Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 31
Filtrar
1.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 24(4): 681-692, abril 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-203772

RESUMO

Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is defined as a heterogeneous group of tumors that appear as metastases, and of which standard diagnostic work-up fails to identify the origin. It is considered a separate entity with a specific biology, and nowadays molecular characteristics and the determination of actionable mutations may be important in a significant group of patients. In this guide, we summarize the diagnostic, therapeutic, and possible new developments in molecular medicine that may help us in the management of this unique disease entity.


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/terapia , Diagnóstico , Terapêutica
2.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 24(4): 681-692, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320504

RESUMO

Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is defined as a heterogeneous group of tumors that appear as metastases, and of which standard diagnostic work-up fails to identify the origin. It is considered a separate entity with a specific biology, and nowadays molecular characteristics and the determination of actionable mutations may be important in a significant group of patients. In this guide, we summarize the diagnostic, therapeutic, and possible new developments in molecular medicine that may help us in the management of this unique disease entity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas , Humanos , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/terapia
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35158957

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRC-LM) present differential histologic growth patterns (HGP) that determine the interaction between immune and tumor cells. We explored the spatial distribution of lymphocytic infiltrates in CRC-LM in the context of the HGP using multispectral digital pathology. We did not find statistically significant differences of immune cell densities in the central regions of desmoplastic (dHGP) and non-desmoplastic (ndHGP) metastases. The spatial evaluation reported that dHGP-metastases displayed higher infiltration by CD8+ and CD20+ cells in peripheral regions as well as CD4+ and CD45RO+ cells in ndHGP-metastases. However, the reactive stroma regions at the invasive margin (IM) of ndHGP-metastases displayed higher density of CD4+, CD20+, and CD45RO+ cells. The antitumor status of the TIL infiltrates measured as CD8/CD4 reported higher values in the IM of encapsulated metastases up to 400 µm towards the tumor center (p < 0.05). Remarkably, the IM of dHGP-metastases was characterized by higher infiltration of CD8+ cells in the epithelial compartment parameter assessed with the ratio CD8epithelial/CD8stromal, suggesting anti-tumoral activity in the encapsulating lesions. Taking together, the amount of CD8+ cells is comparable in the IM of both HGP metastases types. However, in dHGP-metastases some cytotoxic cells reach the tumor nests while remaining retained in the stromal areas in ndHGP-metastases.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 126(6): 874-880, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aflibercept is an antiangiogenic drug against metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) combined with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (FOLFIRI); however, no antiangiogenic biomarker has yet been validated. We assessed aflibercept plus FOLFIRI, investigating the biomarker role of baseline vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). METHODS: Phase II trial in oxaliplatin-treated mCRC patients who received aflibercept plus FOLFIRI. The reported 135 ng/mL ACE cut-off was used and ROC analysis was performed to assess the optimal VEGF-A cut-off for progression-free survival (PFS). Overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), time to treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were also assessed. RESULTS: In total, 101 patients were followed for a median of 12 (6-17) months. The 1941 pg/mL VEGF-A was an optimal cut-off, with a longer median PFS when VEGF-A was <1941 versus ≥1941 pg/mL (9 versus 4 months). Patients with VEGF-A < 1941 pg/mL showed longer median OS (19 versus 8 months), TTP (9 versus 4 months) and TTF (8 versus 4 months), along with higher ORR (26% versus 9%) and DCR (81% versus 55%). No differences were identified according to ACE levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports aflibercept plus FOLFIRI benefits, suggesting VEGF-A as a potential biomarker to predict better outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(10): 2890-2898, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Total neoadjuvant treatment (TNT) is a valid strategy for patients with high-risk locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Biomarkers of response to TNT are an unmet clinical need. We aimed to determine the value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to predict tumor response, recurrence, and survival in patients with LARC treated with TNT. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The GEMCAD 1402 was a phase II randomized, multicentric clinical trial that randomized 180 patients with LARC to modified schedule of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) +/- aflibercept, followed by chemoradiation and surgery. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and after TNT within 48 hours before surgery (presurgery). An ultrasensitive assay that integrates genomic and epigenomic cancer signatures was used to assess ctDNA status. ctDNA results were correlated with variables of local tumor response in the surgery sample, local/systemic recurrence, and survival. RESULTS: A total of 144 paired plasma samples from 72 patients were included. ctDNA was detectable in 83% of patients at baseline and in 15% following TNT (presurgery). No association was found between ctDNA status and pathologic response. Detectable presurgery ctDNA was significantly associated with systemic recurrence, shorter disease-free survival (HR, 4; P = 0.033), and shorter overall survival (HR, 23; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with LARC treated with TNT, presurgery ctDNA detected minimal metastatic disease identifying patients at high risk of distant recurrence and death. This study sets the basis for prospective clinical trials that use liquid biopsy to personalize the therapeutic approach following TNT.