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1.
Drug Discov Today ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592447

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by heightened autophagy and systemic immune dysfunction. Modest improvements in clinical outcomes have been demonstrated in completed clinical trials targeting autophagy with combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chemotherapy. Recent mechanistic insights into the role of autophagy-dependent immune evasion have prompted the need for more precise and druggable targets of autophagy inhibition. Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM-1) is a multidomain scaffold protein with well-established roles in autophagy, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)- and NF-κB-related signaling pathways. SQSTM1 overexpression is frequently observed in PDAC, correlating with clinical stage and outcome. Given the unique molecular structure of SQSTM-1 and its diverse activity, identifying means of limiting SQSTM-1-dependent autophagy to promote an effective immune response in PDAC could be a promising treatment strategy.

2.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 7233-7241, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preoperative autophagy inhibition with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been shown to be safe and effective in inducing a serum biomarker response and increase resection rates in a previous phase I/II clinical trial. We aimed to analyze the long-term outcomes of preoperative HCQ with gemcitabine for this cohort. METHODS: A review of patients enrolled between July 2010 and February 2013 in the completed phase I/II single arm (two doses of fixed-dose gemcitabine (1500 mg/m2 ) in combination with oral hydroxychloroquine administered for 31 consecutive days until the day of surgery for high-risk pancreatic cancer) was undertaken. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival analysis (OS) using Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed. RESULTS: Of 35 patients initially enrolled, 29 patients underwent surgical resection (median age at diagnosis: 62 years, 45% females). Median duration of follow-up was 7.5 years. There was a median 15% decrease in the serum CA19-9 levels following completion of neoadjuvant therapy and 83% of the cohort underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy, 7 (24%) patients had a concomitant venous resection. On histopathology, 14 (48%) patients had at least a partial treatment response. The median PFS and OS were 11 months (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 7-28) and 31 months (95% CI: 13-47), respectively, while 9 (31%) patients survived beyond 5 years from diagnosis; a rate that compares very favorably with contemporaneous series. CONCLUSION: Compared to historical data, neoadjuvant autophagy inhibition with HCQ plus gemcitabine is associated with encouraging long-term survival for patients with PDAC.

3.
Life Sci ; 282: 119839, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293400

RESUMO

AIMS: Respiratory disorders are a prominent component of Gulf War Illness. Although much of the underlying mechanisms of Gulf War Illness remain undefined, chronic immune dysfunction is a consistent feature of this multi-symptomatic, multi-organ disorder. Alveolar macrophages represent the predominant mononuclear phagocytes of the pulmonary mucosa, orchestrating the host response to pathogens and environmental stimuli. Herein, we sought to characterize the innate immune response of the pulmonary mucosa, with a focus on macrophages, to experimental respiratory exposure to two putative Gulf War Toxins (GWTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Utilizing commercially available instrumentation, we evaluated the effect of aerosolized exposure to the pesticide malathion and diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) on the immune composition and inflammatory response of the lung in FVB/N mice using multiparametric spectral cytometry, cytokine analysis, and histology. KEY FINDINGS: Aerosolized GWTs induced gross pulmonary pathology with transient recruitment of neutrophils and sustained accumulation of alveolar macrophages to the lung for up to two weeks after exposure cessation. High-dimensional cytometry and unbiased computational analysis identified novel myeloid subsets recruited to the lung post-exposure driven by an influx of peripheral monocyte-derived progenitors. DEP and malathion, either alone or in combination, induced soluble mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage indicative of oxidative stress (PGF2α), inflammation (LTB4, TNFα, IL-12), and immunosuppression (IL-10), that were sustained or increased two weeks after exposures concluded. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that macrophage accumulation and pulmonary inflammation induced by GWTs continue in the absence of toxin exposure and may contribute to the immunopathology of respiratory Gulf War Illness.


