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1.
Clin Immunol ; : 108309, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751612

RESUMO

Mutations affecting the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB were recently identified to underlie a form of common variable immunodeficiency strongly associated with autoimmunity. Although intrinsic B-cell abnormalities explain most of the humoral defects of this disease, detailed data on the impact of NFKB2 on follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tregs) T cells are scarce. Here, we show that Tfh, CXCR5+, and CXCR5- Treg cell subsets were significantly reduced in patients heterozygous for a truncating mutation of NFKB2. Plasma CXCL13 levels were reduced, underlining an important role for NFKB2 in regulating the germinal center (GC) response. Proinflammatory IFNγ, IL-17 and IL-10 cytokine production by CD4 T cells was lower in the mutated patients, but the production of IL-4 and IL-21 was not altered. Taken together, our findings show that NFKB2 influences the quality and efficiency of human GC reaction, by affecting not only the B cells but also GC-relevant T cell subsets.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1757, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396241

RESUMO

Alessandro Moretta was Professor of Histology at University of Brescia from 1994 to 1997. It was in that period that we met and started a collaboration that continued in the years to follow. He immediately involved us in the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that allowed the identification and fine characterization of novel receptor molecules that were able to activate or inhibit human Natural Killer cell function, including several antibodies specific for Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR) and Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) molecules. These reagents, generated in our laboratory in Brescia, contributed to complete the studies aimed to characterize innate lymphoid NK cells, that had been initiated by Alessandro and his brother Lorenzo in Genoa. Soon, we identified an anti-KIR3DL2 that was subsequently shown to be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of various forms of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. While in Brescia, Alessandro established a partnership with those of us who were working in the Department of Pediatrics; together, in short time we tackled the goal of studying the role of NK cells in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. This collaboration led to novel discoveries that shed light on the critical role played by NK cells in the immune response against virus and tumors in humans, as best exemplified by our characterization of the molecular mechanisms of impaired control of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease. After Alessandro left Brescia to return to Genoa, our collaboration continued with the same enthusiasm, and even from a distance he remained an extraordinary example of an inspirational and generous mentor. This review is a sign of our gratitude to a mentor and a friend whom we deeply miss.

5.
Clin Immunol ; 207: 10-17, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279857

RESUMO

Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is a rare condition that may affect pediatric and adult patients, frequently associated with primary immunodeficiencies. We performed a retrospective study on clinical and histological findings from 40 AIE patients. Histological presentation showed a prevalent celiac disease pattern (50%), followed by the mixed pattern (35%), independently of age, chronic active duodenitis (10%), and GVHD-like pattern (5%). Patients with primary immunodeficiencies (24/40) presented mainly with the celiac disease pattern (72.2% versus 22.2%; p < .0001), while patients without primary immunodeficiencies presented with a mixed histological pattern (61.1% versus 13.6%; p < .0001). Our study shows that the prevalent histological presentation is the celiac disease-like pattern, independently of age, and, for the first time, that the histological presentation of AIE differs significantly between patients with and without primary immunodeficiencies. These findings may be helpful for more precise and timely diagnosis and management of this rare disorder.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(5): 470-475, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common humoral primary immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up data in large cohort of pediatric patients are scarce. METHODS: We report on a single-center cohort of 184 pediatric patients affected with selective IgA deficiency and describe the characteristics at diagnosis and during follow-up. RESULTS: Respiratory infections were the most common clinical finding leading to the initial diagnosis (62%). Positive family history for antibody deficiencies (selective IgA deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency) led to SIgAD diagnosis in 16% of cases. During follow-up, while the incidence of respiratory infections was not particularly high, gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 27% of patients. Allergic manifestations were found in 23% at diagnosis and an additional 16% of patients during follow-up, leading to a prevalence of atopy of 39% among SIgAD patients. Autoimmune manifestations, excluding celiac disease, were found in 9% of affected patients during follow-up. Celiac disease was found in a high prevalence (14%). Increase of serum IgA levels to partial deficiency (9%) and normal serum levels for age (4%) was observed during follow-up. A small percentage of patients (2%) progressed to common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this is the first study to describe a large single-center pediatric cohort of patients affected with SIgAD, revealing that overall most patients do well with regard to infections. Many develop CD, at a rate much higher than the general population. A few normalize their IgA levels. A few progress to CVID. Thus, careful follow-up is suggested to diagnose and treat potential complications earlier for avoiding potential morbidities.

