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1.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 190: 115-125, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940596

RESUMO

Serum concentrations of lathosterol, the plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol and the cholesterol metabolite 5α-cholestanol are widely used as surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, respectively. Increasing numbers of laboratories utilize a broad spectrum of well-established and recently developed methods for the determination of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols (NCS). In order to evaluate the quality of these measurements and to identify possible sources of analytical errors our group initiated the first international survey for cholesterol and NCS. The cholesterol and NCS survey was structured as a two-part survey which took place in the years 2013 and 2014. The first survey part was designed as descriptive, providing information about the variation of reported results from different laboratories. A set of two lyophilized pooled sera (A and B) was sent to twenty laboratories specialized in chromatographic lipid analysis. The different sterols were quantified either by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, gas chromatography- or liquid chromatography-mass selective detection. The participants were requested to determine cholesterol and NCS concentrations in the provided samples as part of their normal laboratory routine. The second part was designed as interventional survey. Twenty-two laboratories agreed to participate and received again two different lyophilized pooled sera (C and D). In contrast to the first international survey, each participant received standard stock solutions with defined concentrations of cholesterol and NCS. The participants were requested to use diluted calibration solutions from the provided standard stock solutions for quantification of cholesterol and NCS. In both surveys, each laboratory used its own internal standard (5α-cholestane, epicoprostanol or deuterium labelled sterols). Main outcome of the survey was, that unacceptably high interlaboratory variations for cholesterol and NCS concentrations are reported, even when the individual laboratories used the same calibration material. We discuss different sources of errors and recommend all laboratories analysing cholesterol and NCS to participate in regular quality control programs.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Fitosteróis/sangue , Colestanol/sangue , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Humanos , Sitosteroides/sangue , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813339

RESUMO

Interesterified fats are being widely used by the food industry in an attempt to replace trans fatty acids. The effect of interesterified fats containing palmitic or stearic acids on lipid metabolism and inflammatory signaling pathways in adipose and hepatic tissues was evaluated. Male LDLr-KO mice were fed a high-fat diet containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR), or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER) fats for 16 weeks. The expression of genes and protein levels involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes in liver and white adipose tissue was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and by Western blot, respectively. The infiltration of inflammatory cells in hepatic and adipose tissues was determined by eosin and hematoxylin, while liver collagen content was determined by Sirius Red staining. Both interesterified fats increased liver collagen content and JNK phosphorylation. Additionally, the STEAR INTER group developed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) associated with higher neutrophil infiltration. PALM INTER induced adipose tissue expansion and enlargement of adipocytes. Furthermore, PALM INTER triggered increased IKK phosphorylation and TNFα protein content, conditions associated with the upstream activation of the NFkB signaling pathway. STEAR INTER induced NASH, while PALM INTER triggered hepatic fibrosis and adipocyte hypertrophy with inflammatory response in LDLr-KO mice.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Receptores de LDL/genética
3.
Biochimie ; 153: 26-32, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063945

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of laboratories develop new methods based on gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography to determine serum concentrations of oxygenated cholesterol metabolites such as 7α-, 24(S)-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol. We initiated a first international descriptive oxycholesterol (OCS) survey in 2013 and a second interventional survey 2014 in order to compare levels of OCS reported by different laboratories and to define possible sources of analytical errors. In 2013 a set of two lyophilized serum pools (A and B) was sent to nine laboratories in different countries for OCS measurement utilizing their own standard stock solutions. In 2014 eleven laboratories were requested to determine OCS concentrations in lyophilized pooled sera (C and D) utilizing the same provided standard stock solutions of OCS. The participating laboratories submitted results obtained after capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass selective detection with either epicoprostanol or deuterium labelled sterols as internal standards and high-performance liquid chromatography with mass selective detection and deuterated OCS as internal standard. Each participant received a clear overview of the results in form of Youden-Plots and basic statistical evaluation in its used unit. The coefficients of variation of the concentrations obtained by all laboratories using their individual methods were 58.5-73.3% (survey 1), 56.8-60.3% (survey 2); 36.2-35.8% (survey 1), 56.6-59.8, (survey 2); 61.1-197.7% (survey 1), 47.2-74.2% (survey 2) for 24(S)-, 27-, and 7α-hydroxycholesterol, respectively. We are surprised by the very great differences between the laboratories, even under conditions when the same standards were used. The values of OCS's must be evaluated in relation to the analytical technique used, the efficiency of the ample separation and the nature of the internal standard used. Quantification of the calibration solution and inappropriate internal standards could be identified as major causes for the high variance in the reported results from the different laboratories. A harmonisation of analytical standard methods is highly needed.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Colesterol/normas , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Nutrients ; 10(6)2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899250