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Período Pré-Operatório , Neoplasias Retais/sangue , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Oncologist ; 26(5): e769-e779, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CUPISCO is an ongoing randomized phase II trial (NCT03498521) comparing molecularly guided therapy versus platinum-based chemotherapy in patients newly diagnosed with "unfavorable" cancer of unknown primary (CUP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with an unfavorable CUP diagnosis, as defined by the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), and available cancer tissue for molecular sequencing are generally eligible. Potential patients with CUP entering screening undergo a review involving reference histopathology and clinical work-up by a central eligibility review team (ERT). Patients with "favorable" CUP, a strongly suspected primary site of origin, lack of tissue, or unmet inclusion criteria are excluded. RESULTS: As of April 30, 2020, 628 patients had entered screening and 346 (55.1%) were screen failed. Screen fails were due to technical reasons (n = 89), failure to meet inclusion and exclusion criteria not directly related to CUP diagnosis (n = 89), and other reasons (n = 33). A total of 124 (35.8%) patients were excluded because unfavorable adeno- or poorly differentiated CUP could not be confirmed by the ERT. These cases were classified into three groups ineligible because of (a) histologic subtype, such as squamous and neuroendocrine, or favorable CUP; (b) evidence of a possible primary tumor; or (c) noncarcinoma histology. CONCLUSION: Experience with CUPISCO has highlighted challenges with standardized screening in an international clinical trial and the difficulties in diagnosing unfavorable CUP. Reconfirmation of unfavorable CUP by an ERT in a clinical trial can result in many reasons for screen failures. By sharing this experience, we aim to foster understanding of diagnostic challenges and improve diagnostic pathology and clinical CUP algorithms. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: A high unmet need exists for improved treatment of cancer of unknown primary (CUP); however, study in a trial setting is faced with the significant challenge of definitively distinguishing CUP from other cancer types. This article reports the authors' experience of this challenge so far in the ongoing CUPISCO trial, which compares treatments guided by patients' unique genetic signatures versus standard chemotherapy. The data presented will aid future decision-making regarding diagnosing true CUP cases; this will have far-reaching implications in the design, execution, and interpretation of not only CUPISCO but also future clinical studies aiming to find much-needed treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas , Humanos , Oncologia , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Oncologist ; 26(3): e394-e402, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) accounts for 2%-5% of newly diagnosed advanced malignancies, with chemotherapy as the standard of care. CUPISCO (NCT03498521) is an ongoing randomized trial using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) to assign patients with CUP to targeted or immunotherapy treatment arms based on genomic profiling. We performed a retrospective analysis of CUP cases referred for CGP to determine how many were potentially eligible for enrollment into an experimental CUPISCO arm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Centrally reviewed adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated CUP specimens in the FoundationCore database were analyzed using the hybrid capture-based FoundationOne CDx assay (mean coverage, >600×). Presence of genomic alterations, microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor mutational burden (TMB), genomic loss of heterozygosity (gLOH), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positivity were determined. RESULTS: A total of 96 of 303 patients (31.7%) could be matched to an experimental CUPISCO arm. Key genomic alterations included ERBB2 (7.3%), PIK3CA (6.3%), NF1 (5.6%), NF2 (4.6%), BRAF (4.3%), IDH1 (3.3%), PTEN, FGFR2, EGFR (3.6% each), MET (4.3%), CDK6 (3.0%), FBXW7, CDK4 (2.3% each), IDH2, RET, ROS1, NTRK (1.0% each), and ALK (0.7%). Median TMB was 3.75 mutations per megabase of DNA; 34 patients (11.6%) had a TMB ≥16 mutations per megabase. Three patients (1%) had high MSI, and 42 (14%) displayed high PD-L1 expression (tumor proportion score ≥50%). gLOH could be assessed in 199 of 303 specimens; 19.6% had a score of >16%. CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-two percent of patients would have been eligible for targeted therapy in CUPISCO. Future studies, including additional biomarkers such as PD-L1 positivity and gLOH, may identify a greater proportion potentially benefiting from CGP-informed treatment. Clinical trial identification number. NCT03498521 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The findings of this retrospective analysis of carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) cases validate the experimental treatment arms being used in the CUPISCO study (NCT03498521), an ongoing randomized trial using comprehensive genomic profiling to assign patients with CUP to targeted or immunotherapy treatment arms based on the presence of pathogenic genomic alterations. The findings also suggest that future studies including additional biomarkers and treatment arms, such as programmed death-ligand 1 positivity and genomic loss of heterozygosity, may identify a greater proportion of patients with CUP potentially benefiting from comprehensive genomic profiling-informed treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1164, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine is considered as a standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer. The "Tratamiento de Tumores Digestivos" group (TTD) previously reported in a randomized Ph II study that the addition of Bevacizumab to capecitabine-RT conferred no differences in the pre-defined efficacy endpoint (pathological complete response). We present the follow-up results of progression-free survival, distant relapse-free survival, and overall survival data at 3 and 5 years. METHODS: Patients (pts) were randomized to receive 5 weeks of radiotherapy (45 Gy/25 fractions) with concurrent Capecitabine 825 mg/m2 twice daily, 5 days per week with (arm A) or without (arm b) bevacizumab (5 mg/kg once every 2 weeks). RESULTS: In our study, the addition of bevacizumab to capecitabine and radiotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting shows no differences in pathological complete response (15.9% vs 10.9%), distant relapse-free survival (81.0 vs 80.4 and 76.2% vs 78.2% at 3 and 5 years respectively), disease-free survival (75% vs 71.7 and 68.1% vs 69.57% at 3 and 5 years respectively) nor overall survival at 5-years of follow-up (81.8% vs 86.9%). CONCLUSIONS: the addition of bevacizumab to capecitabine plus radiotherapy does not confer statistically significant advantages neither in distant relapse-free survival nor in disease-free survival nor in Overall Survival in the short or long term. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2009-010192-24 . Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01043484 .