7.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 61, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Warts Hypogammaglobulinemia Immunodeficiency Myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, severe chronic neutropenia, with lymphopenia, monocytopenia and myelokathexis which is caused by heterozygous gain of functions mutations of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). WHIM patients display an increased incidence of non-hematopoietic conditions, such as congenital heart disease suggesting that abnormal CXCR4 may put these patients at increased risk of congenital anomalies. Studies conducted on CXCR4 and SDF-1-deficient mice have demonstrated the role of CXCR4 signaling in neuronal cell migration and brain development. In particular, CXCR4 conditional knockout mice display abnormal cerebellar morphology and poor coordination and balance on motor testing. RESULTS: In order to evaluate a possible neurological involvement in WHIM syndrome subjects, we performed neurological examination, including International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale, cognitive and psychopathological assessment and brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in 6 WHIM patients (age range 8-51 years) with typical gain of functions mutations of CXCR4 (R334X or G336X). In three cases (P3, P5, P6) neurological evaluation revealed fine and global motor coordination disorders, balance disturbances, mild limb ataxia and excessive talkativeness. Brain MRI showed an abnormal orientation of the cerebellar folia involving bilaterally the gracilis and biventer lobules together with the tonsils in four subjects (P3, P4, P5, P6). The neuropsychiatric evaluation showed increased risk of internalizing and/or externalizing problems in four patients (P2, P3, P4, P6). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these observations suggest CXCR4 gain of function mutations can be associated with cerebellar malformation, mild neuromotor and psychopathological dysfunction in WHIM patients.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anormalidades , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Verrugas/complicações , Verrugas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Verrugas/genética , Verrugas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 584-593.e7, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lacking protective antibodies, patients with primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) experience frequent respiratory tract infections, leading to chronic pulmonary damage. Macrolide prophylaxis has proved effective in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of orally administered low-dose azithromycin prophylaxis in patients with PADs. METHODS: We designed a 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial to test whether oral azithromycin (250 mg administered once daily 3 times a week for 2 years) would reduce respiratory exacerbations in patients with PADs and chronic infection-related pulmonary diseases. The primary end point was the number of annual respiratory exacerbations. Secondary end points included time to first exacerbation, additional antibiotic courses, number of hospitalizations, and safety. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients received azithromycin (n = 44) or placebo (n = 45). The number of exacerbations was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.5-4.7) per patient-year in the azithromycin arm and 5.2 (95% CI, 4.1-6.4) per patient-year in the placebo arm (P = .02). In the azithromycin group the hazard risk for having an acute exacerbation was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = .03), and the hazard risk for hospitalization was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2-1.1; P = .04). The rate of additional antibiotic treatment per patient-year was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1-3.4) in the intervention group and 3.6 (95% CI, 2.9-4.3) in the placebo group (P = .004). Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the prevalent isolates, and they were not susceptible to macrolides in 25% of patients of both arms. Azithromycin's safety profile was comparable with that of placebo. CONCLUSION: The study reached the main outcome centered on the reduction of exacerbation episodes per patient-year, with a consequent reduction in additional courses of antibiotics and risk of hospitalization.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1180, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862798

RESUMO

A failure in optic fissure fusion during development can lead to blinding malformations of the eye. Here, we report a syndrome characterized by facial dysmorphism, colobomatous microphthalmia, ptosis and syndactyly with or without nephropathy, associated with homozygous frameshift mutations in FAT1. We show that Fat1 knockout mice and zebrafish embryos homozygous for truncating fat1a mutations exhibit completely penetrant coloboma, recapitulating the most consistent developmental defect observed in affected individuals. In human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the primary site for the fusion of optic fissure margins, FAT1 is localized at earliest cell-cell junctions, consistent with a role in facilitating optic fissure fusion during vertebrate eye development. Our findings establish FAT1 as a gene with pleiotropic effects in human, in that frameshift mutations cause a severe multi-system disorder whereas recessive missense mutations had been previously associated with isolated glomerulotubular nephropathy.


Assuntos
Blefaroptose/genética , Caderinas/genética , Coloboma/genética , Nefropatias/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Organogênese/genética , Sindactilia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Embrião de Mamíferos , Olho/embriologia , Ossos Faciais/anormalidades , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Junções Intercelulares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Cultura Primária de Células , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Síndrome , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(5): 1568-1577, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, variable phenotypic expression may delay diagnosis. Panleukopenia, malignancy, and chronic lung disease all affect morbidity and mortality risks. Routinely used treatments include immunoglobulins, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and antibiotics; recent trials with a target C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist show promising results. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the largest cohort of patients with WHIM and evaluate their diagnostic and therapeutic management. METHODS: Data were collected from an international cohort of 18 patients with CXCR4 mutations. RESULTS: The clinical features manifested at 2.2 ± 2.6 years of age, whereas the disease diagnosis was delayed until 12.5 ± 10.4 years of age. Patients with WHIM commonly presented with a severe bacterial infection (78%). Pneumonia recurrence was observed in 61% of patients and was complicated with bronchiectasis in 27%. Skin warts were observed in 61% of patients at a mean age of 11 years, whereas human papilloma virus (HPV)-related malignancies manifested in 16% of patients. All the patients had severe neutropenia (195 ± 102 cells/mm3 at onset), whereas lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia were detected in 88% and 58% of patients, respectively. Approximately 50% of patients received antibiotic prophylaxis, whereas G-CSF and immunoglobulin treatments were used in 72% and 55% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The WHIM syndrome onsets early in life and should be suspected in patients with chronic neutropenia. Patients with WHIM need careful monitoring and timely intervention for complications, mainly lung disease and HPV-related malignancies. We suggest that immunoglobulin therapy should be promptly considered to control the frequency of bacterial infections and prevent chronic lung damage.

