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2.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 26: 75-78, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236427

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a complex new viral disease, in which a strict balance between anti-viral immune response and the ensuing organ inflammation has a critical role in determining the clinical course. In adults, compelling evidence exists indicating that an uncontrolled inflammatory response ("cytokine storm") is pivotal in determining disease progression and mortality. Children may rarely present with severe disease. Modulating factors related to the host's genetic factors, age-related susceptibility, and the capability to mount appropriate immune responses might play a role in control virus load at an early stage and regulating the inflammatory reaction. Elucidating these mechanisms seems crucial in developing target therapies according to patient's age, immunologic status, and disease evolution in COVID-19.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , /etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Humanos , Pneumonia/complicações
4.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080915

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome 1 (APDS-1) is a recently described inborn error of immunity caused by monoallelic gain-of-function mutations in the PIK3CD gene. We reviewed for the first time medical records and laboratory data of eight Italian APDS-1 patients. Recurrent sinopulmonary infections were the most common clinical feature at onset of disease. Seven patients presented lymphoproliferative disease, at onset or during follow-up, one of which resembled hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Genetic analysis of the PIK3CD gene revealed three novel mutations: functional testing confirmed their activating nature. In the remaining patients, the previously reported variants p.E1021K (n = 4) and p.E525A (n = 1) were identified. Six patients were started on immunoglobulin replacement treatment (IgRT). One patient successfully underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with good chimerism and no GVHD at 21 months post-HSCT. APDS-1 is a combined immune deficiency with a wide variety of clinical manifestations and a complex immunological presentation. Besides IgRT, specific therapies targeting the PI3Kδ pathway will most likely become a valid aid for the amelioration of patients' clinical management and their quality of life.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with rare inborn errors of immunity (IEI), a population at risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019. This is relevant not only for these patients but also for the general population, because studies of IEIs can unveil key requirements for host defense. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the presentation, manifestations, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IEI to inform physicians and enhance understanding of host defense against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: An invitation to participate in a retrospective study was distributed globally to scientific, medical, and patient societies involved in the care and advocacy for patients with IEI. RESULTS: We gathered information on 94 patients with IEI with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their median age was 25 to 34 years. Fifty-three patients (56%) suffered from primary antibody deficiency, 9 (9.6%) had immune dysregulation syndrome, 6 (6.4%) a phagocyte defect, 7 (7.4%) an autoinflammatory disorder, 14 (15%) a combined immunodeficiency, 3 (3%) an innate immune defect, and 2 (2%) bone marrow failure. Ten were asymptomatic, 25 were treated as outpatients, 28 required admission without intensive care or ventilation, 13 required noninvasive ventilation or oxygen administration, 18 were admitted to intensive care units, 12 required invasive ventilation, and 3 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Nine patients (7 adults and 2 children) died. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that (1) more than 30% of patients with IEI had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and (2) risk factors predisposing to severe disease/mortality in the general population also seemed to affect patients with IEI, including more younger patients. Further studies will identify pathways that are associated with increased risk of severe disease and are nonredundant or redundant for protection against SARS-CoV-2.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(7): 1026-1037, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803625

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are heterogeneous disorders, characterized by variable clinical and immunological features. National PID registries offer useful insights on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and natural history of these disorders. In 1999, the Italian network for primary immunodeficiencies (IPINet) was established. We report on data collected from the IPINet registry after 20 years of activity. A total of 3352 pediatric and adult patients affected with PIDs are registered in the database. In Italy, a regional distribution trend of PID diagnosis was observed. Based on the updated IUIS classification of 2019, PID distribution in Italy showed that predominantly antibody deficiencies account for the majority of cases (63%), followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (22.5%). The overall age at diagnosis was younger for male patients. The minimal prevalence of PIDs in Italy resulted in 5.1 per 100.000 habitants. Mortality was similar to other European registries (4.2%). Immunoglobulin replacement treatment was prescribed to less than one third of the patient cohort. Collectively, this is the first comprehensive description of the PID epidemiology in Italy.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 967-983, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827505

RESUMO

Medical advances have dramatically improved the long-term prognosis of children and adolescents with inborn errors of immunity (IEIs). Transfer of the medical care of individuals with pediatric IEIs to adult facilities is also a complex task because of the large number of distinct disorders, which requires involvement of patients and both pediatric and adult care providers. To date, there is no consensus on the optimal pathway of the transitional care process and no specific data are available in the literature regarding patients with IEIs. We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the transition process to adult health care services for patients with IEIs. Physicians from major Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network centers formulated and answered questions after examining the currently published literature on the transition from childhood to adulthood. The authors voted on each recommendation. The most frequent IEIs sharing common main clinical problems requiring full attention during the transitional phase were categorized into different groups of clinically related disorders. For each group of clinically related disorders, physicians from major Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network institutions focused on selected clinical issues representing the clinical hallmark during early adulthood.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(6): 851-860, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594341

