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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 273: 113950, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610713

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thesium chinense Turcz. has been used to treat mastitis, pulmonitis, tonsillitis, iaryngopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infections in the indigenous medicine of China for a long history. Presently, several pharmaceutics prepared by this medical herb have been clinically used for the therapy of infectious diseases. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to comprehensively summarize the current researches on the ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of T. chinense, and discuss their possible opportunities for the future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extensive database searches, including Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar and China Knowledge Resource Integrated, were performed using keywords such as 'Thesium chinense', 'Bai Rui Cao', and their chemical constituents. In addition, local classic herbal literature on ethnopharmacology and relevant textbooks were consulted to provide a comprehensive survey of this ethnomedicine. RESULTS: Thirty four chemical constituents, including flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids, have been identified from T. chinense. Of which, flavonoids are the predominant and characteristic constituents. The crude extracts, the purified constituents, and commercial available pharmaceutics have displayed diverse in vitro and in vivo pharmacological functions (e.g. anti-inflammation, antimicrobial activity, analgesic effect, hepaprotection), and are particularly useful as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammation-related diseases. CONCLUSIONS: T. chinense is an important ethnomedical medicine and possesses a satisfying effect for treating inflammation, microbial infection, and upper respiratory diseases. It has received plenty of researches on its phytochemical and pharmacological aspects since 1970s. These findings definitely establish the link between chemical composition and pharmacological application, and support the ethnomedical use of T. chinense in the indigenous medicine of China. However, chemical composition of this plant and the molecular mechanisms of purified constituents have not been comprehensively investigated, and thus the trace constituents and the therapeutic targets of bioactive constituents deserve a further exploration. Collectively, the researchers should pay more attention to a better understanding and application of this ethnomedical plant.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 24, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414376

RESUMO

Stress leads to brain pathology including hippocampal degeneration, cognitive dysfunction, and potential mood disorders. Hippocampal CA3, a most stress-vulnerable region, consists of pyramidal neurons that regulate cognitive functions e.g. learning and memory. These CA3 neurons express high levels of the neuroprotective protein, neurotrophic factor-α1 (NF-α1), also known as carboxypeptidase E (CPE), and receive contacts from granule cell projections that release BDNF which has neuroprotective activity. Whether NF-α1-CPE and/or BDNF are critical in protecting these CA3 neurons against severe stress-induced cell death is unknown. Here we show that social combined with the physical stress of maternal separation, ear tagging, and tail snipping at weaning in 3-week-old mice lacking NF-α1-CPE, led to complete hippocampal CA3 degeneration, despite having BDNF and active phosphorylated TrkB receptor levels similar to WT animals. Mice administered TrkB inhibitor, ANA12 which blocked TrkB phosphorylation showed no degeneration of the CA3 neurons after the weaning stress paradigm. Furthermore, transgenic knock-in mice expressing CPE-E342Q, an enzymatically inactive form, replacing NF-α1-CPE, showed no CA3 degeneration and exhibited normal learning and memory after the weaning stress, unlike NF-α1-CPE-KO mice. Mechanistically, we showed that radio-labeled NF-α1-CPE bound HT22 hippocampal cells in a saturable manner and with high affinity (Kd = 4.37 nM). Subsequently, treatment of the HT22cpe-/- cells with NF-α1-CPE or CPE-E342Q equivalently activated ERK signaling and increased BCL2 expression to protect these neurons against H2O2-or glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Our findings show that NF-α1-CPE is more critical compared to BDNF in protecting CA3 pyramidal neurons against stress-induced cell death and cognitive dysfunction, independent of its enzymatic activity.

3.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455458

RESUMO

Fusidic acid, a representative member of fungal fusidane triterpenoids, has been clinically used as an antibiotic. In the present study, fusidic acid (1), and its known analogs 16-desacetylfusidic acid (2) and 3ß,20-dihydroxy-protosta-16,24-dien-29-oic acid (4), together with one new derivative acremonidiol A (3), were isolated from the endophytic fungus, Acremonium pilosum F47. Their structures were determined by MS and NMR. The spectroscopic data of 2 are firstly reported here. The antibacterial efficacies of 1-4 were evaluated against four selected Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. As expected, only compound 1 showed strong inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.

