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1.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13349, 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyse if the effects of coexistent diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism extend to the cardio autonomic nervous system, using heart rate variability baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heart rate variability analyses were performed by linear time and frequency domains in 5-minute time series collected in the supine position. The associations of diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism with the lowest quartile group for heart rate and the highest quartile group for each heart rate variability parameter were analysed using additive and multiplicative terms in logistic models. For the first approach, the subsample was categorized into four groups: subjects without diabetes and normal thyroid function (controls); subjects without diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism; patients with diabetes and normal thyroid function; and patients with diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism. For the interaction alnalysis, diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism diagnoses were included in separate, along with a multiplicative interaction term between them. RESULTS: Point odds ratio estimates for the 4th quartiles of heart rate, and 1st quartiles of all heart rate variability measurements were higher for subjects with combined diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism than for diabetes only, independently of main sociodemographic and clinical variables (HR: 8.33 vs 2.63; SDNN: 2.59 vs 1.61; RMSSD: 2.37 vs 1.42; LF: 2.83 vs 1.71; HF: 3.06 vs 1.39), but not independently of HbA1c and TSH. Only the interaction term for the association with heart rate, adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables, had borderline statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism exert a potential joint impact on cardiac autonomic control, showed by additive effects between diabetes and subclinical hypothyroidism, as well as a significant interaction term for the association with heart rate.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To compare the performance of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC) and Body-mass index (BMI) with subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The association of quintiles of anthropometric variables (1st as reference) - Odds ratio (OR); 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) - with Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC: 0 vs. >0; <100 vs. ≥100), Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT: <75th vs. ≥P75%) and as continuous variables in linear regression models in 4216 participants of ELSA-Brasil baseline. WHtR was associated with CAC >0 (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.16-2.93) and ≥100 after multivariate adjustment including BMI. WHR was associated with CAC >0 OR, 1.81 (95% CI, 1.25-2.82) and ≥100. BMI was not associated with CAC after further adjustment for WHtR, but was associated with CAC >0 after adjustment for WHR (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.94) or WC (1.63; 95% CI, 1.03-2.59). WHtR was not associated with CIMT after further adjustment for BMI. WHR was associated with CIMT ≥P75% (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02-2.02) and in linear models (p < 0.0001). WC was associated with CIMT in linear models (p < 0.0001). BMI was associated to CIMT ≥P75% (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.53-2.54); and in linear models (P < 0.0001) after further adjustment for WHtR. After adjustment for WHR and WC the association of BMI with CIMT ≥P75% was respectively (OR 2.31; 95% CI, 1.70-3.13; and OR 2.39; 95% CI, 1.55-3.70); and in both linear models (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: WHtR was a good biomarker for subclinical atherosclerosis measured by CAC while BMI was a good biomarker for CIMT. WHR presented the best performance being associated with both biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages around the world. Dietary habits, specifically, coffee consumption has long been a suspected cause of hypertension. However, previous findings on coffee consumption and its association with the incidence of hypertension are not homogeneous and still inconsistent. PURPOSE: To examine the association of habitual coffee consumption with the risk of developing hypertension in a middle-aged Brazilian cohort. METHODS: Data were from the multicenter prospective cohort "Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health - ELSA-Brasil". The cohort comprises 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline, who were sampled from universities located in six Brazilian cities. For the present study, we analyzed data from 8780 participants initially free of hypertension during a mean follow-up of 3.9 years. The consumption of coffee was obtained at baseline using a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Subsequently coffee intake was categorized into four categories (cups/day): never/almost never, ≤1, 1-3, and >3. Hypertension status was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, use of antihypertensive drug treatment, or both. Poisson regression model with a robust variance was performed to estimate relative risk (RR) and confidence interval (95% CI) for hypertension according to baseline coffee consumption. The effect of interaction between coffee consumption and smoking status was assessed. RESULTS: Most participants (90%) drank coffee, and the median total coffee intake was 150 mL/day. A total of 1285 participants developed hypertension. Compared to participants who never or almost never drink coffee, the risk of hypertension was lower for individuals consuming 1-3 cups/day (RR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.97) (P for interaction=0.018). After stratification by smoking status the analysis revealed a decreased risk of hypertension in never smokers drinking 1-3 cups of coffee per day (RR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64-0.98), whereas the hypertension risk among former and current smokers was not associated with coffee consumption significantly. Moreover, upper category of coffee drinking (>3 cups/day) the association was not significant for risk of hypertension. CONCLUSION: The association between coffee consumption and incidence of hypertension was related to smoking status. The beneficial effect of moderate coffee intake (1-3 cups/day) on risk of hypertension was observed only in never smokers.