Assuntos
Guerra do Golfo , Macrófagos Alveolares , Pneumonia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia/patologia
4.
Cancer Med ; 10(15): 5041-5050, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250759

RESUMO

Recent studies defined a potentially important role of the microbiome in modulating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and responses to therapies. We hypothesized that antibiotic usage may predict outcomes in patients with PDAC. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of patients with resectable or metastatic PDAC seen at MD Anderson Cancer from 2003 to 2017. Demographic, chemotherapy regimen and antibiotic use, duration, type, and reason for indication were recorded. A total of 580 patients with PDAC were studied, 342 resected and 238 metastatic patients, selected retrospectively from our database. Antibiotic use, for longer than 48 hrs, was detected in 209 resected patients (61%) and 195 metastatic ones (62%). On resectable patients, we did not find differences in overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS), based on antibiotic intake. However, in the metastatic cohort, antibiotic consumption was associated with a significantly longer OS (13.3 months vs. 9.0 months, HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.7, p = 0.0001) and PFS (4.4 months vs. 2 months, HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.68, p = <0.0001). In multivariate analysis, the impact of ATB remained significant for PFS (HR 0.59, p = 0.005) and borderline statistically significant for OS (HR 0.69, p = 0.06). When we analyzed by chemotherapy regimen, we found that patients who received gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy (n = 118) had significantly prolonged OS (HR 0.4, p 0.0013) and PFS (HR 0.55, p 0.02) if they received antibiotics, while those receiving 5FU-based chemotherapy (n = 98) had only prolonged PFS (HR 0.54, p = 0.03). Antibiotics-associated modulation of the microbiome is associated with better outcomes in patients with metastatic PDAC.

5.
J Immunother ; 44(5): 185-192, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935273

RESUMO

Despite its increased application in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), complete response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is rare. Given the critical role of host immunity in regulating cancer, we sought to correlate baseline inflammatory profiles to significant response to NAT. PDAC patients receiving NAT were classified as responders (R) or nonresponders (NR) by carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response, pathologic tumor size, and lymph node status in the resected specimen. Baseline (treatment-naive) plasma was analyzed to determine levels of 27 inflammatory mediators. Logistic regression was used to correlate individual mediators with response. Network analysis and Pearson correlation maps were derived to determine baseline inflammatory mediator profiles. Forty patients (20R and 20NR) met study criteria. The R showed significantly higher overall survival (59.4 vs. 21.25 mo, P=0.002) and disease-free survival (50.97 vs. 10.60 mo, P=0.005), compared with NR. soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha was a significant predictor of no response to NAT (P=0.045). Analysis of inflammatory profiles using the Pearson heat map analysis followed by network analysis depicted increased inflammatory network complexity in NR compared with R (1.69 vs. 1), signifying a more robust baseline inflammatory status of NR. A panel of inflammatory mediators identified by logistic regression and Fischer score analysis was used to create a potential decision tree to predict NAT response. We demonstrate that baseline inflammatory profiles are associated with response to NAT in PDAC, and that an upregulated inflammatory status is associated with a poor response to NAT. Further analysis into the role of inflammatory mediators as predictors of chemotherapy response is warranted.

6.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(5): 1822-1829, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002944

RESUMO

SMAD4, a tumor suppressor gene, is lost in up to 60%-90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDAs). Loss of SMAD4 allows tumor progression by upregulating autophagy, a cell survival mechanism that counteracts apoptosis and allows intracellular recycling of macromolecules. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an autophagy inhibitor. We studied whether HCQ treatment in SMAD4 deficient PDA may prevent therapeutic resistance induced by autophagy upregulation. We retrospectively analyzed the SMAD4 status of patients with PDA enrolled in two prospective clinical trials evaluating pre-operative HCQ. The first dose escalation trial demonstrated the safety of preoperative gemcitabine with HCQ (NCT01128296). More recently, a randomized trial of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel +/- HCQ evaluated Evans Grade histopathologic response (NCT01978184). The effect of SMAD4 loss on response to HCQ and chemotherapy was studied for association with clinical outcome. Fisher's exact test and log-rank test were used to assess response and survival. Fifty-two patients receiving HCQ with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were studied. Twenty-five patients had SMAD4 loss (48%). 76% of HCQ-treated patients with SMAD4 loss obtained a histopathologic response greater than or equal to 2A, compared with only 37% with SMAD4 intact (p = 0.006). Although loss of SMAD4 has been associated with worse outcomes, in the current study, loss of SMAD4 was not associated with a detriment in median overall survival in HCQ-treated patients (34.43 months in SMAD4 loss vs. 27.27 months in SMAD4 intact, p = 0.18). The addition of HCQ to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with PDA may improve treatment response in those with SMAD4 loss. Further study of the relationship among SMAD4, autophagy, and treatment outcomes in PDA is warranted.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 610042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679747

