical challenges, including whether it should be considered an extension of CPR, at what point it becomes sustained organ replacement therapy, and how to approach patients unable to recover or be bridged to heart replacement therapy. The economic impact of ECPR varies by health system, and has the potential to outstrip resources if used indiscriminately. Ideally, studies should include economic evaluations to inform health care systems about the cost-benefits of this therapy.

6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 249, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Much debate is still going on about the best ablation strategy-via endocardial or epicardial approach-in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and evidence gaps exist in current guidelines in this area. More specifically, there are no clear long-term outcome data after failed surgical AF ablation. METHODS: Since June 2008, 549 surgical AF ablation procedures through a right minithoracotomy were performed at our institution. From 2008 to 2011, a unipolar radiofrequency device was used (151 patients), whereas from 2011 to 2020 a bipolar radiofrequency device was used (398 patients). Patients were scheduled for surgery on the basis of the following criteria: recurrent episodes of paroxysmal or persistent lone AF refractory to maximally tolerated antiarrhythmic drug dosing and at least one failed cardioversion attempt. Besides the recommended follow-up by the local cardiologist, starting from 2021, surviving patients were asked to undergo assessment of left ventricular function and to complete a questionnaire addressing quality of life and predisposing factors for recurrent AF. RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 77 months, the rate of AF recurrence was 20.7% (n = 114). On multivariate analysis, impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (58 patients, 51%, p = 0.002), worsening of European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) symptom class (37 patients, 32%, p = 0.003) and cognitive decline or depression (23 patients, 20%, p = 0.023) during follow-up were found to be significantly associated with AF recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical AF ablation through a right minithoracotomy is safe, but a better outcome could be achieved using a hybrid approach. Patients after initial failed surgical AF ablation show worsening of cardiac function, clinical status and quality of life at follow-up compared to patients with successful AF ablation.

8.
Artif Organs ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494291

RESUMO

In-hospital mortality of adult veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) patients remains invariably high. However, little is known regarding timing and causes of in-hospital death, either on-ECMO or after weaning. The current review aims to investigate the timing and causes of death of adult patients during hospital admittance for V-V ECMO, and to define the V-V ECMO gap, which is represented by the patients that are successfully weaned of ECMO but still die during hospital stay. A systematic search was performed using electronic MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through PubMed. Studies reporting on adult V-V ECMO patients from January 2006 to December 2020 were screened. Studies that did not report on at least on-ECMO mortality and discharge rate were excluded from analysis as they could not provide the required information regarding the proposed V-V ECMO-gap. Mortality rates on-ECMO and after weaning, as well as weaning and discharge rates, were analyzed as primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were the causes of death and complications. Initially, 35 studies were finally included in this review. Merely 24 of these studies (comprising 975 patients) reported on prespecified V-V ECMO outcomes (on-ECMO mortality and discharge rate). Mortality on V-V ECMO support was 27.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 22.5%-33.2%), whereas mortality after successful weaning was 12.7% (95% CI 8.8%-16.6%, defining the V-V ECMO gap). 72.2% of patients (95% CI 66.8%-77.5%) were weaned successfully from support and 56.8% (95% CI 49.9%-63.8%) of patients were discharged from hospital. The most common causes of death on ECMO were multiple organ failure, bleeding, and sepsis. Most common causes of death after weaning were multiorgan failure and sepsis. Although the majority of patients are weaned successfully from V-V ECMO support, a significant proportion of subjects still die during hospital stay, defining the V-V ECMO gap. Overall, timing and causes of death are poorly reported in current literature. Future studies on V-V ECMO should describe morbidity and mortality outcomes in more detail in relation to the timing of the events, to improve patient management, due to enhanced understanding of the clinical course.

9.
J Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggested that transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may be indicated also for low-risk patients. However, robust evidence is still lacking, particularly regarding valve performance at follow-up that confers a limitation to its use in young patients. Moreover, a literature gap exists in terms of 'real-world' data analysis. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of sutureless aortic valve replacement (SuAVR) versus transfemoral TAVR. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were retrieved from a centralized database of nine cardiac surgery centers between 2010 and 2018. Follow-up was completed in June 2019. A propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. RESULTS: Patients in the TAVR group (n=1002) were older and with more comorbidities than SuAVR patients (n=443). The PSM analysis generated 172 pairs. No differences were recorded between groups in 30-day mortality [SuAVR vs TAVR: n=7 (4%) vs n=5 (2.9%); p=0.7] and need for pacemaker implant [n=10 (5.8%) vs n=20 (11.6%); p=0.1], but costs were lower in the SuAVR group (20486.6±4188€ vs 24181.5±3632€; p<0.01). Mean follow-up was 1304±660 days. SuAVR patients had a significantly higher probability of survival than TAVR patients (no. of fatal events: 22 vs 74; p<0.014). Median follow-up was 2231 days and 2394 days in the SuAVR and TAVR group, respectively. CONCLUSION: The treatment of aortic valve stenosis with surgical sutureless or transcatheter prostheses is safe and effective. By comparing the two approaches, patients who can undergo surgery after heart team evaluation show longer lasting results and a more favorable cost ratio.