RESUMO

Although recurrent infections in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) are common, and probably multifactorial, immunological abnormalities have not been extensively described with only isolated cases or small case series of immune deficiency and dysregulation having been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate primary immunodeficiency (PID) and immune dysregulation in an international cohort of patients with RSTS. All published cases of RSTS were identified. The corresponding authors and researchers involved in the diagnosis of inborn errors of immunity or genetic syndromes were contacted to obtain up-to-date clinical and immunological information. Ninety-seven RSTS patients were identified. For 45 patients, we retrieved data from the published reports while for 52 patients, a clinical update was provided. Recurrent or severe infections, autoimmune/autoinflammatory complications, and lymphoproliferation were observed in 72.1%, 12.3%, and 8.2% of patients. Syndromic immunodeficiency was diagnosed in 46.4% of individuals. Despite the broad heterogeneity of immunodeficiency disorders, antibody defects were observed in 11.3% of subjects. In particular, these patients presented hypogammaglobulinemia associated with low B cell counts and reduction of switched memory B cell numbers. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy, antibiotic prophylaxis, and immunosuppressive treatment were employed in 16.4%, 8.2%, and 9.8% of patients, respectively. Manifestations of immune dysfunctions, affecting mostly B cells, are more common than previously recognized in patients with RSTS. Full immunological assessment is warranted in these patients, who may require detailed investigation and specific supportive treatment. Graphical Abstract.

11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 108(2): 687-696, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542921

RESUMO

RAC2 is a GTPase that is exclusively expressed in hematopoietic cells. Animal models have suggested important roles for RAC2 in the biology of different cell types, such as neutrophils and lymphocytes. Primary immunodeficiencies represent "experimentum naturae" and offer priceless insight on the function of the human immune system. Mutations in RAC2 have been identified in a small number of patients giving rise to different forms of primary immunodeficiencies ranging from granulocyte defects caused by dominant negative mutations to combined immunodeficiency due to dominant activating mutations. This review will focus on the clinical and immunologic phenotype of patients with germline mutations in RAC2.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/etiologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/metabolismo , Proteínas rac de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rac de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Mutação
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(4): 901-911, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of NFKB1 variants are being identified in patients with heterogeneous immunologic phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical and cellular phenotype as well as the management of patients with heterozygous NFKB1 mutations. METHODS: In a worldwide collaborative effort, we evaluated 231 individuals harboring 105 distinct heterozygous NFKB1 variants. To provide evidence for pathogenicity, each variant was assessed in silico; in addition, 32 variants were assessed by functional in vitro testing of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-κB) signaling. RESULTS: We classified 56 of the 105 distinct NFKB1 variants in 157 individuals from 68 unrelated families as pathogenic. Incomplete clinical penetrance (70%) and age-dependent severity of NFKB1-related phenotypes were observed. The phenotype included hypogammaglobulinemia (88.9%), reduced switched memory B cells (60.3%), and respiratory (83%) and gastrointestinal (28.6%) infections, thus characterizing the disorder as primary immunodeficiency. However, the high frequency of autoimmunity (57.4%), lymphoproliferation (52.4%), noninfectious enteropathy (23.1%), opportunistic infections (15.7%), autoinflammation (29.6%), and malignancy (16.8%) identified NF-κB1-related disease as an inborn error of immunity with immune dysregulation, rather than a mere primary immunodeficiency. Current treatment includes immunoglobulin replacement and immunosuppressive agents. CONCLUSIONS: We present a comprehensive clinical overview of the NF-κB1-related phenotype, which includes immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, autoinflammation, and cancer. Because of its multisystem involvement, clinicians from each and every medical discipline need to be made aware of this autosomal-dominant disease. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and NF-κB1 pathway-targeted therapeutic strategies should be considered in the future.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 429-437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is the prototype of primary humoral immunodeficiencies. Long-term follow-up studies regarding disease-related complications and outcome are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the natural history of XLA. METHODS: A nationwide multicenter study based on the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry was established in 2000 in Italy. Affected patients were enrolled by documenting centers, and the patients' laboratory, clinical, and imaging data were recorded on an annual base. RESULTS: Data on the patients (N = 168) were derived from a cumulative follow-up of 1370 patient-years, with a mean follow-up of 8.35 years per patient. The mean age at diagnosis decreased after establishment of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry (84 months before vs 23 months after). Respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal manifestations were the most frequent clinical symptoms at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up. Regular immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduced the incidence of invasive infections. Affected patients developed chronic lung disease over time (47% after 40 years of follow-up) in the presence of chronic sinusitis (84%). Malignancies were documented in a minority of cases (3.7%). Overall survival for affected patients was significantly reduced when compared with that for the healthy male Italian population, and it further deteriorated in the presence of chronic lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed long-term follow-up study for patients with XLA, revealing that although immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduces the incidence of invasive infections, it does not appear to influence the development of chronic lung disease. The overall survival of affected patients is reduced. Further studies are warranted to improve patients' clinical management and increase awareness among physicians.