4.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219498

RESUMO

Two new quinazoline derivatives versicomides E (1) and F (2), and 10 known compounds (3-12) were isolated from the moss endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis and ECD calculations. Among them, the compound 7 (6-hydroxy-3-methoxyviridicatin) was first reported as a natural product. Inhibition on LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages found that compounds 5, 7 and 8 showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production, with IC50 values of 49.85, 22.14 and 46.02 µM respectively.

5.
J Nat Prod ; 83(10): 2817-2830, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001650

RESUMO

A pair of enantiomeric 15-nordolabellane diterpenoids, (-)- and (+)-caseadolabellols A (1a and 1b), three dolabellane diterpenoids, caseadolabellols B-D (2-4), two dolastane diterpenoids, caseadolastols A and B (5 and 6), 10 clerodane diterpenoids, caseakurzins A-J (7-16), and nine known diterpenoids (17-25) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Casearia kurzii. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data, and those of compounds 1a, 1b, and 2 were verified by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. The enantiomers 1a and 1b were separated by chiral-phase HPLC. The absolute configurations were determined by experimental and calculated ECD data, the modified Mosher's method, or literature comparison. Compounds 1a and 5 showed significant quinone reductase-inducing activity in Hepa 1c1c7 cells, while 1b showed moderate activity. Molecular docking studies showed that 1a had greater binding affinity with Nrf2 protein (5FNQ) than 1b. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1a, 1b, 2-12, 15, and 16 was evaluated, among which compounds 8 and 16 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against the A549 cell line. Compounds 8 and 16 induced the A549 cells to arrest at G2/M and S phases, respectively, and both compounds induced apoptosis in A549 cells.

6.
Plant Physiol ; 184(4): 1731-1743, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023939

RESUMO

During the course of evolution of land plants, different classes of flavonoids, including flavonols and anthocyanins, sequentially emerged, facilitating adaptation to the harsh terrestrial environment. Flavanone 3ß-hydroxylase (F3H), an enzyme functioning in flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis and a member of the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) family, catalyzes the hydroxylation of (2S)-flavanones to dihydroflavonols, but its origin and evolution remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that functional flavone synthase Is (FNS Is) are widely distributed in the primitive land plants liverworts and evolutionarily connected to seed plant F3Hs. We identified and characterized a set of 2-ODD enzymes from several liverwort species and plants in various evolutionary clades of the plant kingdom. The bifunctional enzyme FNS I/F2H emerged in liverworts, and FNS I/F3H evolved in Physcomitrium (Physcomitrella) patens and Selaginella moellendorffii, suggesting that they represent the functional transition forms between canonical FNS Is and F3Hs. The functional transition from FNS Is to F3Hs provides a molecular basis for the chemical evolution of flavones to flavonols and anthocyanins, which contributes to the acquisition of a broader spectrum of flavonoids in seed plants and facilitates their adaptation to the terrestrial ecosystem.

7.
Fitoterapia ; 147: 104758, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069833

RESUMO

Three new isopimarane-type diterpenoids, botrysphins G-I (1-3), a new muurolane-type sesquiterpenoid, 11,12-dihydroxylentideusether (4), and two new triketides, 4-dechlorobotrysphone C (5) and 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-undecanoyloxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (6), together with one known diterpenoid, sphaeropsidin A (7), one sesquiterpenoid, lentideusether (8), and one triketide sphaeropsidone (9), were isolated from culture of the fungus Botrysphaeria laricina associated with the moss Rhodobryum umgiganteum. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic techniques including HRMS and 1D and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited NO inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 13.9 µM and 41.9 µM, respectively. At the same time, these two compounds showed quinone reductase inducing activity with 2.7-fold of induction for 1 at 12.5 µM and 1.6-fold for 2 at 25.0 µM.

8.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107346

RESUMO

A new diarylheptanoid, (1 R,2S,3S,5S)-2,3-dihydroxy-3',3''-dimethoxy-4'-de-O-methylcentrolobine (1) and a new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid, (1 R,7S)-1,12,13-trihydroxybisabola-3,10-diene (2), together with nineteen known compounds (3-21) were isolated from the EtOH extract of the stems and branches of Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1 D and 2 D NMR spectra and from the HRESIMS. All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against eight human tumor cell lines.