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) achieves durable clinical benefit for patients from whom these cells can be derived in advanced metastatic melanoma but is limited in most solid tumors as a result of immune escape and exclusion. A tumor microenvironment (TME) priming strategy to improve the quantity and quality of TIL represents an important tactic to explore. Oncolytic viruses expressing immune stimulatory cytokines induce a potent inflammatory response that may enhance infiltration and activation of T cells. In this study, we examined the ability of an attenuated oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing IL15/IL15Rα (vvDD-IL15/Rα) to enhance recovery of lavage T cells in peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). We found that intraperitoneal (IP) vvDD-IL15/Rα treatment of animals bearing PC resulted in a significant increase in cytotoxic function and memory formation in CD8+ T cells in peritoneal fluid. Using tetramers for vaccinia virus B8R antigen and tumor rejection antigen p15E, we found that the expanded population of peritoneal CD8+ T cells are specific for vaccinia or tumor with increased tumor-specificity over time, reinforced with viral clearance. Application of these vvDD-IL15/Rα induced CD8+ T cells in ACT of a lethal model of PC significantly increased survival. In addition, we found in patients with peritoneal metastases from various primary solid tumors that peritoneal T cells could be recovered but were exhausted with infrequent tumor-reactivity. If clinically translatable, vvDD-IL15/Rα in vivo priming would greatly expand the number of patients with advanced metastatic cancers responsive to T cell therapy.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Vírus Oncolíticos/imunologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Camundongos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/efeitos adversos , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(5): 2715-2727, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575873

RESUMO

Thoracic malignancies are associated with high mortality rates. Conventional therapy for many of the patients with thoracic malignancies is obviated by a high incidence of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis. Fortunately, developments in immunotherapy provide effective strategies for both local and systemic treatments that have rapidly advanced during the last decade. One promising approach to cancer immunotherapy is to use oncolytic viruses, which have the advantages of relatively high tumor specificity, selective replication-mediated oncolysis, enhanced antigen presentation, and potential for delivery of immunogenic payloads such as cytokines, with subsequent elicitation of effective antitumor immunity. Several oncolytic viruses including adenovirus, coxsackievirus B3, herpes virus, measles virus, reovirus, and vaccinia virus have been developed and applied to thoracic cancers in preclinical murine studies and clinical trials. This review discusses the current state of oncolytic virotherapy in lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and metastatic malignant pleural effusions and considers its potential as an emergent therapeutic for these patients.


Assuntos
Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos , Derrame Pleural Maligno , Animais , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
10.
J Immunother ; 44(2): 49-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416261

RESUMO

Risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) include proinflammatory diets, sedentary habits, and obesity, in addition to genetic syndromes that predispose individuals to this disease. Current treatment relies on surgical excision and cytotoxic chemotherapies. There has been a renewed interest in immunotherapy as a treatment option for CRC given the success in melanoma and microsatellite instable (MSI) CRC. Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors only plays a role in the 4%-6% of patients with MSIhigh tumors and even within this subpopulation, response rates can vary from 30% to 50%. Most patients with CRC do not respond to this modality of treatment, even though colorectal tumors are frequently infiltrated with T cells. Tumor cells limit apoptosis and survive following intensive chemotherapy leading to drug resistance and induction of autophagy. Pharmacological or molecular inhibition of autophagy improves the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy in murine models. The microbiome clearly plays an etiologic role, in some or most colon tumors, realized by elegant findings in murine models and now investigated in human clinical trials. Recent results have suggested that cancer vaccines may be beneficial, perhaps best as preventive strategies. The search for therapies that can be combined with current approaches to increase their efficacy, and new knowledge of the biology of CRC are pivotal to improve the care of patients suffering from this disease. Here, we review the basic immunobiology of CRC, current "state-of-the-art" immunotherapies and define those areas with greatest therapeutic promise for the future.

