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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958654

RESUMO

Controlling autonomous propulsion of microswimmers is essential for targeted drug delivery and applications of micro/nanomachines in environmental remediation and beyond. Herein, we report two-dimensional (2D) carbon nitride-based Janus particles as highly efficient, light-driven microswimmers in aqueous media. Due to the superior photocatalytic properties of poly(heptazine imide) (PHI), the microswimmers are activated by both visible and ultraviolet (UV) light in conjunction with different capping materials (Au, Pt, and SiO2) and fuels (H2O2 and alcohols). Assisted by photoelectrochemical analysis of the PHI surface photoreactions, we elucidate the dominantly diffusiophoretic propulsion mechanism and establish the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as the major surface reaction in ambient conditions on metal-capped PHI and even with TiO2-based systems, rather than the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which is generally invoked as the source of propulsion under ambient conditions with alcohols as fuels. Making use of the intrinsic solar energy storage ability of PHI, we establish the concept of photocapacitive Janus microswimmers that can be charged by solar energy, thus enabling persistent light-induced propulsion even in the absence of illumination-a process we call "solar battery swimming"-lasting half an hour and possibly beyond. We anticipate that this propulsion scheme significantly extends the capabilities in targeted cargo/drug delivery, environmental remediation, and other potential applications of micro/nanomachines, where the use of versatile earth-abundant materials is a key prerequisite.

2.
Matter ; 3(2): 464-486, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803152

RESUMO

Quantitative comparison of photocatalytic performances across different photocatalysis setups is technically challenging. Here, we combine the concepts of relative and optimal photonic efficiencies to normalize activities with an internal benchmark material, RuO2 photodeposited on a P25-TiO2 photocatalyst, which was optimized for reproducibility of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Additionally, a general set of good practices was identified to ensure reliable quantification of photocatalytic OER, including photoreactor design, photocatalyst dispersion, and control of parasitic reactions caused by the sacrificial electron acceptor. Moreover, a method combining optical modeling and measurements was proposed to quantify the benchmark absorbed and scattered light (7.6% and 81.2%, respectively, of λ = 300-500 nm incident photons), rather than just incident light (≈AM 1.5G), to estimate its internal quantum efficiency (16%). We advocate the adoption of the instrumental and theoretical framework provided here to facilitate material standardization and comparison in the field of artificial photosynthesis.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(28): 12146-12156, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564604

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) display a unique combination of chemical tunability, structural diversity, high porosity, nanoscale regularity, and thermal stability. Recent efforts are directed at using such frameworks as tunable scaffolds for chemical reactions. In particular, COFs have emerged as viable platforms for mimicking natural photosynthesis. However, there is an indisputable need for efficient, stable, and economical alternatives for the traditional platinum-based cocatalysts for light-driven hydrogen evolution. Here, we present azide-functionalized chloro(pyridine)cobaloxime hydrogen-evolution cocatalysts immobilized on a hydrazone-based COF-42 backbone that show improved and prolonged photocatalytic activity with respect to equivalent physisorbed systems. Advanced solid-state NMR and quantum-chemical methods allow us to elucidate details of the improved photoreactivity and the structural composition of the involved active site. We found that a genuine interaction between the COF backbone and the cobaloxime facilitates recoordination of the cocatalyst during the photoreaction, thereby improving the reactivity and hindering degradation of the catalyst. The excellent stability and prolonged reactivity make the herein reported cobaloxime-tethered COF materials promising hydrogen evolution catalysts for future solar fuel technologies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573890

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an extensively studied class of porous materials, which distinguish themselves from other porous polymers in their crystallinity and high degree of modularity, enabling a wide range of applications. COFs are most commonly synthesized solvothermally, which is often a time-consuming process and restricted to well-soluble precursor molecules. Synthesis of polyimide-linked COFs (PI-COFs) is further complicated by the poor reversibility of the ring-closing reaction under solvothermal conditions. Herein, we report the ionothermal synthesis of crystalline and porous PI-COFs in zinc chloride and eutectic salt mixtures. This synthesis does not require soluble precursors and the reaction time is significantly reduced as compared to standard solvothermal synthesis methods. In addition to applying the synthesis to previously reported imide COFs, a new perylene-based COF was also synthesized, which could not be obtained by the classical solvothermal route. In situ high-temperature XRPD analysis hints to the formation of precursor-salt adducts as crystalline intermediates, which then react with each other to form the COF.