12.
Clin Immunol ; 200: 31-34, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639166

RESUMO

This study reports on a novel activating p110δ mutation causing adult-onset hypogammaglobulinemia with lymphopenia without the classical presentation of atypical Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (ADPS-1), underlining thus the heterogeneous clinical and immunological presentation of p110δ mutated individuals and offers additional data on the role of p110δ in early and late B cell development in humans.

14.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 45-54, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547383

RESUMO

Studies of chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (ADS) suggest a broad range of bronchial pathology. However, there are as yet no multicentre studies to assess the variety of bronchial pathology in this patient group. One of the underlying reasons is the lack of a consensus methodology, a prerequisite to jointly document chest CT findings. We aimed to establish an international platform for the evaluation of bronchial pathology as assessed by chest CT and to describe the range of bronchial pathologies in patients with antibody deficiency. Ffteen immunodeficiency centres from 9 countries evaluated chest CT scans of patients with ADS using a predefined list of potential findings including an extent score for bronchiectasis. Data of 282 patients with ADS were collected. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) comprised the largest subgroup (232 patients, 82.3%). Eighty percent of CVID patients had radiological evidence of bronchial pathology including bronchiectasis in 61%, bronchial wall thickening in 44% and mucus plugging in 29%. Bronchiectasis was detected in 44% of CVID patients aged less than 20 years. Cough was a better predictor for bronchiectasis than spirometry values. Delay of diagnosis as well as duration of disease correlated positively with presence of bronchiectasis. The use of consensus diagnostic criteria and a pre-defined list of bronchial pathologies allows for comparison of chest CT data in multicentre studies. Our data suggest a high prevalence of bronchial pathology in CVID due to late diagnosis or duration of disease.


Assuntos
Brônquios/patologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Parede Torácica/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bronquiectasia/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espirometria/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Immunol ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500415

RESUMO

This study provides evidence for a novel role for NFKB2 in human B cell development in the bone marrow and in the periphery, leading to progressive peripheral B cell deficiency not always combined with autoimmune phenomena, broadening thus the clinical spectrum of NFKB2 mutated CVID disease and implying an essential role for NFKB2 in early human B cell development.

17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1761, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131802

RESUMO

Mutations in genes that control class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation during the germinal center (GC) response can cause diverse immune dysfunctions. In particular, mutations in CD40LG, CD40, AICDA, or UNG cause hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome, a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiencies. Follicular helper (Tfh) and follicular regulatory (Tfr) T cells play a key role in the formation and regulation of GCs, but their role in HIGM pathogenesis is still limited. Here, we found that compared to CD40 ligand (CD40L)- and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA)-deficient patients, circulating Tfh and Tfr cells were severely compromised in terms of frequency and activation phenotype in a child with CD40 deficiency. These findings offer useful insight for human Tfh biology, with potential implications for understanding the molecular basis of HIGM syndrome caused by mutations in CD40.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the penetrance, clinical features, and best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. METHODS: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers. RESULTS: We identified 133 subjects from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting a clinical penetrance of at least 67%; median age of onset was 11 years, and the mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16% (n = 15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), and respiratory (68%), gastrointestinal (59%), or neurological features (29%). Eight affected mutation carriers had lymphoma, and 3 had gastric cancer. An EBV association was found in 6 patients with malignancies. CTLA4 mutations were associated with lymphopenia and decreased T-, B-, and natural killer (NK) cell counts. Successful targeted therapies included application of CTLA-4 fusion proteins, mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV reactivation occurred in 2 affected mutation carriers after immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Affected mutation carriers with CTLA-4 insufficiency can present in any medical specialty. Family members should be counseled because disease manifestation can occur as late as 50 years of age. EBV- and cytomegalovirus-associated complications must be closely monitored. Treatment interventions should be coordinated in clinical trials.

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