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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5059, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429413

RESUMO

With the current interest in cultured meat, mammalian cell-based meat has mostly been unstructured. There is thus still a high demand for artificial steak-like meat. We demonstrate in vitro construction of engineered steak-like tissue assembled of three types of bovine cell fibers (muscle, fat, and vessel). Because actual meat is an aligned assembly of the fibers connected to the tendon for the actions of contraction and relaxation, tendon-gel integrated bioprinting was developed to construct tendon-like gels. In this study, a total of 72 fibers comprising 42 muscles, 28 adipose tissues, and 2 blood capillaries were constructed by tendon-gel integrated bioprinting and manually assembled to fabricate steak-like meat with a diameter of 5 mm and a length of 10 mm inspired by a meat cut. The developed tendon-gel integrated bioprinting here could be a promising technology for the fabrication of the desired types of steak-like cultured meats.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Géis , Carne , Tendões , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Colágeno , Células Endoteliais , Músculos/citologia , Músculos/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Células-Tronco , Tendões/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual
2.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803331

RESUMO

There is a need in plastic surgery to prepare autologous adipocytes that can be transplanted in patients to reconstruct soft tissue defects caused by tumor resection, including breast cancer, and by trauma and other diseases. Direct conversion of somatic cells into adipocytes may allow sufficient functional adipocytes to be obtained for use in regeneration therapy. Chemical libraries of 10,800 molecules were screened for the ability to induce lipid accumulation in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) in culture. Chemical compound-mediated directly converted adipocytes (CCCAs) were characterized by lipid staining, immunostaining, and qRT-PCR, and were also tested for adipokine secretion and glucose uptake. CCCAs were also implanted into mice to examine their distribution in vivo. STK287794 was identified as a small molecule that induced the accumulation of lipid droplets in HDFs. CCCAs expressed adipocyte-related genes, secreted adiponectin and leptin, and abundantly incorporated glucose. After implantation in mice, CCCAs resided in granulation tissue and remained adipose-like. HDFs were successfully converted into adipocytes by adding a single chemical compound, STK287794. C/EBPα and PPARγ were upregulated in STK287794-treated cells, which strongly suggests involvement of these adipocyte-related transcription factors in the chemical direct conversion. Our method may be useful for the preparation of autogenous adipocytes for transplantation therapy for soft tissue defects and fat tissue atrophy.

3.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727054

RESUMO

Conventional microarray analysis usually deals with the monolayer or two-dimensional (2D) assays for the high-throughput screening applications. Even though these cell-based assays are effective for preliminary screening at least to have information on cytotoxicity, they do not adequately re-create the in vivo complexity of three-dimensional (3D) tissues. In this study, 3D-blood capillary models were constructed by using physiological collagen microfibers (CMF), which provide the extracellular matrix in the complex tissue. Micro-droplets of fibrin gels containing CMF, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts were cultured for five days in 48-wells plate to provide a medium-throughput system for screening applications. Blood capillaries networks were formed by optimizing the concentration of CMF used and the number of cells. Finally, this screening method was a powerful assay for the application on the selection of not only a specific chemical probe for blood capillary live-imaging, but also a drug, aptamer, and peptide with potential blood vessel targeting property.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081434

RESUMO

Skin aging cannot be escaped, being due to both intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. They lead to a reduced extracellular collagen matrix in the dermis, along with a higher degradation by metalloproteases (MMPs) activity, as well as a lower differentiation and function of epidermis keratinocytes, characterized by wrinkling and loss of skin elasticity. One of the recent technology to overcome this skin aging process is the use of radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasound (US) technologies which use thermal stimulation to induce neocollagenesis in the skin. But no explanations exist on the involved pathways. Our hypothesis is that RF-US generated heat increases the collagen formation via the heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) induction, a heat sensitive protein related to the collagen expression. To confirm this hypothesis, normal human skin substitutes were subjected to RF-US treatment and results were monitored after 24 and 44 h. RNA sequencing showed a significant induction for the genes related to the epidermis differentiation processes. Almost all keratin genes were thus found upregulated from 2 to 15 times, while collagen type XVII and collagen type IV were increased 12 and 5 times respectively. In parallel, most of MMP genes were observed downregulated. RF-US treatment significantly increased levels of HSP47 proteins, while collagen XVII proteins showed a tendency to be increased and glycosaminoglycans were found 1.4 times significantly enhanced. Finally, histology assessment showed a higher expression of cytokeratins 10 and 14 which can testify a possible reactivation of the skin proliferative state as a rejuvenation strategy.