16.
Cell Rep ; 30(9): 2963-2977.e6, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130900

RESUMO

Memory B cells (MBCs) epitomize the adaptation of the immune system to the environment. We identify two MBC subsets in peripheral blood, CD27dull and CD27bright MBCs, whose frequency changes with age. Heavy chain variable region (VH) usage, somatic mutation frequency replacement-to-silent ratio, and CDR3 property changes, reflecting consecutive selection of highly antigen-specific, low cross-reactive antibody variants, all demonstrate that CD27dull and CD27bright MBCs represent sequential MBC developmental stages, and stringent antigen-driven pressure selects CD27dull into the CD27bright MBC pool. Dynamics of human MBCs are exploited in pregnancy, when 50% of maternal MBCs are lost and CD27dull MBCs transit to the more differentiated CD27bright stage. In the postpartum period, the maternal MBC pool is replenished by the expansion of persistent CD27dull clones. Thus, the stability and flexibility of human B cell memory is ensured by CD27dull MBCs that expand and differentiate in response to change.

17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164349

RESUMO

Complement deficiencies are rare and often underdiagnosed primary immunodeficiencies that may be associated with invasive bacterial diseases. Serious infections with encapsulated organisms (mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae, but also Neisseria meningitides and Haemophilus influenzae type B) are frequent in patients with a deficiency of the second component of complement (C2), but no data are available on long-term follow-up. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and the importance of an early diagnosis and subsequent infection prophylaxis in C2 deficiency. Here, we report the 21-year follow-up of a whole family which was tested for complement parameters, genetic analysis and biochemical measurements, due to recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in the elder brother. The two sons were diagnosed with homozygous type 1 C2 deficiency, while their parents were heterozygous with normal complement parameters. For the two brothers, a recommended vaccination program and antibiotic prophylaxis were prescribed. During the long-term follow-up, no severe/invasive infections were observed in either patient. At the age of 16, the younger brother developed progressive hypogammaglobulinemia of all three classes, IgA, IgM and IgG. A next generation sequencing panel excluded the presence of gene defects related to primary antibody deficiencies. Our data show that early diagnosis, use of vaccinations and antibiotic prophylaxis may allow a normal life in hereditary C2 deficiency, which can be characterized using functional and genetic methods. Moreover, a periodical check of immunoglobulin serum levels could be useful to detect a possible hypogammaglobulinemia.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Complemento C2/análise , Família , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complemento C2/deficiência , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino
18.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 24: 11-12, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017208

RESUMO

Primary B-cell immunodeficiency is the most frequent immune defect in infancy. Selective absence of serum and secretory immunoglobulin IgA is the most common, with rates ranging from 1/333 persons to 1/16 000, among different races. By contrast, it has been estimated that hypo/agammaglobulinemia occurs with a frequency of 1/50 000 persons. Patients with antibody deficiency are usually recognized because they have recurrent infections with encapsulated bacteria or a history of failure to respond adequately to antibiotic treatment. However, some individuals, mainly those affected by IgA deficiency (SIgAD) or transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy , may have few or no infections.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Deficiência de IgA/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina A/genética , Infecções/diagnóstico , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Ligante de CD40/genética , Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM Tipo 1/genética , Deficiência de IgA/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Recidiva
19.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108309, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751612

RESUMO

Mutations affecting the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB were recently identified to underlie a form of common variable immunodeficiency strongly associated with autoimmunity. Although intrinsic B-cell abnormalities explain most of the humoral defects of this disease, detailed data on the impact of NFKB2 on follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tregs) T cells are scarce. Here, we show that Tfh, CXCR5+, and CXCR5- Treg cell subsets were significantly reduced in patients heterozygous for a truncating mutation of NFKB2. Plasma CXCL13 levels were reduced, underlining an important role for NFKB2 in regulating the germinal center (GC) response. Proinflammatory IFNγ, IL-17 and IL-10 cytokine production by CD4 T cells was lower in the mutated patients, but the production of IL-4 and IL-21 was not altered. Taken together, our findings show that NFKB2 influences the quality and efficiency of human GC reaction, by affecting not only the B cells but also GC-relevant T cell subsets.

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