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
9.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(6): e00162, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, we do not know the best therapeutic scheme in locally advanced rectal cancer when patients are older or have comorbidities. METHODS: In 2009, we established a prospective treatment protocol that included short-course preoperative radiotherapy (RT) with standard surgery +/- chemotherapy in frail patients, mostly older than 80 years or with comorbidities. RESULTS: We included 87 patients; the mean follow-up was 43.5 months (0.66-106.3). Disease-specific survival and disease-free survival at 36 months were 86.3% and 82.8%; at 60 months, they were 78.2% and 78%, respectively, with a local recurrence rate of 2.5%. The rate of late radiotoxicity was 9% in the form of sacral insufficiency fracture and small bowel obstruction with one death. The interval before surgery varied according to the involvement of the mesorectal fascia, but it was less than 2 weeks in 45% of cases. The rate of R0 was 95%. Surgical complications included abdominal wound dehiscence (3.5%), anastomotic leak (2.4%), and reoperations (11.5%). Downstaging was observed in 51% of the cases, regardless of the interval before surgery. DISCUSSION: Therapeutic outcomes in our group of elderly patients and/or patients with comorbidities with neoadjuvant short-course RT are such as those of the general population treated with neoadjuvant RT-chemotherapy, all with acceptable toxicity. Therefore, this treatment scheme, with short-course preoperative RT, would be the most appropriate in this group of patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Radioterapia Conformacional , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Protectomia , Estudos Prospectivos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia , Reto/efeitos da radiação , Reto/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(11): 1566-1573, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465088