RESUMO

Cholesterol is an essential molecule that exerts pleiotropic actions. Although its presence is vital to the cell, its excess can be harmful and, therefore, sustaining cholesterol homeostasis is crucial to maintaining proper cellular functioning. It is well documented that high plasma cholesterol concentration increases the risk of atherosclerotic heart disease. In the last decades, several studies have investigated the association of plasma cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as the signaling pathways involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we present an overview of several mechanisms involved in intestinal cholesterol absorption, the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and uptake. We also discuss the importance of reverse cholesterol transport and transintestinal cholesterol transport to maintain cholesterol homeostasis and prevent atherosclerosis development. Additionally, we discuss the influence of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration and the new recommendations for cholesterol intake in a context of a healthy dietary pattern.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/sangue , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Homeostase , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Recomendações Nutricionais
5.
J Nutr Biochem ; 53: 9-19, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175142

RESUMO

The "first hit" to atherogenesis is driven by toll-like receptor 4, endoplasmic reticulum stress and ultimately metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we hypothesized that a flaxseed oil-enriched diet (FS) abolishes these inflammatory signaling pathway and restore metabolic homeostasis by activating the fatty acid receptor GPR120 in aorta of obese mice. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by GTT and ITT; lipidomics was performed using a Hybrid Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer; serum lipids were measured using colorimetric assays; GPR120 and infiltrating macrophages were analyzed by immunofluorescence; protein immunoprecipitation and gene expression were evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. There were no differences in body weight and food intake between the groups from both strains (Swiss and LDLr-KO mice). GTT and cholesterol levels were improved by FS in both mice models. Lipidomics showed an increase in ω3 (C18:3) content, meanwhile stearic acid (C18:0) was not detected in endothelial tissue in response to FS. Moreover, FS markedly decreased pro-inflammatory (IL-1ß, TNF-α, pIκBα, pIKKß) and unfolded protein response markers (ATF6 and GRP78) in aorta. In Swiss mice, GPR120 was partially involved in the ω3-mediated anti-inflammatory actions, disrupting TLR4 pathway, but not in LDLr-KO mice. Partial replacement of dietary saturated by unsaturated ω3 fatty acids contributes to inhibition of cardiovascular risk markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines and ER stress sensors and effectors in the aorta. However, downregulation of inflammation is not mediated by arterial GPR120 activation.