11.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 28(9): 971-983, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759988

RESUMO

It has now been nearly 15 years since the last major advance in the treatment of patients with glioma. "The addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma resulted in a clinically meaningful and statistically significant survival benefit with minimal additional toxicity". Autophagy is primarily a survival pathway, literally self-eating, that is utilized in response to stress (such as radiation and chemotherapy), enabling clearance of effete protein aggregates and multimolecular assemblies. Promising results have been observed in patients with glioma for over a decade now when autophagy inhibition with chloroquine derivatives coupled with conventional therapy. The application of autophagy inhibitors, the role of immune cell-induced autophagy, and the potential role of novel cellular and gene therapies, should now be considered for development as part of this well-established regimen.

12.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 28(1-2): 98-111, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632271

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using tumor-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has demonstrated success in patients where tumor-antigen specific TILs can be harvested from the tumor, expanded, and re-infused in combination with a preparatory regimen and IL2. One major issue for non-immunogenic tumors has been that the isolated TILs lack tumor specificity and thus possess limited in vivo therapeutic function. An oncolytic virus (OV) mediates an immunogenic cell death for cancer cells, leading to elicitation and dramatic enhancement of tumor-specific TILs. We hypothesized that the tumor-specific TILs elicited and promoted by an OV would be a great source for ACT for solid cancer. In this study, we show that a local injection of oncolytic poxvirus in MC38 tumor with low immunogenicity in C57BL/6 mice, led to elicitation and accumulation of tumor-specific TILs in the tumor tissue. Our analyses indicated that IL2-armed OV-elicited TILs contain lower quantities of exhausted PD-1hiTim-3+ CD8+ T cells and regulatory T cells. The isolated TILs from IL2-expressing OV-treated tumor tissue retained high tumor specificity after expansion ex vivo. These TILs resulted in significant tumor regression and improved survival after adoptive transfer in mice with established MC38 tumor. Our study showcases the feasibility of using an OV to induce tumor-reactive TILs that can be expanded for ACT.

13.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3779-3788, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy is increasingly used for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). It is unknown whether neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is more effective than chemotherapy (NCRT vs. NAC). We aim to compare pathological and survival outcomes of NCRT and NAC in patients with PDAC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single-center analysis of PDAC patients treated with NCRT or NAC followed by resection between December 2008 and December 2018 was performed. Average treatment effect (ATE) was estimated after case-control matching using Mahalanobis distance nearest-neighbor matching. Inverse probability weighted estimates (IPWE)-based ATE was estimated for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among the 418 patients (mean age 66.8 years, 51% female) included in the study, 327 received NAC and 91 received NCRT. NCRT patients had higher rates of locally advanced disease, number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles, more chemotherapy regimen crossover (gemcitabine and 5-FU based), and were more likely to undergo open surgical procedures and/or vascular resection (all p < 0.05). After matched analysis, NCRT was associated with a significant reduction in lymph node positive disease [ATE = (-)0.24, p = 0.007] and lymphovascular invasion [ATE = (-)0.20, p = 0.02]. While NCRT was associated with significantly improved DFS by 9.5 months (p = 0.006), it did not affect OS by IPWE-based ATE after adjusting for adjuvant therapy (ATE = 5.5 months; p = 0.32). CONCLUSION: Compared with NAC alone, NCRT is associated with improved pathologic surrogates and disease-free survival, but not overall survival in patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(2): 388-395, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IL27 mRNA is highly enriched in the tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma. Overexpression of IL27 gene has been found to increase T-cell expression of inhibitory receptors, an immunosuppressive feature in tumor microenvironment, that promotes the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Two parallel case-control studies of hepatocellular carcinoma, each with 100 case-control pairs were conducted in the Singapore Chinese Health Study and the Shanghai Cohort Study to examine the association between serum IL27 levels and risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: The IL27 concentrations were significantly elevated in sera collected from study participants 4 to 5 years prior to the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in both cohort studies. Compared with the lowest tertile of IL27, odds ratios (OR) of hepatocellular carcinoma for the highest tertile of IL27 was 46.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.68-453.86] in the Singapore Chinese Health Study and 19.09 (95% CI, 3.81-95.57) in the Shanghai Cohort Study (both P trend <0.001). The corresponding ORs in both cohort studies were 42.47 (95% CI, 8.30-217.40) among individuals negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 242.46 (95% CI, 38.42-1,529.01) among those positive for HBsAg compared with the lowest tertile of interleukin-27 and negative HBsAg. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of IL27 in prediagnostic sera were significantly associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development. IMPACT: IL27, through its immunosuppressive property, may play a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum levels of IL27 may be used as a biomarker for prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development.