RESUMO

Importance: Preclinical studies suggest that a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade may play a role in the preoperative treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma; however, how to combine anti-VEGF drugs with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and/or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains controversial. Objective: To study the effect of aflibercept plus modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) induction CT prior to standard CRT and total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery in patients with high-risk rectal adenocarcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the Grupo Español Multidisciplinar En Cancer Digestivo (GEMCAD) 1402 phase 2 randomized clinical trial, 180 patients aged 18 to 75 years, identified by centrally reviewed magnetic resonance imaging to have mrT3c-d/T4/N2 rectal adenocarcinoma, were enrolled from 20 treatment centers in Spain between January 2015 and March 2017. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 treatment to control arm ratio. The primary end point was evaluated at 2 interim and 1 final analyses. The study was designed to perform hypothesis testing at α = .2 and ß = .2. A 2-sided P value of <.1984 in the final analysis of the intention-to-treat population was the threshold for considering the experimental treatment to be more effective than the control. Interventions: Patients received neoadjuvant mFOLFOX6 with (arm A; n = 115) or without (arm B; n = 65) aflibercept, 4 mg/kg (every 2 weeks, 6 cycles, and 3 months) prior to standard CRT and TME surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a pathologic complete response (pCR) (ypT0N0). Secondary end points included toxic effects, surgical morbidity, R0 resections, compliance, and 3-year disease-free survival. Results: For the 115 patients who received treatment with mFOLFOX6 plus aflibercept, the median (range) age was 60 (32-75) years, 77 men (66.9%) and 38 women (33.0%). For the 65 patients who received induction CT treatment with only mFOLFOX6, the median (range) age was 65 (39-75) years, 39 men (60.0%) and 26 women (40.0%). The pCR rate in the intention-to-treat population was 22.6% (95% CI, 15.3%-31.3%) in arm A and 13.8% (95% CI, 6.5%-24.6%) in arm B (P = .15). The main differential toxic effect was grade 3/4 hypertension during the induction phase. Postoperative complications were similar in both arms (15.5% in arm A and 12.9% in arm B). A total of 106 patients (92.1%) in arm A and 63 (96.9%) in arm B received all treatment cycles. Conclusions and Relevance: The study met its primary end point. The findings suggest that adding aflibercept to an induction regimen using mFOLFOX6 plays a role in increasing the pCR rate in patients with high-risk rectal adenocarcinoma, without substantially increasing surgical complications. The GEMCAD 1402 trial provides a rationale for phase 3 trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02340949.

11.
Rev. esp. patol ; 52(1): 33-44, ene.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182665

RESUMO

El cáncer de origen desconocido se define como un grupo heterogéneo de tumores que se manifiestan con metástasis y para los que no se ha conseguido identificar su localización original. Sus características biológicas y forma de diseminación difieren del resto de tumores primarios, lo que hace que puedan considerarse como una entidad independiente. Aunque se han planteado varias hipótesis sobre su origen, la explicación más plausible sobre su agresividad y quimiorresistencia parece estar relacionada con la inestabilidad cromosómica. Dependiendo del tipo de estudio llevado a cabo, el cáncer de origen desconocido puede llegar a suponer entre el 2-9% de todos los pacientes con cáncer, principalmente entre los 60-75 años. En este artículo se revisan los principales estudios clínicos, patológicos y moleculares llevados a cabo para el análisis y determinación del origen del cáncer de origen desconocido, así como las principales estrategias terapéuticas y de manejo del paciente, tanto a nivel clínico como de anatomía patológica


Cancer of unknown primary is defined as a heterogeneous group of tumours that present with metastasis, and in which attempts to identify the original site have failed. They differ from other primary tumours in their biological features and how they spread, which means they can be considered a separate entity. There are several hypotheses regarding their origin, but the most plausible explanation for their aggressiveness and chemoresistance seems to involve chromosomal instability. Depending on the type of study done, cancer of unknown primary can account for 2-9% of all cancer patients, mostly 60-75 years old. This article reviews the main clinical, pathological and molecular studies conducted to analyse and determine the origin of cancer of unknown primary. The main strategies for patient management and treatment, by both clinicians and pathologists, are also addressed


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Biópsia/métodos , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/análise , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/terapia
12.
Rev Esp Patol ; 52(1): 33-44, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583830

RESUMO

Cancer of unknown primary is defined as a heterogeneous group of tumours that present with metastasis, and in which attempts to identify the original site have failed. They differ from other primary tumours in their biological features and how they spread, which means they can be considered a separate entity. There are several hypotheses regarding their origin, but the most plausible explanation for their aggressiveness and chemoresistance seems to involve chromosomal instability. Depending on the type of study done, cancer of unknown primary can account for 2-9% of all cancer patients, mostly 60-75 years old. This article reviews the main clinical, pathological and molecular studies conducted to analyse and determine the origin of cancer of unknown primary. The main strategies for patient management and treatment, by both clinicians and pathologists, are also addressed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Consenso , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/química , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Oncologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/terapia , Patologia Clínica , Fatores Sexuais , Sociedades Médicas
13.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 16(9): 1999-2007, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626084