4.
Biosci Rep ; 40(7)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579186

RESUMO

It is controversial whether atherosclerosis is linked to increased intestinal cholesterol absorption or synthesis in humans. The aim of the present study was to relate atherosclerosis to the measurements of plasma markers of cholesterol synthesis (desmosterol, lathosterol) and absorption (campesterol, sitosterol). In healthy male (n=344), non-obese, non-diabetics, belonging to the city of São Paulo branch of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we measured in plasma these non-cholesterol sterol markers, together with their anthropometric, dietary parameters, traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, and blood chemistry, coronary arterial calcium score (CAC), and ultrasonographically measured common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Cases with CAC>zero had the following parameters higher than cases with CAC = zero: age, waist circumference (WC), plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non HDL-C). Plasma desmosterol and campesterol, duly corrected for TC, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hypertension, smoking, and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) correlated with CAC, but not with CCA-IMT. The latter related to increased age, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not define CAC or CCA-IMT degrees, although in relation to the lower tertile of HDL-C in plasma the higher tertile of HDL-C had lower HOMA-IR and concentration of a cholesterol synthesis marker (desmosterol). Present work indicated that increased cholesterol synthesis and absorption represent primary causes of CAD, but not of the common carotid artery atherosclerosis.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493535

RESUMO

Abstract. BACKGROUND: Depression is highly prevalent and marked by a chronic and recurrent course. Despite being a major cause of disability worldwide, little is known regarding the determinants of its heterogeneous course. Machine learning techniques present an opportunity to develop tools to predict diagnosis and prognosis at an individual level. METHODS: We examined baseline (2008-2010) and follow-up (2012-2014) data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a large occupational cohort study. We implemented an elastic net regularization analysis with a 10-fold cross-validation procedure using socioeconomic and clinical factors as predictors to distinguish at follow-up: (1) depressed from non-depressed participants, (2) participants with incident depression from those who did not develop depression, and (3) participants with chronic (persistent or recurrent) depression from those without depression. RESULTS: We assessed 15 105 and 13 922 participants at waves 1 and 2, respectively. The elastic net regularization model distinguished outcome levels in the test dataset with an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.82), 0.71 (95% CI 0.66-0.77), 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.95) for analyses 1, 2, and 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and prognosis related to depression can be predicted at an individual subject level by integrating low-cost variables, such as demographic and clinical data. Future studies should assess longer follow-up periods and combine biological predictors, such as genetics and blood biomarkers, to build more accurate tools to predict depression course.

6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(6): 915-921, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity increases the risk of metabolic abnormalities, which contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk. However, the independent role of obesity in the development of cardiovascular disease is still debatable. There are individuals with an obesity phenotype without metabolic abnormalities: "metabolically healthy obesity" (MHO). This study evaluates the association between MHO and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We used a strict definition to classify MHO: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and meeting none of the four metabolic syndrome criteria. Data from 10,335 participants were analyzed. The obesity prevalence in our population was 21.2% (n = 2191). The prevalence of MHO was 5.6% (n = 124). When individuals were stratified according to metabolic health, we found the metabolically healthy individuals were younger, more likely to be women and never smokers. The mean CIMT of the sample was 0.81 mm (±0.20). The mean CIMT of the metabolically healthy subsample was 0.70 mm (±0.13) in individuals without obesity and 0.76 mm (±0.13) in individuals with obesity (p < 0.001). The mean CIMT of the metabolically unhealthy subsample was 0.81 mm (±0.20) in individuals without obesity and 0.88 mm (±0.20) in individuals with obesity (p < 0.001). These findings remained essentially unchanged after multivariate adjustment for confounding factors. CONCLUSION: The concept of MHO, even with the strict definition, seems inadequate, as even in this population, obesity is associated with higher CIMT levels.