9.
Plant Sci ; 299: 110577, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900434

RESUMO

Flavonoid glucosides, typically generated from aglycones via the action of uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), both contribute to plant viability and are pharmacologically active. The properties of UGTs produced by liverworts, one of the basal groups of non-vascular land plants, have not been systematically explored. Here, two UGTs potentially involved in flavonoids synthesis were identified from the transcriptome of Plagiochasma appendiculatum. Enzymatic analysis showed that PaUGT1 and PaUGT2 accepted various flavones, flavonols, flavanones and dihydrochalcones as substrates. A mutated form PaUGT1-Q19A exhibited a higher catalytic efficiency than did the wild type enzyme. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the yield of flavonol 7-O-glucosides reached to over 70 %. Co-expression of PaUGT1-Q19A with the upstream flavone synthase I PaFNS I-1 proved able to convert the flavanone aglycones naringenin and eriodictyol into the higher-yield apigenin 7-O-glucoside (A7G) and luteolin 7-O-glucoside (L7G). The maximum concentration of 81.0 µM A7G and 88.6 µM L7G was achieved upon supplementation with 100 µM naringenin and 100 µM eriodictyol under optimized conditions. This is the first time that flavonoids UGTs have been characterized from liverworts and co-expression of UGTs and FNS Is from the same species serves as an effective strategy to synthesize flavone 7-O-glucosides in E. coli.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784501

RESUMO

(1) Background: The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a key regulator of embryonic patterning, tissue regeneration, stem cell renewal, and cancer growth. The smoothened (SMO) protein regulates the HH signaling pathway and has demonstrated oncogenic activity. (2) Methods: To clarify the role of the HH signaling pathway in tumorigenesis, the expression profile of key HH signaling molecules, including SMO, PTCH1, GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3, were determined in 33 cancer cell lines and normal prostate cells and tissues. We performed a computational analysis of the upstream region of the SMO gene to identify the regulatory elements. (3) Results: Three potential CpG islands and several putative SMO promoter elements were identified. Luciferase reporter assays mapped key SMO promoter elements, and functional binding sites for SP1, AP1, CREB, and AP-2α transcription factors in the core SMO promoter region were confirmed. A hypermethylated SMO promoter was identified in several cancer cell lines suggesting an important role for epigenetic silencing of SMO expression in certain cancer cells. (4) Discussion: These results have important implications for our understanding of regulatory mechanisms controlling HH pathway activity and the molecular basis of SMO gene function. Moreover, this study may prove valuable for future research aimed at producing therapeutic downregulation of SMO expression in cancer cells.

11.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 35: 1533317520948341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate knowledge, attitude and preventive practice of dementia care among high school students in Macao. METHODS: Questionnaires was developed and distributed to 10 randomly selected high schools in Macao and 586 valid questionnaires were returned. RESULTS: Knowledge, attitude and preventive practice of dementia care were 56.27 ± 24.90, 73.97 ± 7.72 and 68.34 ± 14.05. There were positive relationships between preventive practice and attitude, and knowledge. The students of 2 high schools had participated or organized lectures or events related to dementia scored higher knowledge, attitude and preventive practice than those hadn't. Knowledge and attitude of female students were significantly higher than male students. Knowledge and preventive practice of the high school students were significantly lower than primary health professionals in Macao. CONCLUSION: Most high school students in Macao had insufficient knowledge and inappropriate preventive practice of dementia care. Enhanced dementia education should be a strong agenda for high school students in Macao.

12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 155: 716-724, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862021

RESUMO

Typical plant terpene synthases (TPSs) are responsible for the production of terpenes, a major class of plant secondary metabolites. However, various nonseed plants also harbor genes encoding microbial terpene synthase-like (MTPSL) enzymes. Here, a scan of 31 ferns transcriptomes revealed 40 sequences putatively encoding MTPSLs. Two groups of sequences were recognized based on the key conserved motifs. Four representative genes were isolated from each of the four species Adiantum capillus-veneris, Cyclosorus parasiticus, Drynaria bonii and Microlepia platyphylla. Following their heterologous expression in E. coli, the recombinant proteins were tested for monoterpene synthase and sesquiterpene synthase activity. These enzymatic products were typical monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes that have been previous shown to be generated by classical plant TPSs when provided with GPP and FPP as substrates. Subcellular localization experiments in the leaf epidermis of Nicotiana benthamiana and onion (Allium cepa) inner epidermal cells indicated that AcMTPSL1 and DbMTPSL were deposited in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas CpMTPSL1 and MpMTPSL were localized in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts and nucleus. AcMTPSL1 was up-regulated in plants exposed to methyl jasmonate treatment, suggesting a role for this gene in host defense. This study provides more information about the catalytic function of MTPSLs in nonseed plants and for the first time, the subcellular localization of MTPSLs was experimentally characterized.