5.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243702

RESUMO

The synthesis of porous electrode materials is often linked with the generation of waste that results from extensive purification steps and low mass yield. In contrast to porous carbons, covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) display modular properties on a molecular basis through appropriate choice of the monomer. Herein, the synthesis of a new pyridine-based CTF material is showcased. The porosity and nitrogen-doping are tuned by a careful choice of the reaction temperature. An in-depth structural characterization by using Ar physisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy was conducted to give a rational explanation of the material properties. Without any purification, the samples were applied as symmetrical supercapacitors and showed a specific capacitance of 141 F g-1 . Residual ZnCl2 , which acted formerly as the porogen, was used directly as the electrolyte salt. Upon the addition of water, ZnCl2 was dissolved to form the aqueous electrolyte in situ. Thereby, extensive and time-consuming washing steps could be circumvented.

6.
Nanoscale ; 12(14): 7766-7775, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215409

RESUMO

The efficiency of photoelectrochemical tandem cells is still limited by the availability of stable low band gap electrodes. In this work, we report a photocathode based on lithium doped copper(ii) oxide, a black p-type semiconductor. Density functional theory calculations with a Hubbard U term show that low concentrations of Li (Li0.03Cu0.97O) lead to an upward shift of the valence band maximum that crosses the Fermi level and results in a p-type semiconductor. Therefore, Li doping emerged as a suitable approach to manipulate the electronic structure of copper oxide based photocathodes. As this material class suffers from instability in water under operating conditions, the recorded photocurrents are repeatedly misinterpreted as hydrogen evolution evidence. We investigated the photocorrosion behavior of LixCu1-xO cathodes in detail and give the first mechanistic study of the fundamental physical process. The reduced copper oxide species were localized by electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping. Cu2O grows as distinct crystallites on the surface of LixCu1-xO instead of forming a dense layer. Additionally, there is no obvious Cu2O gradient inside the films, as Cu2O seems to form on all LixCu1-xO nanocrystals exposed to water. The application of a thin Ti0.8Nb0.2Ox coating by atomic layer deposition and the deposition of a platinum co-catalyst increased the stability of LixCu1-xO against decomposition. These devices showed a stable hydrogen evolution for 15 minutes.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023355

RESUMO

The electrochemical splitting of water holds promise for the storage of energy produced intermittently by renewable energy sources. The evolution of hydrogen currently relies on the use of platinum as a catalyst-which is scarce and expensive-and ongoing research is focused towards finding cheaper alternatives. In this context, 2D polymers grown as single layers on surfaces have emerged as porous materials with tunable chemical and electronic structures that can be used for improving the catalytic activity of metal surfaces. Here, we use designed organic molecules to fabricate covalent 2D architectures by an Ullmann-type coupling reaction on Au(111). The polymer-patterned gold electrode exhibits a hydrogen evolution reaction activity up to three times higher than that of bare gold. Through rational design of the polymer on the molecular level we engineered hydrogen evolution activity by an approach that can be easily extended to other electrocatalytic reactions.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 59(2): 1176-1182, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880436

RESUMO

The development of novel, intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) antiferromagnets presents the opportunity to vastly improve the efficiency of spintronic devices and sensors. The strong intrinsic antiferromagnetism and van der Waals layered structure exhibited by the bulk transition-metal oxychlorides provide a convenient system for the synthesis of such materials. In this work, we report the exfoliation of bulk FeOCl into and subsequent characterization of intrinsically antiferromagnetic thin-layer FeOCl nanosheets. The magnetic properties of bulk FeOCl, its lithium intercalate, and its nanosheet pellet are measured to determine the evolution of magnetic properties from the three-dimensional to the quasi-two-dimensional system. This work establishes FeOCl and isostructural compounds as a source for the development of two-dimensional intrinsic antiferromagnets.

9.
Chem Mater ; 31(18): 7478-7486, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582875

RESUMO

Solving the structure of carbon nitrides has been a long-standing challenge due to the low crystallinity and complex structures observed within this class of earth-abundant photocatalysts. Herein, we report on two-dimensional layered potassium poly(heptazine imide) (K-PHI) and its proton-exchanged counterpart (H-PHI), obtained by ionothermal synthesis using a molecular precursor route. We present a comprehensive analysis of the in-plane and three-dimensional structure of PHI. Transmission electron microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, supported by quantum-chemical calculations, suggest a planar, imide-bridged heptazine backbone with trigonal symmetry in both K-PHI and H-PHI, whereas pair distribution function analyses and X-ray powder diffraction using recursive-like simulations of planar defects point to a structure-directing function of the pore content. While the out-of-plane structure of K-PHI exhibits a unidirectional layer offset, mediated by hydrated potassium ions, H-PHI is characterized by a high degree of stacking faults due to the weaker structure directing influence of pore water. Structure-property relationships in PHI reveal that a loss of in-plane coherence, materializing in smaller lateral platelet dimensions and increased terminal cyanamide groups, correlates with improved photocatalytic performance. Size-optimized H-PHI is highly active toward photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, with a rate of 3363 µmol/gh H2 placing it on par with the most active carbon nitrides. K- and H-PHI adopt a uniquely long-lived photoreduced polaronic state in which light-induced electrons are stored for more than 6 h in the dark and released upon addition of a Pt cocatalyst. This work highlights the importance of structure-property relationships in carbon nitrides for the rational design of highly active hydrogen evolution photocatalysts.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(28): 11082-11092, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260279