Assuntos
Aortite/prevenção & controle , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Animais , Aortite/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Lipídeos/sangue , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Receptores de LDL/genética
6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(2 Supl 1): 1-76, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813069
7.
Faludi, André Arpad; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Chacra, Ana Paula Marte; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Afiune Neto, Abrahão; Bertolami, Adriana; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Lottenberg, Ana Maria; Sposito, Andrei C.; Chagas, Antonio Carlos Palandri; Casella Filho, Antonio; Simão, Antônio Felipe; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles Comte de; Caramelli, Bruno; Magalhães, Carlos Costa; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos; Scherr, Carlos; Feio, Claudine Maria Alves; Kovacs, Cristiane; Araújo, Daniel Branco de; Magnoni, Daniel; Calderaro, Daniela; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Mello Junior, Edgard Pessoa de; Alexandre, Elizabeth Regina Giunco; Sato, Emília Inoue; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki; Rached, Fabiana Hanna; Santos, Fábio César dos; Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Fonseca, Henrique Andrade Rodrigues da; Xavier, Hermes Toros; Mota, Isabela Cardoso Pimentel; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Diament, Jayme; Pesquero, João Bosco; Santos, José Ernesto dos; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Melo Filho, José Xavier de; Kato, Juliana Tieko; Torres, Kerginaldo Paulo; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Assad, Marcelo Heitor Vieira; Miname, Márcio Hiroshi; Scartezini, Marileia; Forti, Neusa Assumpta; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Alves, Renato Jorge; Cassani, Roberta Lara; Betti, Roberto Tadeu Barcellos; Carvalho, Tales de; Martinez, Tânia Leme da Rocha; Giraldez, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha; Salgado Filho, Wilson.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(2,supl.1): 1-76, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887919
9.
J Nutr Biochem ; 32: 91-100, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142741

RESUMO

Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1ß, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Esterificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ácido Palmítico/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Ácidos Esteáricos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Trans/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Desmame
10.
J Nutr Biochem ; 25(2): 95-103, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24445035

RESUMO

The impact of dietary fatty acids in atherosclerosis development may be partially attributed to their effect on macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. This process is the result of interplay between cholesterol uptake and efflux, which are permeated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Although saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) do not influence cholesterol efflux, they trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress, which culminates in increased lectin-like oxidized LDL (oxLDL) receptor (LOX1) expression and, consequently, oxLDL uptake, leading to apoptosis. Unsaturated fatty acids prevent most SAFAs-mediated deleterious effects and are generally associated with reduced cholesterol efflux, although α-linolenic acid increases cholesterol export. Trans fatty acids increase macrophage cholesterol content by reducing ABCA-1 expression, leading to strong atherosclerotic plaque formation. As isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs) are strong PPAR gamma ligands, they induce cluster of differentiation (CD36) expression, increasing intracellular cholesterol content. Considering the multiple effects of fatty acids on intracellular signaling pathways, the purpose of this review is to address the role of dietary fat in several mechanisms that control macrophage lipid content, which can determine the fate of atherosclerotic lesions.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo
11.
Atherosclerosis ; 231(2): 442-7, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24267264

RESUMO

SCOPE: There have been conflicting reports on the usefulness of phytosterols (PS) in preventing atherosclerosis. We evaluated the effects of dietary PS supplementation in LDLr-KO male mice on the plasma and aorta sterol concentrations and on atherosclerotic lesion development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a high fat diet (40% of energy) supplemented with or without PS (2% w/w, n = 10). Plasma and arterial wall cholesterol and PS concentrations, lesion area, macrophage infiltration, and mRNA expression from LOX-1, CD36, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in peritoneal macrophages were measured. After 16 weeks, the plasma cholesterol concentration in PS mice was lower than that in the controls (p = 0.02) and in the arterial wall (p = 0.03). Plasma PS concentrations were higher in PS-fed animals than in controls (p < 0.0001); however, the arterial wall PS concentration did not differ between groups. The atherosclerotic lesion area in the PS group (n = 5) was smaller than that in controls (p = 0.0062) and the macrophage area (p = 0.0007). PS correlates negatively with arterial lipid content and macrophage (r = -0.76; p < 0.05). PS supplementation induced lower ABCG1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite inducing an increase in PS plasma concentration, PS supplementation is not associated with its accumulation in the arterial wall and prevents atherosclerotic lesion development.