7.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(2): 128-135, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1089246

RESUMO

Objective: We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with neuroplasticity and activity of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, rs6265), the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, rs25531), the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, rs1800532), the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A, rs6311, rs6313, rs7997012), and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, rs4680) genes, are associated with efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in major depression. Methods: Data from the Escitalopram vs. Electrical Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS) were used. Participants were antidepressant-free at baseline and presented with an acute, moderate-to-severe unipolar depressive episode. They were randomized to receive escitalopram/tDCS-sham (n=75), tDCS/placebo-pill (n=75), or placebo-pill/sham-tDCS (n=45). General linear models assessed the interaction between treatment group and allele-wise carriers. Additional analyses were performed for each group and each genotype separately. Results: Pairwise group comparisons (tDCS vs. placebo, tDCS vs. escitalopram, and escitalopram vs. placebo) did not identify alleles associated with depression improvement. In addition, exploratory analyses also did not identify any SNP unequivocally associated with improvement of depression in any treatment group. Conclusion: Larger, combined datasets are necessary to identify candidate genes for tDCS response.

8.
Psychosomatics ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior segment eye diseases, such as glaucoma and retinal diseases (such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment), are chronic diseases that are among the major causes of visual impairment. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and common mental disorders in these patients and also the incidence of depression. METHODS: We examined baseline (2008-2010) and follow-up (2012-2014) data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We used the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) to perform International Classification of Diseases-10-based diagnoses of anxiety and depressive disorders. Common mental disorder was defined as a Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised >11. We used multinomial logistic regression models to investigate associations between eye diseases and mental disorders, adjusted by age, gender, educational level, self-reported ethnicity, cardiovascular conditions, and self-reported quality of vision. RESULTS: Out of 10,775 subjects, 249 (2.3%), 303 (2.8%), and 30 (0.3%) reported having retinal diseases, glaucoma, or both, respectively. Patients with retinal diseases and those with glaucoma and retinal diseases presented a higher prevalence of common mental disorders (relative-risk ratios of 1.7 and 3.7, respectively, P < 0.001). These patients also presented a higher incidence of depression at follow-up (relative-risk ratios of 3.0 and 5.9, respectively, P < 0.001). Patients with glaucoma presented neither a higher prevalence nor a higher incidence of mental disorders or depression. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal diseases but not glaucoma were associated with mental disorders, indicating that patients with posterior segment eye diseases require distinct management of psychiatric morbidity according to the underlying pathology.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 271: 39-48, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low-grade inflammation is associated with onset and persistence of depression, most biomarkers display modest predictive effects. GlycA (glycoprotein acetylation) is a unique metabolomic composite of pro-inflammatory acute-phase glycoproteins. We hypothesized that GlycA levels would predict depression incidence, remission and persistence, with higher accuracy than high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP). We also explored the additive predictive value of GlycA above and beyond hsCRP. METHODS: Cohort design using the sample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)'s São Paulo site. Baseline GlycA and hsCRP levels were measured in blood plasma. Depression incidence, remission, and persistence were assessed using the Clinical Interview Scheduled Revised (CIS-R) at two time points separated by a mean of 3.8 years. Multivariable Poisson, logistic and linear regression models were used for prediction. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical confounders, including age, gender, ethnicity, education, cardiovascular assessments, antidepressant and anti-inflammatory drug use, anxiety disorders, alcohol use, and body mass index. RESULTS: We included 4,364 participants (53.2% females, mean age 51.4 ± 8.9 years) with no autoimmune disorders. GlycA robustly predicted depression persistence (relative risk of 7.28, 95% confidence interval 1.33-45.57, p = 0.023 in the fully-adjusted model), but not depression onset. Although hsCRP also predicted depression persistence, its effects were fully explained by confounders and by GlycA levels. GlycA also predicted worsening of depressive symptoms in depressed patients and depression persistence vs. remission in fully-adjusted models. LIMITATIONS: Brief depressive episodes could not be measured by our assessments. CONCLUSIONS: GlycA might be a new inflammatory prognosis biomarker for depression.