10.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211042563, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse neurological events during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are common and may be associated with devastating consequences. Close monitoring, early identification and prompt intervention can mitigate early and late neurological morbidity. Neuromonitoring and neurocognitive/neurodevelopmental follow-up are critically important to optimize outcomes in both adults and children. OBJECTIVE: To assess current practice of neuromonitoring during ECMO and neurocognitive/neurodevelopmental follow-up after ECMO across Europe and to inform the development of neuromonitoring and follow-up guidelines. METHODS: The EuroELSO Neurological Monitoring and Outcome Working Group conducted an electronic, web-based, multi-institutional, multinational survey in Europe. RESULTS: Of the 211 European ECMO centres (including non-ELSO centres) identified and approached in 23 countries, 133 (63%) responded. Of these, 43% reported routine neuromonitoring during ECMO for all patients, 35% indicated selective use, and 22% practiced bedside clinical examination alone. The reported neuromonitoring modalities were NIRS (n = 88, 66.2%), electroencephalography (n = 52, 39.1%), transcranial Doppler (n = 38, 28.5%) and brain injury biomarkers (n = 33, 24.8%). Paediatric centres (67%) reported using cranial ultrasound, though the frequency of monitoring varied widely. Before hospital discharge following ECMO, 50 (37.6%) reported routine neurological assessment and 22 (16.5%) routinely performed neuroimaging with more paediatric centres offering neurological assessment (65%) as compared to adult centres (20%). Only 15 (11.2%) had a structured longitudinal follow-up pathway (defined followup at regular intervals), while 99 (74.4%) had no follow-up programme. The majority (n = 96, 72.2%) agreed that there should be a longitudinal structured follow-up for ECMO survivors. CONCLUSIONS: This survey demonstrated significant variability in the use of different neuromonitoring modalities during and after ECMO. The perceived importance of neuromonitoring and follow-up was noted to be very high with agreement for a longitudinal structured follow-up programme, particularly in paediatric patients. Scientific society endorsed guidelines and minimum standards should be developed to inform local protocols.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Female sex is an established risk factor for postoperative complications after heart surgery, but the influence of sex on outcomes after minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) for valvular replacement/repair remains controversial. We examined whether the role of sex as a risk factor varies by surgical approach [MICS vs conventional sternotomy (ST)] and further assessed outcomes among female patients including in-hospital mortality and postoperative complications by surgical approach. METHODS: We analysed data from a multicentre registry for patients who underwent isolated aortic valve and mitral surgery with MICS or ST. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Propensity score matching was used to minimize between-group differences. RESULTS: Among the 15 155 patients included in the study, 7674 underwent MICS (50.6%). Female sex was equally distributed in the MICS and ST groups (47.3% vs 47.6%, respectively). Risk for surgery was higher in the ST group than in the MICS group {EuroSCORE II: 4.0 [standard deviation (SD): 6.8] vs 3.7 [SD: 6.4]; P = 0.005}, including among female patients only [ST vs MICS 4.6 (SD: 6.9) vs 4.2 (SD: 6.3); P = 0.04]. Mortality did not significantly vary by procedure among women [MICS vs ST, 2.4% vs 2.8%; hazard ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.73; P (surgical approach × sex) = 0.51]. The results also did not vary after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Female sex was associated with higher mortality in patients undergoing valve surgery, regardless of surgical approach. In female patients, MICS did not provide any benefits over ST in terms of in-hospital deaths or postoperative complications. SUBJECT COLLECTION: 117, 125.

14.
Resuscitation ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411691

RESUMO

The design of emergency medicine trials can raise several ethical concerns - risks may be greater, and randomisation may have to occur before consent. Research in emergency medicine is thus an illuminating context to explore the interplay between risk and randomisation, and the consequences for consent. Using a currently running trial, we describe possible concerns, considerations, and solutions to reconcile the conflicting interests of scientific inquiry, ethical principles, and clinical reality in emergency medicine research.