13.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722947

RESUMO

Two new triterpenoids, 3ß-hydroxytirucall-7,25-dien-24-one (1) and 3ß-acetoxytirucall-7,23,25-triene (2), along with one new sesquiterpenoid, alloaromadendrane-12α,14ß-dioic acid (3), were isolated from the vines and leaves of Chonemorpha megacalyx Pierre. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data.

14.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 3803-3809, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631904

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 displays substantial sequence variation; four HPV16 lineages (A, B, C, and D) have been described as well as multiple sublineages. To identify molecular events associated with HPV16 carcinogenesis, we evaluated viral variation, the integration of HPV16, and somatic mutation in 96 cervical cancer samples from Guatemala. A total of 65% (62/96) of the samples had integrated HPV16 sequences and integration was associated with an earlier age of diagnosis and premenopausal disease. HPV16 integration sites were broadly distributed in the genome, but in one tumor, HPV16 integrated into the promoter of the IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) gene, which plays an important role in the regulation of the IFN response to viral infection. The HPV16 D2 and D3 sublineages were found in 23% and 30% of the tumors, respectively, and were significantly associated with adenocarcinoma. D2-positive tumors had a higher rate of integration, earlier age of diagnosis, and a lower rate of somatic mutation, whereas D3-positive tumors were less likely to integrate, had later age of diagnosis, and exhibited a higher rate of somatic mutation. In conclusion, Guatemalan cervical tumors have a high frequency of very high-risk HPV16 D2 and D3 sublineages harboring distinct histology, which may help guide future therapeutic strategies to target the tumor and reduce recurrence. SIGNIFICANCE: This study details the biological and molecular properties of the most pathogenic forms of HPV16, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers.

15.
Planta Med ; 86(16): 1191-1203, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668478

RESUMO

Physalis Calyx seu Fructus, a traditional Chinese medicine consisting of the calyxes and fruits of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii, has been used as therapy for inflammation-related respiratory diseases such as excessive phlegm, cough, sore throat, and pharyngitis for a long history in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical constituents of Physalis Calyx seu Fructus and identify the bioactive constituents responsible for its traditional application as therapy for inflammation-related diseases. In the present study, one new phenylpropanoid (1: ), two new steroids (17: and 18: ), together with 55 known constituents have been purified from the EtOH extract of Physalis Calyx seu Fructus. Among them, seven and twelve known constituents were isolated for the first time from Physalis Calyx seu Fructus and the genus Physalis, respectively. Fourteen constituents, including steroids [physalins (5:  - 9, 12:  - 14: , and 15: ) and ergostane (21: )], a sesquiterpenoid (35: ), alkaloids (36: and 37: ), and a flavonoid (44: ), showed inhibitory effects against oxidative stress. Ten constituents, including steroids (5, 6, 8, 13: , and 15: ), sesquiterpenoids (34: and 35: ), alkaloids (37: and 41: ), and a flavonoid (43: ), were found be potential anti-inflammatory constituents of this medicinal plant. The inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory response may be related to the regulation of Nrf2 and nuclear factor-κB pathways. The ethnomedical use of Physalis Calyx seu Fructus as a treatment for respiratory diseases might be attributed to the combined inhibitory effects of steroids, alkaloids, sesquiterpenoids, and flavonoids against oxidative stress and inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Physalis , China , Flores , Frutas , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(45): 19919-19923, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696611

RESUMO

A divergent synthetic approach to biogenetically related diterpenoids such as ent-kauranes, ent-trachylobanes, ent-beyerane, and ent-atisane has been developed. The unified synthetic route involves the De Mayo reaction to rapidly generate the bicyclo[3.2.1]-octane moiety of ent-kaurane. The key reactions also include bioinspired nucleophilic cyclopropanation generating the [3.2.1.02,7 ]-tricyclic core of ent-trachylobane and regioselective cyclopropane fragmentation furnishing ent-beyerane and ent-atisane through the nucleophilic attack and protonation of the cyclopropane ring. This strategy enables the asymmetric total syntheses of six diterpenoids from the commercially available geraniol.