RESUMO

Solar hydrogen (H2) evolution from water utilizing covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as heterogeneous photosensitizers has gathered significant momentum by virtue of the COFs' predictive structural design, long-range ordering, tunable porosity, and excellent light-harvesting ability. However, most photocatalytic systems involve rare and expensive platinum as the co-catalyst for water reduction, which appears to be the bottleneck in the development of economical and environmentally benign solar H2 production systems. Herein, we report a simple, efficient, and low-cost all-in-one photocatalytic H2 evolution system composed of a thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole-linked COF (TpDTz) as the photoabsorber and an earth-abundant, noble-metal-free nickel-thiolate hexameric cluster co-catalyst assembled in situ in water, together with triethanolamine (TEoA) as the sacrificial electron donor. The high crystallinity, porosity, photochemical stability, and light absorption ability of the TpDTz COF enables excellent long-term H2 production over 70 h with a maximum rate of 941 µmol h-1 g-1, turnover number TONNi > 103, and total projected TONNi > 443 until complete catalyst depletion. The high H2 evolution rate and TON, coupled with long-term photocatalytic operation of this hybrid system in water, surpass those of many previously known organic dyes, carbon nitride, and COF-sensitized photocatalytic H2O reduction systems. Furthermore, we gather unique insights into the reaction mechanism, enabled by a specifically designed continuous-flow system for non-invasive, direct H2 production rate monitoring, providing higher accuracy in quantification compared to the existing batch measurement methods. Overall, the results presented here open the door toward the rational design of robust and efficient earth-abundant COF-molecular co-catalyst hybrid systems for sustainable solar H2 production in water.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3046, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292449

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2689, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217421

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are typically designed by breaking down the desired network into feasible building blocks - either simple and highly symmetric, or more convoluted and thus less symmetric. The linkers are chosen complementary to each other such that an extended, fully condensed network structure can form. We show not only an exception, but a design principle that allows breaking free of such design rules. We show that tri- and tetratopic linkers can be combined to form imine-linked [4 + 3] sub-stoichiometric 2D COFs featuring an unexpected bex net topology, and with periodic uncondensed amine functionalities which enhance CO2 adsorption, can be derivatized in a subsequent reaction, and can also act as organocatalysts. We further extend this class of nets by including a ditopic linker to form [4 + 3 + 2] COFs. The results open up possibilities towards a new class of sub-valent COFs with unique structural, topological and compositional complexities for diverse applications.

13.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(5): 750-752, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139710
14.
Chemphyschem ; 20(18): 2340-2347, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112362

RESUMO

Many 2D covalent polymers synthesized as single layers on surfaces show inherent disorder, expressed for example in their ring-size distribution. Systems which are expected to form the thermodynamically favored hexagonal lattice usually deviate from crystallinity and include high numbers of pentagons, heptagons, and rings of other sizes. The amorphous structure of two different covalent polymers in real space using scanning tunneling microscopy is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to extract additional information. We show that short-range correlations exist in the structure of one polymer, i. e. that polygons are not tessellating the surface randomly but that ring neighborhoods have preferential compositions. The correlation is dictated by the energy of formation of the ring neighborhoods.

15.
Chem Mater ; 31(6): 1946-1955, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930535

RESUMO

Tailorable sorption properties at the molecular level are key for efficient carbon capture and storage and a hallmark of covalent organic frameworks (COFs). Although amine functional groups are known to facilitate CO2 uptake, atomistic insights into CO2 sorption by COFs modified with amine-bearing functional groups are scarce. Herein, we present a detailed study of the interactions of carbon dioxide and water with two isostructural hydrazone-linked COFs with different polarities based on the 2,5-diethoxyterephthalohydrazide linker. Varying amounts of tertiary amines were introduced in the COF backbones by means of a copolymerization approach using 2,5-bis(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)terephthalohydrazide in different amounts ranging from 25 to 100% substitution of the original DETH linker. The interactions of the frameworks with CO2 and H2O were comprehensively studied by means of sorption analysis, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations. We show that the addition of the tertiary amine linker increases the overall CO2 sorption capacity normalized by the surface area and of the heat of adsorption, whereas surface areas and pore size diameters decrease. The formation of ammonium bicarbonate species in the COF pores is shown to occur, revealing the contributing role of water for CO2 uptake by amine-modified porous frameworks.