15.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436380

RESUMO

The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) devices has significantly increased in the last decades. Despite medical and technological advancements, a main challenge in the ECLS field remains the complex interaction between the human body, blood, and artificial materials. Indeed, blood exposure to artificial surfaces generates an unbalanced activation of the coagulation cascade, leading to hemorrhagic and thrombotic events. Over time, several anticoagulation and coatings methods have been introduced to address this problem. This narrative review summarizes trends, advantages, and disadvantages of anticoagulation and coating methods used in the ECLS field. Evidence was collected through a PubMed search and reference scanning. A group of experts was convened to openly discuss the retrieved references. Clinical practice in ECLS is still based on the large use of unfractionated heparin and, as an alternative in case of contraindications, nafamostat mesilate, bivalirudin, and argatroban. Other anticoagulation methods are under investigation, but none is about to enter the clinical routine. From an engineering point of view, material modifications have focused on commercially available biomimetic and biopassive surfaces and on the development of endothelialized surfaces. Biocompatible and bio-hybrid materials not requiring combined systemic anticoagulation should be the future goal, but intense efforts are still required to fulfill this purpose.

16.
Europace ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379760

RESUMO

AIMS: Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) still limits the expansion of indications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Comparison between different systems remains scarce. We aimed to determine the impact of the device type used on post-TAVI PPI. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies reporting the use of balloon-expandable valve (BEV), self-expandable valve (SEV), and mechanically expandable valve (MEV) and post-TAVI PPI. A network meta-analysis was used to compare TAVI mechanisms (Analysis A) and transcatheter heart valves (Analysis B) with respect to post-TAVI PPI. Analysis A included 40 181 patients with a pooled PPI rate of 19.2% in BEV, 24.7% in SEV, and 34.8% in MEV. Balloon-expandable valve showed lower risk compared to either SEV or MEV and SEV demonstrated lower risk for PPI than MEV. Implantation of BEV was associated with 39% and 62% lower PPI rate with respect to SEV and MEV. Implantation of SEV was associated with 38% lower PPI rate with respect to MEV. Analysis B included 36.143 patients with the lowest pooled PPI rate of 9.6% for Acurate Neo or others, and the highest pooled PPI rate of 34.3% for Lotus. CoreValve, Evolut Portico, and Lotus influenced significantly PPI rate, while Sapien group did not. CONCLUSION: Implantation of BEV and also SEV were associated with lower post-TAVI PPI rate, while MEV were associated with higher post-TAVI PPI. Patient tailored-approach including devices characteristics may help to reduce post-TAVI PPI and to allow TAVI to take the leap towards extension of use in younger patients. PROSPERO NUMBER: CRD42021238671.

17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(8): e008387, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) has an important role in determining the pathogenesis of new-onset acute heart failure (new-AHF) when noninvasive testing is impossible. However, data on safety and histopathologic outcomes in patients requiring veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is lacking. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter cohort of patients undergoing EMB while requiring VA-ECMO for new-AHF between 1990 and 2020 was compared with a cohort of nontransplant related biopsies not requiring VA-ECMO. Primary end point of the study was to determine the safety of EMB. Additionally, we describe the underlying pathogenesis causing new-AHF based on histopathologic examination of the samples obtained. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients underwent EMB while requiring VA-ECMO (10.0%), 125 (54.3%) during an unplanned admission, and 82 (35.7%) in elective setting. Major complications occurred in 8.3% of all procedures with a significantly higher rate in patients requiring VA-ECMO (26.1% versus 8.0% versus 3.7%, P=0.003) predominately due to the occurrence of sustained ventricular tachycardia or need of resuscitation (13.0% versus 3.2% versus 1.2%, P=0.02). EMB led to a histopathologic diagnosis in 78.3% of the patients requiring VA-ECMO which consisted primarily of patients with myocarditis (73.9%). CONCLUSIONS: EMB in patients requiring VA-ECMO can be performed albeit with a substantial risk of major complications. The risk of the procedure was offset by a histopathologic diagnosis in 78.3% of the patients, which for the majority consisted of patients with myocarditis. The important therapeutic and prognostic implications of establishing an underlying pathogenesis causing new-AHF in this population warrant further refinement to improve procedural safety.

20.
J Card Surg ; 36(11): 4320-4321, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459523

RESUMO

Since the first in-human implantation, trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has shown an exciting development in both technical and technological terms, becoming the standard of care for many patients, even not only inoperable ones.  Although trans-femoral (TF) access has the scepter of first-line route for TAVR, in some cases, this access is not feasible, so several alternative routes were introduced over time. The network meta-analysis by Hameed et al. has the great merit to provide a comprehensive picture. Hence, through either direct and indirect comparison, the authors confirmed as TF is the gold standard as access, followed by trans-carotid and trans-subclavian. Conversely, trans-thoracic (trans apical and trans-aortic) routes are the least safe and should be reserved only to sporadic cases.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Artéria Femoral , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Cidade de Roma , Resultado do Tratamento
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