RESUMO

In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), recent studies have shown the importance to accurately quantify low-abundance mutations of the RAS pathway because anti-EGFR therapy may depend on certain mutation thresholds. We aimed to evaluate the added predictive value of an extended RAS panel testing using two commercial assays and a highly sensitive and quantitative digital PCR (dPCR). Tumor samples from 583 mCRC patients treated with anti-EGFR- (n = 255) or bevacizumab- (n = 328) based therapies from several clinical trials and retrospective series from the TTD/RTICC Spanish network were analyzed by cobas, therascreen, and dPCR. We evaluated concordance between techniques using the Cohen kappa index. Response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were correlated to the mutational status and the mutant allele fraction (MAF). Concordance between techniques was high when analyzing RAS and BRAF (Cohen kappa index around 0.75). We observed an inverse correlation between MAF and response in the anti-EGFR cohort (P < 0.001). Likelihood ratio analysis showed that a fraction of 1% or higher of any mutated alleles offered the best predictive value. PFS and OS were significantly longer in RAS/BRAF wild-type patients, independently of the technique. However, the predictability of both PFS and OS were higher when we considered a threshold of 1% in the RAS scenario (HR = 1.53; CI 95%, 1.12-2.09 for PFS, and HR = 1.9; CI 95%, 1.33-2.72 for OS). Although the rate of mutations observed among techniques is different, RAS and BRAF mutational analysis improved prediction of response to anti-EGFR therapy. Additionally, dPCR with a threshold of 1% outperformed the other platforms. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1999-2007. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas ras/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 81: 191-202, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In first-line wild-type (WT)-Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), panitumumab (Pmab) improves outcomes when added to FOLFOX [folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin] or FOLFIRI [folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and irinotecan]. However no trial has directly compared these combinations. METHODS: Multicentre, open-label study in untreated patients ≥ 18 years with (WT)-KRAS mCRC and multiple or unresectable liver-limited disease (LLD) randomised to either Pmab-FOLFOX4 or Pmab-FOLFIRI. The primary end-point was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end-points included liver metastases resection rate (R0 + R1), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), adverse events and perioperative safety. Exploratory end-points were: response by RAS status, early tumour shrinkage (ETS) and depth of response (DpR) in WT-RAS patients. RESULTS: Data on 77 patients were analysed (38 Pmab-FOLFOX4; 39 Pmab-FOLFIRI; WT-RAS: 27/26, respectively). ORR was 74% with Pmab-FOLFOX4 and 67% with Pmab-FOLFIRI (WT-RAS: 78%/73%). Out of the above, 45% and 59% underwent surgical resection, respectively (WT-RAS: 37%/69%). The R0-R1 resection rate was 34%/46% (WT-RAS:26%/54%). Median PFS was 13/14 months (hazard ratio [HR] Pmab-FOLFIRI versus Pmab-FOLFOX4: 0.9; 95% confidence interval: [0.6-1.5]; WT-RAS:13/15; HR: 0.7 [0.4-1.3]). Median OS was 37/41 months (HR:1.0 [0.6-1.8]; WT-RAS: 39/49; HR:0.9 [0.4-1.9]). In WT-RAS patients with confirmed response, median DpR was 71%/66%, and 65%/77% of patients showed ETS ≥ 30%/ ≥ 20% at week 8, without significant differences between arms; these patients had longer median PFS and OS and higher resectability rates. Surgery was associated with longer survival. Perioperative and overall safety were similar, except for higher grade 3/4 neutropenia (40%/10%; p = 0.003) and neuropathy (13%/0%; p = 0.025) in the Pmab-FOLFOX4 arm. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with WT-KRAS mCRC and LLD, both first-line Pmab-FOLFOX4 and Pmab-FOLFIRI resulted in high ORR and ETS, allowing potentially curative resection. No significant differences in efficacy were observed between the two regimens. (clinicaltrials.gov:NCT00885885).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Panitumumabe , Espanha , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 327, 2015 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal sequence of chemotherapeutic agents is not firmly established for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This phase II multi-centre study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a standard capecitabine plus irinotecan (XELIRI) regimen with bevacizumab in previously untreated patients with mCRC. METHODS: Patients received intravenous irinotecan 175 mg/m(2) on day 1 and oral capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) (800 mg/m(2) for patients >65 years of age) twice daily on days 2-8, followed by a 1-week rest, and bevacizumab 5 mg/kg as an intravenous infusion on day 1 every 2 weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in the intention-to-treat and safety populations. Progression-free survival at 9 months was 61%. The overall response and disease control rates were 51% and 84%, respectively. Median progression-free and overall survival times were 11.9 and 24.8 months, respectively. 48 patients (62%) had at least one grade 3/4 adverse event, the most common being asthenia, diarrhoea and neutropenia. Quality of life varied little over the study period with mean visual analogue scale general health scores ranging from 71 to 76 over cycles 1-11. CONCLUSION: Our study found irinotecan and capecitabine administered fortnightly with bevacizumab in patients with mCRC to be an effective and tolerable regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00875771. Trial registration date: 04/02/2009.