Assuntos
Artérias/patologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Fitosteróis/química , Receptores de LDL/genética , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Absorção , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Peso Corporal , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fitosteróis/sangue , Receptores Depuradores Classe E/metabolismo
12.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 10(1): 19, 2013 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23374457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenolic compounds combine antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities and, consequently, are expected to prevent or minimize cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of an aqueous extract (AQ) and non-esterified phenolic fraction (NEPF) from rosemary on oxidative stress in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, 48 male 4-week old Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: 1 chow diet group (C) and 5 hypercholesterolemic diet groups, with 1 receiving water (HC), 2 receiving AQ at concentrations of 7 and 140 mg/kg body weight (AQ70 and AQ140, respectively), and 2 receiving NEPF at concentrations of 7 and 14 mg/kg body weight (NEPF7 and NEPF14, respectively) by gavage for 4 weeks. RESULTS: In vitro, both AQ and NEPF had remarkable antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH●) assay, which was similar to BHT. In vivo, the group that received AQ at 70 mg/kg body weight had lower serum total cholesterol (-39.8%), non-HDL-c (-44.4%) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels (-37.7%) compared with the HC group. NEPF (7 and 14 mg/kg) reduced the tissue TBARS levels and increased the activity of tissular antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). Neither AQ nor NEPF was able to ameliorate the alterations in the hypercholesterolemic diet-induced fatty acid composition in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that phenolic compounds from rosemary ameliorate the antioxidant defense in different tissues and attenuate oxidative stress in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats, whereas the serum lipid profile was improved only in rats that received the aqueous extract.

13.
J Nutr Biochem ; 23(9): 1027-40, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22749135

RESUMO

Dysfunctional lipid metabolism is a key component in the development of metabolic syndrome, a very frequent condition characterized by dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity and hypertension, which are related to an elevated risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with the severity of obesity; its physiopathology is related to both genetics and food intake habits, especially the consumption of a high-caloric, high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet. With the progress of scientific knowledge in the field of nutrigenomics, it was possible to elucidate how the majority of dietary fatty acids influence plasma lipid metabolism and also the genes expression involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis within hepatocytes and adipocytes. The aim of this review is to examine the relevant mechanistic aspects of dietary fatty acids related to blood lipids, adipose tissue metabolism, hepatic fat storage and inflammatory process, all of them closely related to the genesis of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Lipólise , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Adipócitos/imunologia , Animais , Esterificação , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/imunologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Trans/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Trans/metabolismo
14.
Atherosclerosis ; 224(1): 66-74, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22809447

RESUMO

The development of atherosclerosis and the inflammatory response were investigated in LDLr-KO mice on three high-fat diets (40% energy as fat) for 16 weeks: trans (TRANS), saturated (SAFA) or ω-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) fats. The following parameters were measured: plasma lipids, aortic root total cholesterol (TC), lesion area (Oil Red-O), ABCA1 content and macrophage infiltration (immunohistochemistry), collagen content (Picrosirius-red) and co-localization of ABCA1 and macrophage (confocal microscopy) besides the plasma inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α) and the macrophage inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (LPS). As expected, plasma TC and TG concentrations were lower on the PUFA diet than on TRANS or SAFA diets. Aortic intima macrophage infiltration, ABCA1 content, and lesion area on PUFA group were lower compared to TRANS and SAFA groups. Macrophages and ABCA1 markers did not co-localize in the atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting that different cell types were responsible for the ABCA1 expression in plaques. Compared to PUFA, TRANS and SAFA presented higher collagen content and necrotic cores in atherosclerotic plaques. In the artery wall, TC was lower on PUFA compared to TRANS group; free cholesterol was lower on PUFA compared to TRANS and SAFA; cholesteryl ester concentration did not vary amongst the groups. Plasma TNF-α concentration on PUFA and TRANS-fed mice was higher compared to SAFA. No difference was observed in IL-6 concentration amongst groups. Regarding the macrophage inflammatory response to LPS, TRANS and PUFA presented higher culture medium concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α as compared to SAFA. The PUFA group showed the lowest amount of the anti-inflammatory marker IL-10 compared to TRANS and SAFA groups. In conclusion, PUFA intake prevented atherogenesis, even in a pro-inflammatory condition.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/biossíntese , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Colesterol/sangue , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos Trans/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
IUBMB Life ; 64(4): 296-306, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22378769