17.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478572

RESUMO

Purpose To investigate the mechanism of the protective effects of blueberry anthocyanin extract (BAE) against oxidative stress and the roles of SIRT1 and NF-κB in the pathogenesis of diabetic cataracts. Methods Male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group (group A) and an experimental group. The rats in the experimental group were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg). Rats with blood glucose levels ≥16.7 mmol/L were considered to have DM. The rats in the experimental group were subdivided into group B (distilled water by oral gavage: 10 ml/kg/day), group C (5% blueberry anthocyanin extract by oral gavage: 10 ml/kg/day), and group D (15% blueberry anthocyanin extract by oral gavage: 10 ml/kg/day), with 15 rats in each group. At the end of 8 weeks, some biochemical parameters, including the expression of SIRT1 and NF-κB by qRT-PCR and western blotting and the activity of SOD and GSH, were measured in lens epithelial cells (LECs). Results The lenses of the rats in the control group appeared transparent during the entire 8-week period. Four weeks following STZ injection, cataracts gradually progressed in the experimental rats. SIRT1 expression was upregulated in groups B, C and D compared to the control group. However, the expression of NF-κB decreased in the experimental groups with increasing doses of BAE (p < .05). Our study also showed that the activity of the SOD enzyme and GSH in the LECs of the rats in the experimental group increased with higher doses of BAE. Conclusions The results indicated that BAE significantly delayed the progression of diabetic cataracts in rats. These effects may be due to the dose-dependent antioxidant activity of BAE, which is mediated by enhanced SOD and GSH activities, SIRT1 expression and reduced NF-κB expression. Abbreviations SD rat: Sprague-Dawley rat; BAE: Blueberry anthocyanin extract; LECs: Lens epithelial cells; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; GSH: Glutathione; DM: Diabetes mellitus; SIRT1: Silent information regulator protein-1; STZ: Streptozotocin; PBS: Phosphate-buffered saline.

18.
J Nat Prod ; 83(6): 1766-1777, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479076

RESUMO

Fourteen new terpenoids plagicosins A-N (1-14), including seven sesquiterpenoids (1-7) consisting of six ent-bicyclogermacrenes and one ent-2,3-seco-aromadendrane, as well as seven diterpenoids (8-14) comprising five fusicoccanes, a eunicellane, and a rare gersemiane, were isolated from the Chinese liverwort Plagiochila fruticosa Mitt. The structures of these terpenoids were determined on the basis of comprehensive analysis of MS and NMR spectroscopic data coupled with electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and coupling constant calculations. Plagicosin F (6) displayed potent antivirulence activity through inhibiting the hyphal morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation of Candida albicans. The genes related to hyphal formation were regulated by 6.

19.
J Nat Prod ; 83(5): 1623-1633, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394716

RESUMO

Eleven new metabolites including nine heptaketides, ulosporin A-G (1a-7b), one diphenyl compound, ulophenol (8), and one spirobisnaphthalene, palmarumycin P5 (9), were isolated from the endolichenic fungus Ulospora bilgramii, which inhabits the lichen Umbilicaria sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on comprehensive analysis of their spectroscopic, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Ulosporin G (7) inhibited the growth of the human cancer cell lines A549, MCF-7, and KB with IC50 values of 1.3, 1.3, and 3.0 µM, respectively. Additionally, it induced A549 cell apoptosis through G0/G1 cell cycle arrest caused by DNA damage.

20.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-11, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375507

RESUMO

Five new lignans, euphorhirtins A-D (1-4), 5-methoxyvirgatusin (5), three artefacts, 7S-ethoxyisolintetralin (6), 7R-ethoxyisolintetralin (7), and 7R-ethoxy-3-methoxyisolintetralin (8), together with 13 known ones (9-21) were isolated from the medicinal plant Euphorbia hirta L. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS experiments. The absolute configurations of compound 1 was determined by ECD calculation. The isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the proliferation of the cancer cell lines (Hep G2, A549, and DU145) and compounds 14 and 18 showed inhibitory activity against the Hep G2 cells with IC50 values 7.2 ± 0.17 and 8.5 ± 0.36 µM.

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