10.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(5): 850-856, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304277

RESUMO

The Framingham Heart Study published an equation that permits to estimate the 4-year incidence of hypertension among adults. In Brazil, only the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) of 15 105 men and women aged 35-74 years enrolled in 2008-2010 has data that can validate the Framingham Risk Score for Hypertension and create a new equation according to the Brazilian population. We examined the predictive performance of the Framingham Risk Score for Hypertension in the ELSA-Brasil using as an outcome variable, the 4-year incidence of hypertension. We split randomly the 8027 participants who participated in the second visit (2012-2014) and without hypertension at baseline in derivation data set (n = 4825; 60%) and a validation data set (n = 3202 participants; 40%). The area under the curve for Framingham Risk Score for Hypertension and ELSA-Brasil Risk Score was relatively similar. Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared statistic applied for the Framingham Risk Score was 3.78 (P-value = .876) and for our model was 8.22 (P-value = .41), disclosing good discrimination and calibration for both models. Even with these classification intervals, our model presents more underestimation of the risk, classifying 15% of the participants with new onset of hypertension in low risk vs 9% of the Framingham model and less overestimation of the risk, classifying 17% of the participants without hypertension as high risk vs 24% of the Framingham model. We concluded that the Framingham Risk Score for Hypertension has an acceptable performance when applied in the ELSA-Brasil population with good discrimination and calibration.

11.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010401, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257151

RESUMO

Background: Data on mortality burden and excess deaths attributable to diabetes are sparse and frequently unreliable, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Estimates in Brazil to date have relied on death certificate data, which do not consider the multicausal nature of deaths. Our aim was to combine cohort data with national prevalence and mortality statistics to estimate the absolute number of deaths that could have been prevented if the mortality rates of people with diabetes were the same as for those without. In addition, we aimed to estimate the increase in burden when considering undiagnosed diabetes. Methods: We estimated self-reported diabetes prevalence from the National Health Survey (PNS) and overall mortality from the national mortality information system (SIM). We estimated the diabetes mortality rate ratio (rates of those with vs without diabetes) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), an ongoing cohort study. Joining estimates from these three sources, we calculated for the population the absolute number and the fraction of deaths attributable to diabetes. We repeated our analyses considering both self-reported and unknown diabetes, the latter estimated based on single point-in-time glycemic determinations in ELSA-Brasil. Finally, we compared results with diabetes-related mortality information from death certificates. Results: In 2013, 65 581 deaths, 9.1% of all deaths between the ages of 35-80, were attributable to known diabetes. If cases of unknown diabetes were considered, this figure would rise to 14.3%. In contrast, based on death certificates only, 5.3% of all death had diabetes as the underlying cause and 10.4% as any mentioned cause. Conclusions: In this first report of diabetes mortality burden in Brazil using cohort data to estimate diabetes mortality rate ratios and the prevalence of unknown diabetes, we showed marked underestimation of the current burden, especially when unknown cases of diabetes are also considered.


Assuntos
Atestado de Óbito , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(7): 1545-1553, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical thyroid disease and thyroid hormone levels with sarcopenia and its defining components in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults without overt thyroid dysfunction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Active and retired employees from public institutions located in six Brazilian cities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6974 participants from the ELSA-Brasil study's second wave, aged 50 years and older, without overt thyroid dysfunction and with complete data for exposure, outcome, and covariates. METHODS: Serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine, and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured and divided in quintiles for the analyses. Participants were classified with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Muscle mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and muscle strength by handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health criteria. Possible confounders included sociodemographic characteristics, clinical conditions, and lifestyle. Analyses were performed separately for middle-aged and older adults (≥65 y). RESULTS: The frequencies of sarcopenia, low muscle mass, low muscle strength, subclinical hypothyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism were 1.5%, 20.8%, 3.8%, 9.1%, and .9%, respectively. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction was not associated with sarcopenia and its defining components. Among older adults, TSH had a U-shaped association with sarcopenia and low muscle strength. The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for the associations of the first, second, fourth, and fifth quintile with sarcopenia, respectively, were 5.18 (1.47-18.28), 6.28 (1.82-21.73), 4.12 (1.15-14.76), and 4.81 (1.35-17.10), and with low muscle strength was (OR (95% CI) for the first, second, and fifth quintiles, respectively: 1.43 (1.16-5.07), 2.07 (1.24-4.70), and 2.18 (1.03-4.60). Additionally, FT3 had a negative association with muscle mass in both age strata. CONCLUSION: Subtle thyroid hormone alterations are associated with sarcopenia or its defining components in middle-aged and older adults without overt thyroid dysfunction. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1545-1553, 2020.

