*Phys Rev Lett ; 129(24): 247701, 2022 Dec 09.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate, theoretically, charge-noise-induced spin dephasing of a hole confined in a quasi-two-dimensional silicon quantum dot. Central to our treatment is accounting for higher-order corrections to the Luttinger Hamiltonian. Using experimentally reported parameters, we find that the new terms give rise to sweet spots for the hole-spin dephasing, which are sensitive to device details: dot size and asymmetry, growth direction, and applied magnetic and electric fields. Furthermore, we estimate that the dephasing time at the sweet spots is boosted by several orders of magnitude, up to on the order of milliseconds.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2210589119, 2022 Oct 18.*

##### RESUMO

Spin chains proximitized with superconducting condensates have emerged as one of the most promising platforms for the realization of Majorana modes. Here, we craft diluted spin chains atom by atom following a seminal theoretical proposal suggesting indirect coupling mechanisms as a viable route to trigger topological superconductivity. Starting from single adatoms hosting deep Shiba states, we use the highly anisotropic Fermi surface of the substrate to create spin chains characterized by different magnetic configurations along distinct crystallographic directions. By scrutinizing a large set of parameters we reveal the ubiquitous emergence of boundary modes. Although mimicking signatures of Majorana modes, the end modes are identified as topologically trivial Shiba states. Our work demonstrates that zero-energy modes in spin chains proximitized to superconductors are not necessarily a link to Majorana modes while simultaneously identifying other experimental platforms, driving mechanisms, and test protocols for the determination of topologically nontrivial superconducting phases.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 129(11): 116805, 2022 Sep 09.*

##### RESUMO

An anomalous energy splitting of spin triplet states at zero magnetic field has recently been measured in germanium quantum dots. This zero-field splitting could crucially alter the coupling between tunnel-coupled quantum dots, the basic building blocks of state-of-the-art spin-based quantum processors, with profound implications for semiconducting quantum computers. We develop an analytical model linking the zero-field splitting to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction that is cubic in momentum. Such interactions naturally emerge in hole nanostructures, where they can also be tuned by external electric fields, and we find them to be particularly large in silicon and germanium, resulting in a significant zero-field splitting in the µeV range. We confirm our analytical theory by numerical simulations of different quantum dots, also including other possible sources of zero-field splitting. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of current architectures encoding spin qubits and provide a deeper understanding of these materials, paving the way toward the next generation of semiconducting quantum processors.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 129(6): 066801, 2022 Aug 05.*

##### RESUMO

Spin qubits in silicon and germanium quantum dots are promising platforms for quantum computing, but entangling spin qubits over micrometer distances remains a critical challenge. Current prototypical architectures maximize transversal interactions between qubits and microwave resonators, where the spin state is flipped by nearly resonant photons. However, these interactions cause backaction on the qubit that yields unavoidable residual qubit-qubit couplings and significantly affects the gate fidelity. Strikingly, residual couplings vanish when spin-photon interactions are longitudinal and photons couple to the phase of the qubit. We show that large and tunable spin-photon interactions emerge naturally in state-of-the-art hole spin qubits and that they change from transversal to longitudinal depending on the magnetic field direction. We propose ways to electrically control and measure these interactions, as well as realistic protocols to implement fast high-fidelity two-qubit entangling gates. These protocols work also at high temperatures, paving the way toward the implementation of large-scale quantum processors.

*Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(7): 696-700, 2022 Jul.*

##### RESUMO

Wireless technology relies on the conversion of alternating electromagnetic fields into direct currents, a process known as rectification. Although rectifiers are normally based on semiconductor diodes, quantum mechanical non-reciprocal transport effects that enable a highly controllable rectification were recently discovered1-9. One such effect is magnetochiral anisotropy (MCA)6-9, in which the resistance of a material or a device depends on both the direction of the current flow and an applied magnetic field. However, the size of rectification possible due to MCA is usually extremely small because MCA relies on inversion symmetry breaking that leads to the manifestation of spin-orbit coupling, which is a relativistic effect6-8. In typical materials, the rectification coefficient Î³ due to MCA is usually â£Î³â£ â² 1 A-1 T-1 (refs. 8-12) and the maximum values reported so far are â£Î³â£ ≈ 100 A-1 T-1 in carbon nanotubes13 and ZrTe5 (ref. 14). Here, to overcome this limitation, we artificially break the inversion symmetry via an applied gate voltage in thin topological insulator (TI) nanowire heterostructures and theoretically predict that such a symmetry breaking can lead to a giant MCA effect. Our prediction is confirmed via experiments on thin bulk-insulating (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 (BST) TI nanowires, in which we observe an MCA consistent with theory and â£Î³â£ ≈ 100,000 A-1 T-1, a very large MCA rectification coefficient in a normal conductor.

*Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2348, 2022 Apr 29.*

##### RESUMO

Recently a zoology of non-collinear chiral spin textures has been discovered, most of which, such as skyrmions and antiskyrmions, have integer topological charges. Here we report the experimental real-space observation of the formation and stability of fractional antiskyrmions and fractional elliptical skyrmions in a Heusler material. These fractional objects appear, over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field, at the edges of a sample, whose interior is occupied by an array of nano-objects with integer topological charges, in agreement with our simulations. We explore the evolution of these objects in the presence of magnetic fields and show their interconversion to objects with integer topological charges. This means the topological charge can be varied continuously. These fractional spin textures are not just another type of skyrmion, but are essentially a new state of matter that emerges and lives only at the boundary of a magnetic system. The coexistence of both integer and fractionally charged spin textures in the same material makes the Heusler family of compounds unique for the manipulation of the real-space topology of spin textures and thus an exciting platform for spintronic and magnonic applications.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 128(3): 037201, 2022 Jan 21.*

##### RESUMO

Magnetic materials in which it is possible to control the topology of their magnetic order in real space or the topology of their magnetic excitations in reciprocal space are highly sought after as platforms for alternative data storage and computing architectures. Here we show that multiferroic insulators, owing to their magnetoelectric coupling, offer a natural and advantageous way to address these two different topologies using laser fields. We demonstrate that via a delicate balance between the energy injection from a high-frequency laser and dissipation, single skyrmions-archetypical topological magnetic textures-can be set into motion with a velocity and propagation direction that can be tuned by the laser field amplitude and polarization, respectively. Moreover, we uncover an ultrafast Floquet magnonic topological phase transition in a laser-driven skyrmion crystal and we propose a new diagnostic tool to reveal it using the magnonic thermal Hall conductivity.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(19): 190501, 2021 Nov 05.*

##### RESUMO

Hole spin qubits are frontrunner platforms for scalable quantum computers, but state-of-the-art devices suffer from noise originating from the hyperfine interactions with nuclear defects. We show that these interactions have a highly tunable anisotropy that is controlled by device design and external electric fields. This tunability enables sweet spots where the hyperfine noise is suppressed by an order of magnitude and is comparable to isotopically purified materials. We identify surprisingly simple designs where the qubits are highly coherent and are largely unaffected by both charge and hyperfine noise. We find that the large spin-orbit interaction typical of elongated quantum dots not only speeds up qubit operations, but also dramatically renormalizes the hyperfine noise, altering qualitatively the dynamics of driven qubits and enhancing the fidelity of qubit gates. Our findings serve as guidelines to design high performance qubits for scaling up quantum computers.

*Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(12): 1318-1329, 2021 Dec.*

##### RESUMO

For the past three decades nanoscience has widely affected many areas in physics, chemistry and engineering, and has led to numerous fundamental discoveries, as well as applications and products. Concurrently, quantum science and technology has developed into a cross-disciplinary research endeavour connecting these same areas and holds burgeoning commercial promise. Although quantum physics dictates the behaviour of nanoscale objects, quantum coherence, which is central to quantum information, communication and sensing, has not played an explicit role in much of nanoscience. This Review describes fundamental principles and practical applications of quantum coherence in nanoscale systems, a research area we call quantum-coherent nanoscience. We structure this Review according to specific degrees of freedom that can be quantum-coherently controlled in a given nanoscale system, such as charge, spin, mechanical motion and photons. We review the current state of the art and focus on outstanding challenges and opportunities unlocked by the merging of nanoscience and coherent quantum operations.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(5): 057701, 2021 Jul 30.*

##### RESUMO

We experimentally determine isotropic and anisotropic g-factor corrections in lateral GaAs single-electron quantum dots. We extract the Zeeman splitting by measuring the tunnel rates into the individual spin states of an empty quantum dot for an in-plane magnetic field with various strengths and directions. We quantify the Zeeman energy and find a linear dependence on the magnetic field strength that allows us to extract the g factor. The measured g factor is understood in terms of spin-orbit interaction induced isotropic and anisotropic corrections to the GaAs bulk g factor. Experimental detection and identification of minute band-structure effects in the g factor is of significance for spin qubits in GaAs quantum dots.

