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Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1243-1256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597850


Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell neoplasm that is incurable despite significant progress in treatment over the past several decades. The incorporation of novel agents and combinations into the MM treatment paradigm has resulted in improved survival and tolerability, as well as deeper responses including achieving a minimal residual disease negative state. The addition of new treatment options and combinations has added complexity in treatment selection for myeloma patients. The current strategy for newly diagnosed myeloma involves induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapy. However, nearly all myeloma patients will develop refractory disease. This highlights the need for more effective therapies targeting the myeloma cells and their microenvironment. In this article, we summarize current management of transplant eligible and ineligible newly diagnosed patients in both the upfront and relapsed refractory setting, highlighting risk adapted strategies. We also summarize emerging therapies, such as immune and targeted approaches, as well as drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Emerging strategies offer individualized treatment options and may ultimately offer the possibility of a cure for myeloma patients.

Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Microambiente Tumoral
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(8): 1860-1866, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636529


PURPOSE: Urinary alkalinization with intravenous sodium bicarbonate is standard during high-dose methotrexate administration. Due to a national intravenous sodium bicarbonate shortage, a urinary alkalinization protocol involving hyperhydration with intravenous fluids, oral bicarbonate, and intravenous or oral acetazolamide was utilized from 10 April to 30 May 2017 ("shortage protocol"). This study compared outcomes between protocols. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective chart review was conducted for adults who received methotrexate ≥500 mg/m2 on ≥ two occasions, at least once during each protocol, between 19 February and 19 July 2017. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (50% male), median age 65 years, received 76 total high-dose methotrexate cycles. Shortage protocol was used in 37 cycles (48.7%). Mean time to methotrexate clearance did not differ between groups (p = ns). Mean time to urinary alkalinization and duration of hospitalization were not statistically different (p = 0.49 and 0.23, respectively). Average total bicarbonate administered per 24 hours was higher in standard protocol (p < 0.05), but hydration rates were similar (p = 0.73). Creatinine clearance and urine output on days 1 and 2 post-high-dose methotrexate did not significantly differ (creatinine clearance day 1, p = 0.27; creatinine clearance day 2, p = 0.55; urine output day 1, p = 0.62; urine output day 2, p = 0.60). Interruptions in alkalinization were significantly higher during shortage (0.41 ± 0.75 instances of urine pH < 7 during standard vs. 1.3 ± 1.7 under shortage, p < 0.05).

J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 1078155218792698, 2018 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124123


Introduction Guidelines recommend pegfilgrastim for primary prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia after highly myelosuppressive chemotherapy. While deviations from guidelines could result in overuse and increased costs, underuse is also a concern and could compromise quality of care. Our objectives were to evaluate guideline adherence and quantify the extent to which physician heterogeneity may influence pegfilgrastim use. Methods We randomly sampled 550 patients from a retrospective cohort of those who received infusions at an academic cancer center between 1 September 2013 and 1 September 2014. Electronic medical and drug dispensing records provided information on patient characteristics, chemotherapy characteristics, prescribing physician, and pegfilgrastim administration. Results We included 154 patients treated by 25 physicians. About half of patients were male and mean age was 61.3 years. Forty (26.1%) patients had no febrile neutropenia risk factors, 62 (40.5%) had one, and 51 (33.3%) had two or more. Thirty patients (19.5%) received pegfilgrastim, of which 12 (40%) received palliative chemotherapy. Nine (60%) of 15 patients on a regimen with a febrile neutropenia risk ≥ 20% received pegfilgrastim. Pegfilgrastim use significantly varied by cancer type (p < 0.01), chemotherapy regimen (p < 0.001), and regimen febrile neutropenia risk (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis reaffirmed the association between chemotherapy regimen febrile neutropenia risk ≥ 20% and pegfilgrastim use (odds ratio (OR) = 10.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-62.7) and suggested that 31% (95% CI: 8%-71%) of the variation in use was attributable to physician characteristics. Conclusion Pegfilgrastim was potentially overused for palliative chemotherapy and underused for chemotherapy regimens with febrile neutropenia risk ≥ 20%. Successful interventions to modify prescribing practices likely require an understanding of the relationship between specific physician characteristics and pegfilgrastim use.

Oncotarget ; 5(3): 775-87, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24519956


Recent studies suggest a positive correlation between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activation and tumor growth. Currently, it is unclear how both Akt that inhibits GSK-3 and active GSK-3 are maintained concurrently in tumor cells. We investigated the role of GSK-3 and the existence of an Akt-resistant pathway for GSK-3 activation in prostate cancer cells. Our data show that Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase is responsible for Y216GSK-3 phosphorylation leading to its activation even when Akt is active. Experiments involving mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking cSrc, Yes and Fyn, as well as Src activity modulation in prostate cancer cells with constitutively active (CA-Src) and dominant negative Src (DN-Src) plasmids demonstrated the integral role of Src in Y216GSK-3 phosphorylation and activity modulation. Inhibition of GSK-3 with SB415286 in PC3 cells resulted in impaired motility, proliferation and colony formation. Treatment of PC3 cells with the Src inhibitor dasatinib reduced Y216GSK-3 phosphorylation and inhibited proliferation, invasion and micrometastasis in vitro. Dasatinib treatment of athymic nude mice resulted in impaired growth of PC3 cell tumor xenograft. Together, we provide novel insight into the Src-mediated Y216GSK-3 phosphorylation and activation in prostate cancer cells and reveal the potential benefits of targeting Src-GSK-3 axis using drugs such as dasatinib.

Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Aminofenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos de Crescimento Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dasatinibe , Progressão da Doença , Ativação Enzimática , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Maleimidas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fosforilação , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Transfecção , Quinases da Família src/antagonistas & inibidores