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1.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1784-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-associated genetic variants and examine their implications for glycemic status evaluated by HbA1c in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diverse genetic ancestries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HbA1c in 9,636 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, followed by a replication among 4,729 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos from three independent studies. RESULTS: Our GWAS and replication analyses showed 10 previously known and novel loci associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance levels (P < 5.0 × 10-8). In particular, two African ancestry-specific variants, HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828, which are causal mutations for sickle cell disease and G6PD deficiency, respectively, had ∼10 times larger effect sizes on HbA1c levels (ß = -0.31% [-3.4 mmol/mol]) and -0.35% [-3.8 mmol/mol] per minor allele, respectively) compared with other HbA1c-associated variants (0.03-0.04% [0.3-0.4 mmol/mol] per allele). A novel Amerindian ancestry-specific variant, HBM-rs145546625, was associated with HbA1c and hematologic traits but not with fasting glucose. The prevalence of hyperglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) defined using fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test 2-h glucose was similar between carriers of HBB-rs334 or G6PD-rs1050828 HbA1c-lowering alleles and noncarriers, whereas the prevalence of hyperglycemia defined using HbA1c was significantly lower in carriers than in noncarriers (12.2% vs. 28.4%, P < 0.001). After recalibration of the HbA1c level taking HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828 into account, the prevalence of hyperglycemia in carriers was similar to noncarriers (31.3% vs. 28.4%, P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: This study in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos found several ancestry-specific alleles associated with HbA1c through erythrocyte-related rather than glycemic-related pathways. The potential influences of these nonglycemic-related variants need to be considered when the HbA1c test is performed.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403821

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Its prevalence and severity vary across ancestral background. Although OSA traits are heritable, few genetic associations have been identified. To identify genetic regions associated with OSA and improve statistical power, we applied admixture mapping on three primary OSA traits (the apnea hypopnea index [AHI], overnight average oxyhemoglobin saturation [SaO2] and percentage time SaO2<90%) and a secondary trait (respiratory event duration) in a Hispanic/Latino American population study of 11,575 individuals with significant variation in ancestral background. Linear mixed models were performed using previously inferred African, European and Amerindian local genetic ancestry markers. Global African ancestry was associated with a lower AHI, higher oxyhemoglobin saturation and shorter event duration. Admixture mapping analysis of the primary OSA traits identified local African ancestry at the chromosomal region 2q37 as genome-wide significantly associated with AHI (P<5.7×10-5), and European and Amerindian ancestries at 18q21 suggestively associated with both AHI and percentage time SaO2<90% (P<10-3). Follow-up joint ancestry-SNP association analyses identified novel variants in ferrochelatase (FECH), significantly associated with AHI and percentage time SaO2<90% after adjusting for multiple tests (P<8×10-6). These signals contributed to the admixture mapping associations and were replicated in independent cohorts. In this first admixture mapping study of OSA, novel associations with variants in the iron/heme metabolism pathway suggest a role for iron in influencing respiratory traits underlying OSA.

3.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(4): 440-448, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323929

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis, like primary ciliary dyskinesia, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal mucociliary clearance and obstructive lung disease. We hypothesized that genes underlying the development or function of cilia may modify lung disease severity in persons with cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To test this hypothesis, we compared variants in 93 candidate genes in both upper and lower tertiles of lung function in a large cohort of children and adults with cystic fibrosis with those of a population control dataset. METHODS: Variants within candidate genes were tested for association using the SKAT-O test, comparing cystic fibrosis cases defined by poor (n = 127) or preserved (n = 127) lung function with population controls (n = 3,269 or 3,148, respectively). Associated variants were then tested for association with related phenotypes in independent datasets. RESULTS: Variants in DNAH14 and DNAAF3 were associated with poor lung function in cystic fibrosis, whereas variants in DNAH14 and DNAH6 were associated with preserved lung function in cystic fibrosis. Associations between DNAH14 and lung function were replicated in disease-related phenotypes characterized by obstructive lung disease in adults. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants within DNAH6, DNAH14, and DNAAF3 are associated with variation in lung function among persons with cystic fibrosis.

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