15.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348583

RESUMO

Recent advances in γδ T cell biology have focused on the unique attributes of these cells and their role in regulating innate and adaptive immunity, promoting tissue homeostasis, and providing resistance to various disorders. Numerous bacterial and viral pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV), greatly alter the composition of γδ T cells in vivo. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling HIV and restoring health in those affected, γδ T cells are dramatically impacted during HIV infection and fail to reconstitute to normal levels in HIV-infected individuals during ART for reasons that are not clearly understood. Importantly, their role in controlling HIV infection, and the implications of their failure to rebound during ART are also largely unknown and understudied. Here, we review important aspects of human γδ T cell biology, the effector and immunomodulatory properties of these cells, their prevalence and function in HIV, and their immunotherapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Antígenos Virais , Biomarcadores , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia
16.
Heliyon ; 6(12): e05672, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313438

RESUMO

COVID-19 has attracted global attention due to its rapid spread around the world with substantial morbidity and associated mortality. Severe COVID-19 can be complicated by the acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and septic shock leading to death. These complications are thought to result from an overactivation of the immune system, leading to a cytokine storm syndrome associated with multiple organ failure. Here, we report that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a prototypical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and a central mediator of lethal inflammation, could be a potential target for innovative therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. Serum HMGB1 in severe COVID-19 patients is elevated (189.40 ± 140.88 ng/ml). Exogenous HMGB1 induces the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 in alveolar epithelial cells in an AGER-dependent manner. Importantly, genetic (using AGER siRNA) or pharmacological (using glycyrrhizin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and FPS-ZM1) inhibition of the HMGB1-AGER pathway blocks ACE2 expression. Thus, HMGB1 inhibitors are likewise promising drug candidates for the treatment of patients suffering from COVID-19.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199512

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is now a cornerstone for cancer treatment, and much attention has been placed on the identification of prognostic and predictive biomarkers. The success of biomarker development is dependent on accurate and timely collection of biospecimens and high-quality processing, storage and shipping. Tumors are also increasingly used as source material for the generation of therapeutic T cells. There have been few guidelines or consensus statements on how to optimally collect and manage biospecimens and source material being used for immunotherapy and related research. The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Surgery Committee has brought together surgical experts from multiple subspecialty disciplines to identify best practices and to provide consensus on how best to access and manage specific tissues for immuno-oncology treatments and clinical investigation. In addition, the committee recommends early integration of surgeons and other interventional physicians with expertise in biospecimen collection, especially in clinical trials, to optimize the quality of tissue and the validity of correlative clinical studies in cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos
18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013860