RESUMO

The plasma cholesterol-reducing effect of phytosterols (PS) has been recognized in several studies, but the usefulness of PS in preventing coronary heart disease remains controversial, as some investigations claim that the high PS concentrations found in plasma and specific tissues are related to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. It has also been demonstrated that PS may induce inflammation and reduce cholesterol efflux from macrophages, conditions that are directly implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. As to arterial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, some studies have concluded that plasma PS concentrations are unrelated or only weakly related or that PS intake or plasma PS concentrations are harmful. Thus, in light of the National Cholesterol Education Program-ATPIII report, it is necessary to evaluate the relevance of their findings. To this end, we have evaluated the studies conducted on cells, animal models, and humans regarding the influence of PS on the development of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/farmacocinética , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Fitosteróis/efeitos adversos , Fitosteróis/farmacocinética , Fatores de Risco , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 8(2)abr.-jun. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-550970

RESUMO

Chronic diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases are associated with inflammation due the increase of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and C-reactive protein concentrations. Occidental life style, specially related to the changes in food habits as observed in the past years, have an important role in the development of these diseases. Among the life style changes identified as having an impact in the development of diseases, is the decrease in dietary fiber consumption. Some studies have shown the negative relationship between fiber ingestion and inflammatory markers in chronic diseases. Dietary fibers have an important and a well-known role in different physiologic functions such as intestinal peristalsis, weight reduction by acting on satiety mechanisms, preventing colon cancer, reducing cholesterol and post-prandial glycaemia.


Doenças crônicas como obesidade, diabetes, síndrome metabólica e doenças cardiovasculares têm sido associadas a processos inflamatórios, pois se tem observado aumento nas concentrações de alguns marcadores inflamatórios, como TNF-alfa, IL-6 e proteína C-reativa nessas condições. O estilo de vida ocidental, especialmente no que diz respeito à mudança nos hábitos alimentares observada nos últimos anos, tem papel importante no desenvolvimento dessas doenças. Entre as alterações de hábitos alimentares identificados como impactantes para o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas, está a redução no consumo de fibras alimentares. Alguns estudos têm mostrado relação negativa entre ingestão de fibras alimentares e marcadores inflamatórios associados às doenças crônicas. As fibras alimentares têm papel importante nas diversas funções fisiológicas já conhecidas como: peristaltismo intestinal, emagrecimento, influenciando os mecanismos de saciedade, preventivo no câncer de cólon, coadjuvante para o controle de colesterol e redução glicemia pós-prandial.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Fibras na Dieta , Inflamação , Doenças Metabólicas , Biomarcadores , Obesidade
17.
J Nutr ; 140(6): 1127-32, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20357081

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of dietary trans fatty acids, PUFA, and SFA on body and liver fat content, liver histology, and mRNA of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism. LDL receptor knockout weaning male mice were fed for 16 wk with diets containing 40% energy as either trans fatty acids (TRANS), PUFA, or SFA. Afterwards, subcutaneous and epididymal fat were weighed and histological markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were assessed according to the Histological Scoring System for NAFLD. PPARalpha, PPARgamma, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Food intake was similar in the 3 groups, although mice fed the TRANS diet gained less weight than those receiving the PUFA diet. Compared with the PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had greater plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, less epididymal and subcutaneous fat, larger livers with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like lesions, and greater liver TC and TG concentrations. Macrosteatosis in TRANS-fed mice was associated with a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index and upregulated mRNA related to hepatic fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c and PPARgamma) and to downregulated MTP mRNA. Diet consumption did not alter hepatic mRNA related to fatty acid oxidation (PPARalpha and CPT-1). In conclusion, compared with PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had less adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance characterized by greater HOMA(IR) index, and NASH-like lesions due to greater hepatic lipogenesis. These results demonstrate the role of trans fatty acid intake on the development of key features of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Ácidos Graxos Trans/toxicidade , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/toxicidade , Insulina/sangue , Lipoproteínas , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo
18.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 8(2): 254-8, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26760015