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Irinotecano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 60, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25886378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperatory chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves local control and survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the addition of bevacizumab (BEV) to preoperative capecitabine (CAP)-based CRT in LARC, and to explore biomarkers for downstaging. METHODS: Patients (pts) were randomized to receive 5 weeks of radiotherapy 45 Gy/25 fractions with concurrent CAP 825 mg/m(2) twice daily 5 days per week and BEV 5 mg/kg once every 2 weeks (3 doses) (arm A), or the same schedule without BEV (arm B). The primary end point was pathologic complete response (ypCR: ypT0N0). RESULTS: Ninety pts were included in arm A (44) or arm B (46). Grade 3-4 treatment-related toxicity rates were 16% and 13%, respectively. All patients but one (arm A) proceeded to surgery. The ypCR rate was 16% in arm A and 11% in arm B (p =0.54). Fifty-nine percent vs 39% of pts achieved T-downstaging (arm A vs arm B; p =0.04). Serial samples for biomarker analyses were obtained for 50 out of 90 randomized pts (arm A/B: 22/28). Plasma angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels decreased in arm A and increased in arm B (p <0.05 at all time points). Decrease in Ang-2 levels from baseline to day 57 was significantly associated with tumor downstaging (p =0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of BEV to CAP-based preoperative CRT has shown to be feasible in LARC. The association between decreasing Ang-2 levels and tumor downstaging should be further validated in customized studies. TRIAL REGISTRY: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01043484. Trial registration date: 12/30/2009.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Período Pré-Operatório , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 59, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25886275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether the addition of bevacizumab (BVZ) to capecitabine-based chemoradiotherapy in the preoperative treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) improves efficacy measured by the pathological complete response (pCR) rate. METHODS: A phase II two-step design was performed. Patients received four cycles of therapy consisting of: BVZ 10 mg/kg in first infusion on day 1 and 5 mg/kg on days 15, 29, 43, capecitabine 1800 mg/m(2)/day 5 days per week during radiotherapy, which consisted of external-beam irradiation (45 Gy in 1.8 Gy dose per session over 5 sessions/week for 5 weeks). Six to eight weeks after completion of all therapies surgery was undergone. To profile the biological behaviour during BVZ treatment we measured molecular biomarkers before treatment, during BVZ monotherapy, and during and after combination therapy. Microvessel density (MVD) was measured after surgery. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were assessed and 41 were included in the study. Three patients achieved a pathological complete response (3/40: 7.5%) and 27 (67.5%) had a pathological partial response, (overall pathological response rate of 75%). A further 8 patients (20%) had stable disease, giving a disease control rate of 95%. Downstaging occurred in 31 (31/40: 77.5%) of the patients evaluated. This treatment resulted in an actuarial 4-year disease-free and overall survival of 85.4 and 92.7% respectively. BVZ with chemoradiotherapy showed acceptable toxicity. No correlations were observed between biomarker results and efficacy variables. CONCLUSION: BVZ with capecitabine and radiotherapy seem safe and active and produce promising survival results in LARC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00847119 . Trial registration date: February 18, 2009.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 10(1): e0116527, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest a relationship between hypertension and outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We performed a retrospective analysis of two phase II studies (BECA and BECOX) to determine if hypertension and proteinuria predict outcome in elderly patients with mCRC treated with bevacizumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients ≥ 70 years of age received either capecitabine 1250 mg/m(2) bid days 1-14 + bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg day 1 every 21 days (BECA study) or capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) bid days 1-14 with bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) day 1 (BECOX study). The primary objective was to correlate hypertension and proteinuria with overall response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Secondary objectives included identification of risk factors associated with the development of hypertension and proteinuria and determining whether development of hypertension or proteinuria in the first 2 cycles was related to ORR, disease-control rate (DCR), TTP or OS. RESULTS: In total, 127 patients (median age 75.5 years) were included in the study. Hypertension correlated with DCR and OS; proteinuria correlated with ORR and DCR. Proteinuria or hypertension in the first 2 cycles did not correlate with efficacy. Risk factors for hypertension were female gender (odds ratio [OR] 0.241; P = 0.011) and more bevacizumab cycles (OR 1.112; P = 0.002); risk factors for proteinuria were diabetes (OR 3.869; P = 0.006) and more bevacizumab cycles (OR 1.181; P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified as having prognostic value: baseline lactate dehydrogenase, haemoglobin, number of metastatic lesions and DCR. CONCLUSION: This analysis of two phase II studies suggests that hypertension is significantly correlated with OS but not with ORR and TTP, whereas proteinuria is correlated with ORR but not with OS and TTP. Both hypertension and proteinuria are associated with the duration of bevacizumab treatment and do not represent an independent prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/complicações , Proteinúria/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Bevacizumab , Capecitabina , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 14(8): 592-8, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22855141