13.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(5): 452-457, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some religious dimensions have been associated with different health-related outcomes over many years. Attending religious services is one of these dimensions that were associated with hypertension, with inconsistent results. And religious involvement seems to be closely influenced by sociodemographic factors, such as education. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between religious service attendance and hypertension according to levels of education. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Frequency of religious service attendance and presence of hypertension were assessed in all 15,105 participants at baseline. The analyses were stratified by two levels of education (less than high school and high school or more). Logistic regression models were used to obtain the association between religious service attendance and hypertension in both groups. RESULTS: For those with high school or more, attending religious services was positively associated with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.28). In contrast, for those with less than high school, attending services was inversely associated with presence of hypertension (adjusted OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: There seems to be a paradox in the association of religious service attendance and hypertension depending on the level of education.

14.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187319

RESUMO

Current first-line treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, one-third of depressed patients do not achieve remission after multiple medication trials, and psychotherapy can be costly and time-consuming. Although non-implantable neuromodulation (NIN) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy, and magnetic seizure therapy are gaining momentum for treating MDD, the efficacy of non-convulsive techniques is still modest, whereas use of convulsive modalities is limited by their cognitive side effects. In this context, we propose that NIN techniques could benefit from a precision-oriented approach. In this review, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in implementing such a framework, focusing on enhancing NIN effects via a combination of individualized cognitive interventions, using closed-loop approaches, identifying multimodal biomarkers, using computer electric field modeling to guide targeting and quantify dosage, and using machine learning algorithms to integrate data collected at multiple biological levels and identify clinical responders. Though promising, this framework is currently limited, as previous studies have employed small samples and did not sufficiently explore pathophysiological mechanisms associated with NIN response and side effects. Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses have not been performed. Nevertheless, further advancements in clinical trials of NIN could shift the field toward a more "precision-oriented" practice.

15.
Endocr Res ; 45(3): 163-173, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019383

RESUMO

PURPOSE/AIMS: The relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and lipoprotein subfractions by Vertical Auto Profile (VAP) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate lipoprotein profiles according to TSH levels in euthyroid individuals.Material and Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 3,525 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) with no previous thyroid disease and who were not on lipid-lowering medication. Total-cholesterol and its fractions, lipoprotein subfractions, triglycerides, and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol [TRL-C (VLDL1+2-C, VLDL3-C, IDL-C)] were determined by VAP. Associations between TSH quintiles and lipoprotein subfractions were evaluated by crude and adjusted linear regression models.Results: For the total sample, significant beta-coefficients in full adjusted models for the 5th quintile of TSH (compared to 1st) were found for the following VAP lipids and lipoproteins: IDL-C (ß: 0.90; 0.11 to 1.69); VLDL-C (ß: 2.80; 1.51 to 4.08), triglycerides (ß: 18.66; 8.07 to 29.25), non-HDL-C (ß: 4.63; 0.50 to 8.75 mg/dl), TRL-C (ß:1.93;0.70 to 3.17), VLDL3-C (ß: 1.04; 0.50 to 1.57), as well as, TC/HDL-C (ß: 0.15; 0.03 to 0.26) and TG/HDL-C ratio (ß: 0.49;0.21 to 0.77). In women, similar results were found for VLDL-C, triglycerides, non-HDL-C, TRL-C, VLDL3-C, TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C-ratios. In men, we also found positive associations between the highest quintile of TSH with VLDL-C, triglycerides, VLDL3-C and TG/HDL-C.Conclusions: In the ELSA-Brasil, the highest TSH levels were mostly positively associated with lipoprotein levels, particularly TG, TRL and their remnants. Notwithstanding, our findings suggest that TSH levels within the normal range have little impact on the atherogenic profile.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age and sex based coronary artery calcium score (CAC) percentiles have been used to improve coronary artery disease (CAD) risk prediction. However, the main limitation of the CACs percentiles currently in use is that they are often based on single studies. We performed a pooled analysis of all available studies that reported on CAC percentiles, in order to develop more generalizable age and sex nomograms. METHODS: PubMed/Medline and Embase were searched for studies that reported nomograms of age and sex-based CACs percentiles. Studies were included if they reported data collected among asymptomatic individuals without a history of cardiovascular disease. Absolute CACs for each specific percentile stratum were pooled and new percentiles were generated taking into account the sample size of the study. RESULTS: We found 831 studies, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria. Data on CACs percentiles of 134,336 Western and 33,488 Asians were pooled separately, rendering a weighted CACs percentile nomogram available at https://www.calciumscorecalculator.com. Our weighted percentiles differed by up to 24% from the nomograms in use today. CONCLUSIONS: Our pooled age and sex based CACs percentiles based on over 155,000 individuals should provide a measure of risk that is more applicable to a wider population than the ones currently in use and hopefully will lead to better risk assessment and treatment decisions.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228801, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of thyrotropin (TSH) with overall (body mass index, BMI), visceral (waist circumference and steatosis), and upper subcutaneous (neck circumference, NC) adiposity markers is still controversial, and the aim of this study is to assess these associations in the baseline data of a large cohort from ELSA-Brasil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study included 11,224 participants with normal thyroid function (normal TSH levels). BMI, waist circumference, NC and steatosis, defined by hepatic attenuation (mild or moderate/severe) were the explicative variables. TSH levels were log transformed (logTSH), and multivariate linear regression models were generated to estimate the associations between logTSH and BMI (continuous and categorized), waist circumference, NC, and steatosis after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and comorbidities. The mean age was 51.5±8.9 years, 5,793 (51.6%) participants were women, 21.8% (n = 2,444) were obese, and 15.1% of the sample was TPOAb positive. The TSH levels were significantly higher in the obese group than in the reference group (<25.0 kg/m2). In the multivariable linear regression models, significant associations of logTSH with BMI and obesity were found. LogTSH was associated with waist circumference only among women. NC and steatosis were not related to TSH levels. CONCLUSIONS: TSH levels were associated with overall adiposity and obesity. Further studies may elucidate reference levels of TSH according to BMI status.