5.
Acta Biomater ; 84: 194-207, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502481

RESUMO

Although adipose tissue is one of the most abundant tissues of the human body, its reconstruction remains a competitive challenge. The conventional in vitro two or three-dimensional (2D or 3D) models of mature adipocytes unfortunately lead to their quick dedifferentiation after one week, and complete differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) usually requires more than one month. In this context, we developed biomimetic 3D adipose tissues with high density collagen by mixing type I collagen microfibers with primary mouse mature adipocytes or human ADSC in transwells. These 3D-tissues ensured a better long-term maintained phenotype of unilocular mature adipocytes, compared to 2D, with a viability of 96 ±â€¯2% at day 14 and a good perilipin immunostaining, - the protein necessary for stabilizing the fat vesicles. For comparison, in 2D culture, mature adipocytes released their fat until splitting their single adipose vesicle into several ones with significantly 4 times smaller size. Concerning ADSC, the adipogenic genes expression in 3D-tissues was found at least doubled throughout the differentiation (over 8 times higher for GLUT4 at day 21), along with it, almost 4 times larger fat vesicles were observed (10 ±â€¯4 µm at day 14). Perilipin immunostaining and leptin secretion, the satiety protein, attested the significantly doubled better functionality of ADSC in 3D adipose tissues. These obtained long-term maintained phenotype and fast adipogenesis make this model relevant for either cosmetic/pharmaceutical assays or plastic surgery purposes. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Adipose tissue has important roles in our organism, providing energy from its lipids storage and secreting many vital proteins. However, its reconstruction in a functional in vitro adipose tissue is still a challenge. Mature adipocytes directly extracted from surgery liposuctions quickly lose their lipids after a week in vitro and the use of differentiated adipose stem cells is too time-consuming. We developed a new artificial fat tissue using collagen microfibers. These tissues allowed the maintenance of viable big unilocular mature adipocytes up to two weeks and the faster adipogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells. Moreover, the adipose functionality confirmed by perilipin and leptin assessments makes this model suitable for further applications in cosmetic/pharmaceutical drug assays or for tissue reconstruction.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Colágeno/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leptina/biossíntese , Camundongos
6.
Metallomics ; 10(4): 639-649, 2018 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652073

RESUMO

In animal cells the specific translational control of proteins contributing to iron homeostasis is mediated by the interaction between the Iron Regulatory Proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) and the Iron Responsive Elements (IRE) located in the untranslated regions (UTR) of regulated messengers, such as those encoding ferritin or the transferrin receptor. The absolute concentrations of the components of this regulatory system in hematopoietic cells and the ability of the endogenous IRP to regulate exogenous IRE have been measured. The IRP concentration is in the low µM (10-6 M) range, whereas the most abundant IRE-containing messenger RNA (mRNA), i.e. those of the ferritin subunits, do not exceed 100 nM (10-7 M). Most other IRP mRNA targets are around or below 1 nM. The distribution of the mRNA belonging to the cellular iron network is similar in human leukemic cell lines and in normal cord blood progenitors, with differences among the cellular models only associated with their different propensities to synthesize hemoglobin. Thus, the IRP regulator is in large excess over its presently identified regulated mRNA targets. Yet, despite this excess, endogenous IRP poorly represses translation of transfected luciferase cDNA engineered with a series of IRE sequences in the 5' UTR. The cellular concentrations of the central hubs of the mammalian translational iron network will have to be included in the description of the proliferative phenotype of leukemic cells and in assessing any therapeutic action targeting iron provision.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras do Ferro/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Elementos de Resposta , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Reguladoras do Ferro/genética , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transfecção , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
7.
NPJ Microgravity ; 3: 7, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649629