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A prospective phase II study was conducted to assess the clinical activity and tolerability of oxaliplatin, capecitabine, and radiotherapy (RT) for neoadjuvant therapy of stages II-III rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed stages II-III (T3-T4 and/or N+) resectable rectal adenocarcinoma were eligible. Capecitabine was administered at 825 mg/m(2) twice daily for 5 days/week and oxaliplatin at 50 mg/m(2) on day 1 weekly for 5 weeks starting the first day of RT (before RT). RT consisted of a total dose of 45 Gy delivered in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy, 5 days per week, for 5 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients were included (35 male, 10 female, median age 62 years). TNM Stage was T3 in 43 patients and T4 in 2. Twenty-eight patients had suspected nodal involvement. The intended chemoradiation treatment was completed in 94 % patients. Grade 3/4 toxicity included lymphocytopenia (6 patients), diarrhea (4 patients), emesis (2 patients), asthenia (3 patients), anorexia (1 patient), and hepatic toxicity (1 patient). Grade 1 neurotoxicity occurred in 18 patients, Grade 2 neurotoxicity in 3, and Grade 1 palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia in 2. Forty-two patients underwent surgery (complete resection 95 %, sphincter-saving operation 55 %). The overall pathologic response rate was 83 %, with a pathologic complete response (pCR) rate of 11.9 % (95 % CI 4.0-25.6). CONCLUSIONS: The pCR rate observed with oxaliplatin plus capecitabine and RT did not reach the pre-specified criteria of efficacy in this trial, which is in line with recent results of randomized phase III trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Capecitabina , Quimiorradioterapia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
20.
Oncologist ; 17(1): 15-25, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22234633

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this phase III trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab alone with those of bevacizumab and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) as maintenance treatment following induction chemotherapy with XELOX plus bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin every 3 weeks followed by XELOX plus bevacizumab or bevacizumab alone until progression. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) interval; secondary endpoints were the overall survival (OS) time, objective response rate (RR), time to response, duration of response, and safety. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population comprised 480 patients (XELOX plus bevacizumab, n = 239; bevacizumab, n = 241); there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The median follow-up was 29.0 months (range, 0-53.2 months). There were no statistically significant differences in the median PFS or OS times or in the RR between the two arms. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicities in the XELOX plus bevacizumab versus bevacizumab arms were diarrhea, hand-foot syndrome, and neuropathy. CONCLUSION: Although the noninferiority of bevacizumab versus XELOX plus bevacizumab cannot be confirmed, we can reliably exclude a median PFS detriment >3 weeks. This study suggests that maintenance therapy with single-agent bevacizumab may be an appropriate option following induction XELOX plus bevacizumab in mCRC patients.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab , Capecitabina , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina , Oxaloacetatos , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...