16.
Nat Chem ; 10(12): 1175-1177, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464321
17.
Adv Mater ; 30(51): e1803730, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306641

RESUMO

The intuitive use, inexpensive fabrication, and easy readout of colorimetric sensors, including photonic crystal architectures and Fabry-Pérot interference sensors, have made these devices a successful commercial case, and yet, understanding how the diffusion of analytes occurs throughout the structure is a key ingredient for designing the response of these platforms on demand. Herein, the diffusion of amines in a periodic multilayer system composed of two-dimensional nanosheets and dielectric nanoparticles is tracked by a combination of spectroscopic measurements and theoretical modelling. It is demonstrated that diffusion is controlled by the molecular size, with larger molecules showing larger layer swelling and slower diffusion times, which translates into important sensor characteristics such as signal change and saturation time. Since the approach visualizes the analyte impregnation process in a time- and spatially resolved fashion, it directly relates the macroscopic color readout into microscopic processes occurring at the molecular level, thus opening the door to rational sensor design.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2600, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968723

RESUMO

Stabilization of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) by post-synthetic locking strategies is a powerful tool to push the limits of COF utilization, which are imposed by the reversible COF linkage. Here we introduce a sulfur-assisted chemical conversion of a two-dimensional imine-linked COF into a thiazole-linked COF, with full retention of crystallinity and porosity. This post-synthetic modification entails significantly enhanced chemical and electron beam stability, enabling investigation of the real framework structure at a high level of detail. An in-depth study by electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveals a myriad of previously unknown or unverified structural features such as grain boundaries and edge dislocations, which are likely generic to the in-plane structure of 2D COFs. The visualization of such real structural features is key to understand, design and control structure-property relationships in COFs, which can have major implications for adsorption, catalytic, and transport properties of such crystalline porous polymers.

19.
Nano Lett ; 18(5): 3203-3208, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635914

RESUMO

The small gap semiconductor α-RuCl3 has emerged as a promising candidate for quantum spin liquid materials. Thus far, Raman spectroscopy, neutron scattering, and magnetization measurements have provided valuable hints for collective spin behavior in α-RuCl3 bulk crystals. However, the goal of implementing α-RuCl3 into spintronic devices would strongly benefit from the possibility of electrically probing these phenomena. To address this, we first investigated nanoflakes of α-RuCl3 by Raman spectroscopy and observed similar behavior as in the case of the bulk material, including the signatures of possible fractionalized excitations. In complementary experiments, we investigated the electrical charge transport properties of individual α-RuCl3 nanoflakes in the temperature range between 120 and 290 K. The observed temperature-dependent electrical resistivity is consistent with variable range hopping behavior and exhibits a transition at about 180 K, close to the onset temperature observed in our Raman measurements. In conjunction with the established relation between structure and magnetism in the bulk, we interpret this transition to coincide with the emergence of fractionalized excitations due to the Kitaev interactions in the nanoflakes. Compared to the bulk samples, the transition temperature of the underlying structural change is larger in the nanoflakes. This difference is tentatively attributed to the dimensionality of the nanoflakes as well as the formation of stacking faults during mechanical exfoliation. The demonstrated devices open up novel perspectives toward manipulating the Kitaev-phase in α-RuCl3 via electrical means.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(19): 6130-6136, 2018 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685030

RESUMO

Three-dimensional carbon-based structures have proven useful for tailoring material properties in structural mechanical and energy storage applications. One approach to obtain them has been by carbonization of selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with catalytic metals, but this is not applicable to most common MOF structures. Here, we present a strategy to transform common MOFs, by guest inclusions and high-temperature MOF-guest interactions, into complex carbon-based, diatom-like, hierarchical structures (named for the morphological similarities with the naturally existing diatomaceous species). As an example, we introduce metal salt guests into HKUST-1-type MOFs to generate a family of carbon-based nano-diatoms with two to four levels of structural hierarchy. We report control of the morphology by simple changes in the chemistry of the MOF and guest, with implications for the formation mechanisms. We demonstrate that one of these structures has unique advantages as a fast-charging lithium-ion battery anode. The tunability of composition should enable further studies of reaction mechanisms and result in the growth of a myriad of unprecedented carbon-based structures from the enormous variety of currently available MOF-guest candidates.

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