RESUMO

Microgravity-related cytoskeletal disorganization is associated with an altered balance between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis of multipotent cells. Strontium chloride is known to increase osteoblastogenesis and repress adipogenesis, but its effects in microgravity-related conditions have not been established. Our goal was to investigate early events in this process, focusing on RhoGTPases as controllers of cytoskeletal organization leading to stem cell commitment. We cultivated C3H10T1/2 on microspheres using a rotating wall vessel bioreactor (NASA) in order to simulate microgravity-related conditions in adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis conditions independently. We observed that rotating wall vessel cultures presented increased adipogenesis, while osteoblastogenesis was reduced. Strontium-treated multipotent cells presented a significant repression in adipogenesis (-90 %, p < 0.001 PPARyD8) and an activation of osteoblastogenesis (+95 %, p < 0.001 bone sialoprotein and osteopontin D8), even in gravity altered conditions. We established that concomitant RhoA/Rac1 activations were associated with osteoblastogenesis enhancement and adipogenesis limitation in uncommitted cells. As vascular endothelial growth factor splicing is mechanosensitive and its signaling is central to stem cell commitment, we investigated vascular endothelial growth factor production, isoforms and receptors expressions in our conditions. We observed that vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors expressions were not significantly affected, but we found that presence of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor was associated with RhoA/Rac1 activations, whereas sequestration of vascular endothelial growth factor by cells was associated with RhoA/Rac1 inhibitions. We propose that strontium triggers secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and the subsequent Rac1 and RhoA activations leading to repression of adipogenesis and osteogenesis stimulation validating strontium as a counter measure for microgravity-induced alteration of cell commitment.

8.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 114(8): 1813-1824, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398656

RESUMO

The lack of relevant in vitro models for adipose tissue makes necessary the development of a more physiological environment providing spatial and chemical cues for the effective maturation of adipocytes. We developed a biofunctionalized hydrogel with components of adipose extracellular matrix: collagen I, collagen VI, and the cell binding domain of fibronectin and we compared it to usual 2D cultures on plastic plates. This scaffold allowed 3D culture of mature adipocytes from the preadipocytes cell lines 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A, as well as primary Human White Preadipocytes (HWP), acquiring in vivo-like organization, with spheroid shaped adipocytes forming multicellular aggregates. The size of these aggregates increased with time up to 120 µm in diameter after 4 weeks of maturation, with good viability. Significantly higher lipogenic activity (up to 20-fold at day 28 for HWP cultures) and differentiation rates were also observed compared to 2D. Gene expression analyses highlighted earlier differentiation and complete maturation of 3D HWP compared to 2D, reinforced by the expression of Perilipin protein after 21 days of nutrition. This increase in adipocytes phenotypic and genotypic markers made this scaffold-driven culture as a robust adipose 3D model. Retinoic acid inhibition of lipogenesis in HWP or isoprenalin and caffeine induction of lipolysis performed on mouse 3T3-F442A cells, showed higher doses of molecules than typically used in 2D, underlying the physiologic relevance of this 3D culture system. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1813-1824. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/química , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Tecidos Suporte , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Camundongos , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 747693, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25649831

RESUMO

A growing number of studies are revealing that cells reorganize their cytoskeleton when exposed to conditions of microgravity. Most, if not all, of the structural changes observed on flown cells can be explained by modulation of RhoGTPases, which are mechanosensitive switches responsible for cytoskeletal dynamics control. This review identifies general principles defining cell sensitivity to gravitational stresses. We discuss what is known about changes in cell shape, nucleus, and focal adhesions and try to establish the relationship with specific RhoGTPase activities. We conclude by considering the potential relevance of live imaging of RhoGTPase activity or cytoskeletal structures in order to enhance our understanding of cell adaptation to microgravity-related conditions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Ausência de Peso , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos
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