*J Vasc Bras ; 20: e20200160, 2021 Jun 11.*

##### RESUMO

Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a group of rare diseases characterized by dilation of lymphatic channels. Its pathophysiology comprises obstruction of small bowel lymphatic drainage with secondary dilation of mucosal, submucosal, or subserous lymphatic vessels, distorting villous architecture and causing loss of lymph into the intestinal lumen, leading to malabsorption. The affected lymphatic vessels are primarily located in the small intestine, which is affected to a varying extent. Its etiology is still unknown. The following report presents a rare case of intestinal lymphangiectasia in an adult patient.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(14)2021 Apr 06.*

##### RESUMO

Novel many-body and topological electronic phases can be created in assemblies of interacting spins coupled to a superconductor, such as one-dimensional topological superconductors with Majorana zero modes (MZMs) at their ends. Understanding and controlling interactions between spins and the emergent band structure of the in-gap Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states they induce in a superconductor are fundamental for engineering such phases. Here, by precisely positioning magnetic adatoms with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we demonstrate both the tunability of exchange interaction between spins and precise control of the hybridization of YSR states they induce on the surface of a bismuth (Bi) thin film that is made superconducting with the proximity effect. In this platform, depending on the separation of spins, the interplay among Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction, spin-orbit coupling, and surface magnetic anisotropy stabilizes different types of spin alignments. Using high-resolution STM spectroscopy at millikelvin temperatures, we probe these spin alignments through monitoring the spin-induced YSR states and their energy splitting. Such measurements also reveal a quantum phase transition between the ground states with different electron number parity for a pair of spins in a superconductor tuned by their separation. Experiments on larger assemblies show that spin-spin interactions can be mediated in a superconductor over long distances. Our results show that controlling hybridization of the YSR states in this platform provides the possibility of engineering the band structure of such states for creating topological phases.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(1): 016803, 2021 Jan 08.*

##### RESUMO

We establish the quantum fluctuations ΔQ_{B}^{2} of the charge Q_{B} accumulated at the boundary of an insulator as an integral tool to characterize phase transitions where a direct gap closes (and reopens), typically occurring for insulators with topological properties. The power of this characterization lies in its capability to treat different kinds of insulators on equal footing, being applicable to transitions between topological and nontopological band, Anderson, and Mott insulators alike. In the vicinity of the phase transition, we find a universal scaling ΔQ_{B}^{2}(E_{g}) as a function of the gap size E_{g} and determine its generic form in various dimensions. For prototypical phase transitions with a massive Dirac-like bulk spectrum, we demonstrate a scaling with the inverse gap in one dimension and a logarithmic one in two dimensions.

*J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200160, 2021. graf*

##### RESUMO

Resumo A linfangiectasia intestinal consiste em um grupo de doenças raras caracterizadas pela dilatação dos canais linfáticos. A fisiopatologia compreende a obstrução da drenagem linfática do intestino delgado com dilatação secundária dos vasos linfáticos mucosos, submucosos ou subserosos, que distorcem a arquitetura das vilosidades e conduzem à perda de linfa para a luz intestinal, levando à má absorção. Os vasos linfáticos afetados localizam-se primariamente no intestino delgado, que é atingido em extensão variável. A sua etiologia é ainda desconhecida. O relato a seguir apresenta um raro caso de linfangiectasia intestinal em paciente adulto.

Abstract Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a group of rare diseases characterized by dilation of lymphatic channels. Its pathophysiology comprises obstruction of small bowel lymphatic drainage with secondary dilation of mucosal, submucosal, or subserous lymphatic vessels, distorting villous architecture and causing loss of lymph into the intestinal lumen, leading to malabsorption. The affected lymphatic vessels are primarily located in the small intestine, which is affected to a varying extent. Its etiology is still unknown. The following report presents a rare case of intestinal lymphangiectasia in an adult patient.