Assuntos
Obesidade/patologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Valores de Referência , Ultrassonografia , Circunferência da Cintura
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979152

RESUMO

Proximity to green spaces has been shown to be beneficial to several cardiovascular outcomes in urban spaces. Few studies, however, have analyzed the relationship between these outcomes and green space or land cover uses in low-medium income megacities, where the consequences of rapid and inordinate urbanization impose several health hazards. This study used a subgroup of the dataset from The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-BRASIL (n= 3418) to identify the correlation between the medical diagnosis of hypertension and green spaces in the megacity of São Paulo. Land cover classification was performed based on the random forest algorithm using geometrically corrected aerial photography (orthophoto). Three different indicators of exposure to green spaces were used: number of street trees, land cover and number of parks within 1 km. We used logistic regression models to obtain the association of the metrics exposure and health outcomes. The number of street trees in the regional governments (OR = 0.937 and number of parks within 1 km (OR = 0.876) were inversely associated with a diagnosis of hypertension. Sixty-three percent of the population had no parks within 1 km of their residence. Our data indicate the need to encourage large-scale street tree planting and increase the number of qualified parks in megacities.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 263: 344-352, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with low quality of life and higher suicide risk. Antidepressant drugs have modest to null effects in improving such deficits. Therefore, we investigated the cognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which is a promising antidepressant non-pharmacological intervention, in MDD. METHODS: An exploratory analysis on cognitive performance was conducted in 243 depressed patients from the Escitalopram vs. Electric Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS), a sham-controlled study comparing the efficacy of tDCS vs. escitalopram. A neuropsychological battery was applied at baseline and endpoint (10 weeks of treatment) to create composite cognitive scores (processing speed, working memory, and verbal fluency). Linear mixed regression models were used to evaluate changes according to intervention groups, adjusted for confounding variables (age, years of schooling, gender, and benzodiazepine use) and depression improvement. RESULTS: No cognitive deterioration was observed in any group. Patients receiving tDCS presented reduced practice gains compared to placebo in processing speed. In patients receiving escitalopram vs. placebo and in the subgroup of clinical responders (>50% depression improvement from baseline), those receiving tDCS vs. placebo presented increased performance in verbal fluency. No significant differences between tDCS and escitalopram groups were detected. LIMITATIONS: Absence of healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Prefrontal tDCS did not lead to cognitive deficits in depressed patients, although it reduced practice effects in processing speed. tDCS responders presented increased performance in verbal fluency. Further investigation of tDCS cognitive effects in depression is warranted.

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