RESUMO

Pleural effusions, when benign, are attributed to cardiac events and suffusion of fluid within the pleural space. When malignant, lymphatic obstruction by tumor and failure to absorb constitutively produced fluid is the predominant formulation. The prevailing view has been challenged recently, namely that the lymphatics are only passive vessels, carrying antigenic fluid to secondary lymphoid sites. Rather, lymphatic vessels can be a selective barrier, efficiently coordinating egress of immune cells and factors within tissues, limiting tumor spread and immune pathology. An alternative explanation, offered here, is that damage associated molecular pattern molecules, released in excess, maintain a local milieu associated with recruitment and retention of immune cells associated with failed lymphatic clearance and functional lymphatic obstruction. We found that levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were equally elevated in both benign and malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and that limited diversity of T cell receptor expressing gamma and delta chain were inversely associated with these levels in MPEs. Acellular fluid from MPEs enhanced γδ T cell proliferation in vitro, while inhibiting cytokine production from γδ T cells and monocytes as well as restricting monocyte chemotaxis. Novel therapeutic strategies, targeting HMGB1 and its neutralization in such effusions as well as direct delivery of immune cells into the pleural space to reconstitute normal physiology should be considered.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Sistema Linfático/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural Maligno/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Contagem de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Sistema Linfático/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 582010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117392

RESUMO

Severe COVID-19 is associated with profound lymphopenia and an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. We applied a novel dimer avoidance multiplexed polymerase chain reaction next-generation sequencing assay to analyze T (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires. Surprisingly, TCR repertoires were markedly diminished during the early onset of severe disease but recovered during the convalescent stage. Monitoring TCR repertoires could serve as an indicative biomarker to predict disease progression and recovery. Panoramic concurrent assessment of BCR repertoires demonstrated isotype switching and a transient but dramatic early IgA expansion. Dominant B cell clonal expansion with decreased diversity occurred following recovery from infection. Profound changes in T cell homeostasis raise critical questions about the early events in COVID-19 infection and demonstrate that immune repertoire analysis is a promising method for evaluating emergent host immunity to SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, with great implications for assessing vaccination and other immunological therapies.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Linfopenia/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Biol Chem ; 295(46): 15636-15649, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883810

RESUMO

Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common subtype of renal cancer, has a poor clinical outcome. A hallmark of ccRCC is genetic loss-of-function of VHL (von Hippel-Lindau) that leads to a highly vascularized tumor microenvironment. Although many ccRCC patients initially respond to antiangiogenic therapies, virtually all develop progressive, drug-refractory disease. Given the role of dysregulated expressions of cytoskeletal and cytoskeleton-regulatory proteins in tumor progression, we performed analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) transcriptome data for different classes of actin-binding proteins to demonstrate that increased mRNA expression of profilin1 (Pfn1), Arp3, cofilin1, Ena/VASP, and CapZ, is an indicator of poor prognosis in ccRCC. Focusing further on Pfn1, we performed immunohistochemistry-based classification of Pfn1 staining in tissue microarrays, which indicated Pfn1 positivity in both tumor and stromal cells; however, the vast majority of ccRCC tumors tend to be Pfn1-positive selectively in stromal cells only. This finding is further supported by evidence for dramatic transcriptional up-regulation of Pfn1 in tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells in the clinical specimens of ccRCC. In vitro studies support the importance of Pfn1 in proliferation and migration of RCC cells and in soluble Pfn1's involvement in vascular endothelial cell tumor cell cross-talk. Furthermore, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate that treatment with a novel computationally designed Pfn1-actin interaction inhibitor identified herein reduces proliferation and migration of RCC cells in vitro and RCC tumor growth in vivo Based on these findings, we propose a potentiating role for Pfn1 in promoting tumor cell aggressiveness in the setting of ccRCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Profilinas/metabolismo , Actinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína de Capeamento de Actina CapZ/genética , Proteína de Capeamento de Actina CapZ/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Cofilina 1/genética , Cofilina 1/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Profilinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Profilinas/genética , Prognóstico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Regulação para Cima
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