RESUMO

Chronic diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases are associated with inflammation due the increase of TNF-α, IL-6 and C-reactive protein concentrations. Occidental life style, specially related to the changes in food habits as observed in the past years, have an important role in the development of these diseases. Among the life style changes identified as having an impact in the development of diseases, is the decrease in dietary fiber consumption. Some studies have shown the negative relationship between fiber ingestion and inflammatory markers in chronic diseases. Dietary fibers have an important and a well-known role in different physiologic functions such as intestinal peristalsis, weight reduction by acting on satiety mechanisms, preventing colon cancer, reducing cholesterol and post-prandial glycaemia.

19.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol ; 53(5): 595-607, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19768250

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reinforced the fact that inadequate diets, along with physical inactivity, are among the ten main determinant factors of mortality. Several randomized trials demonstrated that dietary interventions may lower or even prevent the occurrence of several non-communicable diseases. In this context, the role of diet has been exhaustively evaluated in several clinical and epidemiological studies. Thus, it is well established in literature that the amount and type of dietary fat have a direct influence on cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipids and plasma lipoprotein concentration, as well as their association with inflammatory processes. Fatty acids also participate in complex intracellular signaling systems, a function which has been currently investigated. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act not only by altering membrane lipid composition, cellular metabolism and signal transduction, but also modulating gene expression by regulating the activity and/or production of different nuclear transcription factors. The aim of this article is to review important topics regarding the lipids metabolism and correlate them with nutritional therapies that may contribute to the prevention and treatment of related diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas/fisiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais
20.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(5): 595-607, jul. 2009. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-525421

RESUMO

A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) reiterou recentemente que o consumo de dietas inadequadas e a inatividade física estão entre os dez principais fatores de mortalidade. Diversos ensaios aleatorizados demonstram que intervenções alimentares adequadas podem diminuir ou prevenir significativamente o aparecimento de várias doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Neste contexto, o papel da dieta vem sendo exaustivamente avaliado em estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos. Assim, já foi bem estabelecido na literatura que a quantidade e o tipo de gordura alimentar exercem influência direta sobre fatores de risco cardiovascular, tais como a concentração de lípides e de lipoproteínas plasmáticas, bem como sua associação a processos inflamatórios. Os ácidos graxos participam de complexos sistemas de sinalização intracelular, função que vem sendo bastante explorada. Os ácidos graxos poli-insaturados não somente influenciam a composição das membranas, metabolismo celular e sinais de tradução, mas também modulam a expressão de genes, regulando a atividade e a produção de diversos fatores de transcrição. A proposta deste artigo é rever tópicos relevantes referentes ao metabolismo de lípides e os relacionar a terapias nutricionais que possam contribuir para a prevenção e o tratamento de doenças associadas.


The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reinforced the fact that inadequate diets, along with physical inactivity, are among the ten main determinant factors of mortality. Several randomized trials demonstrated that dietary interventions may lower or even prevent the occurrence of several non-communicable diseases. In this context, the role of diet has been exhaustively evaluated in several clinical and epidemiological studies. Thus, it is well established in literature that the amount and type of dietary fat have a direct influence on cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipids and plasma lipoprotein concentration, as well as their association with inflammatory processes. Fatty acids also participate in complex intracellular signaling systems, a function which has been currently investigated. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act not only by altering membrane lipid composition, cellular metabolism and signal transduction, but also modulating gene expression by regulating the activity and/or production of different nuclear transcription factors. The aim of this article is to review important topics regarding the lipids metabolism and correlate them with nutritional therapies that may contribute to the prevention and treatment of related diseases.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas/fisiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais
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