##### Assuntos

Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vasos Linfáticos/fisiopatologia , Intestino Delgado/fisiopatologia , Linfangiectasia Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Doenças Raras , Linfangiectasia Intestinal/diagnóstico , Linfangiectasia Intestinal/dietoterapia*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(20): 207204, 2020 Nov 13.*

##### RESUMO

We uncover that antiskyrmion crystals provide an experimentally accessible platform to realize a magnonic quadrupole topological insulator, whose hallmark signatures are robust magnonic corner states. Furthermore, we show that tuning an applied magnetic field can trigger the self-assembly of antiskyrmions carrying a fractional topological charge along the sample edges. Crucially, these fractional antiskyrmions restore the symmetries needed to enforce the emergence of the magnonic corner states. Using the machinery of nested Wilson loops, adapted to magnonic systems supported by noncollinear magnetic textures, we demonstrate the quantization of the bulk quadrupole moment, edge dipole moments, and corner charges.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(15): 157701, 2020 Oct 09.*

##### RESUMO

We study superconducting quantum interference in a Josephson junction linked via edge states in two-dimensional (2D) insulators. We consider two scenarios in which the 2D insulator is either a topological or a trivial insulator supporting one-dimensional (1D) helical or nonhelical edge states, respectively. In equilibrium, we find that the qualitative dependence of critical supercurrent on the flux through the junction is insensitive to the helical nature of the mediating states and can, therefore, not be used to verify the topological features of the underlying insulator. However, upon applying a finite voltage bias smaller than the superconducting gap to a relatively long junction, the finite-frequency interference pattern in the nonequilibrium transport current is qualitatively different for helical edge states as compared to nonhelical ones.

*Nano Lett ; 20(9): 6556-6562, 2020 Sep 09.*

##### RESUMO

The use of spin waves (SWs) as data carriers in spintronic and magnonic logic devices offers operation at low power consumption, free of Joule heating. Nevertheless, the controlled emission and propagation of SWs in magnetic materials remains a significant challenge. Here, we propose that skyrmion-antiskyrmion bilayers form topological charge dipoles and act as efficient sub-100 nm SW emitters when excited by in-plane ac magnetic fields. The propagating SWs have a preferred radiation direction, with clear dipole signatures in their radiation pattern, suggesting that the bilayer forms a SW antenna. Bilayers with the same topological charge radiate SWs with spiral and antispiral spatial profiles, enlarging the class of SW patterns. We demonstrate that the characteristics of the emitted SWs are linked to the topology of the source, allowing for full control of the SW features, including their amplitude, preferred direction of propagation, and wavelength.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(1): 017701, 2020 Jul 03.*

##### RESUMO

Subgap states in semiconducting-superconducting nanowire hybrid devices are controversially discussed as potential topologically nontrivial quantum states. One source of ambiguity is the lack of an energetically and spatially well defined tunnel spectrometer. Here, we use quantum dots directly integrated into the nanowire during the growth process to perform tunnel spectroscopy of discrete subgap states in a long nanowire segment. In addition to subgap states with a standard magnetic field dependence, we find topologically trivial subgap states that are independent of the external magnetic field, i.e., that are pinned to a constant energy as a function of field. We explain this effect qualitatively and quantitatively by taking into account the strong spin-orbit interaction in the nanowire, which can lead to a decoupling of Andreev bound states from the field due to a spatial spin texture of the confined eigenstates. This result constitutes an important step forward in the research on superconducting subgap states in nanowires, such as Majorana bound states.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(18): 187602, 2020 May 08.*

##### RESUMO

Evidence is presented for a first-order magnetic phase transition in a gated two-dimensional semiconductor, monolayer-MoS_{2}. The phase boundary separates a ferromagnetic phase at low electron density and a paramagnetic phase at high electron density. Abrupt changes in the optical response signal an abrupt change in the magnetism. The magnetic order is thereby controlled via the voltage applied to the gate electrode of the device. Accompanying the change in magnetism is a large change in the electron effective mass.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(9): 097202, 2020 Mar 06.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate the quantum depinning of a weakly driven skyrmion out of an impurity potential in a mesoscopic magnetic insulator. For small barrier height, the Magnus force dynamics dominates over the inertial term, and the problem is reduced to a massless charged particle in a strong magnetic field. The universal form of the WKB exponent, the rate of tunneling, and the crossover temperature between thermal and quantum tunneling are provided, independently of the detailed form of the pinning potential. The results are discussed in terms of macroscopic parameters of the insulator Cu_{2}OSeO_{3} and various skyrmion radii. We demonstrate that small enough magnetic skyrmions, with a radius of â¼10 lattice sites, consisting of some thousands of spins, can behave as quantum objects at low temperatures in the millikelvin regime.