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1.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347626

RESUMO

Severe aortic stenosis is a widespread valve disease, constituting a contraindication to organ transplantation due to cardiovascular morbidity and projected mortality. Mortality after conventional surgical aortic valve replacement in cirrhotic patients depends upon the Child Pugh's class. In the past few years, trans-catheter aortic valve replacement has progressively become the treatment of choice for high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Here, we report the cases of three cirrhotic patients who became eligible for liver transplantation after successful trans-catheter aortic valve replacement as bridge therapy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) causes chronic liver disease. We investigated how information on patients' drinking history and amount, stage of liver disease, and demographic feature can be used to determine risk of disease progression. METHODS: We collected data from 2334 heavy drinkers (50 g/day or more) with persistently abnormal results from liver tests who had been admitted to a hepato-gastroenterology unit in France from January 1982 through December 1997; patients with a recorded duration of alcohol abuse were assigned to the development cohort (n=1599; 75% men) or the validation cohort (n=735; 75% men), based on presence of a liver biopsy. We collected data from both cohorts on patient history and disease stage at the time of hospitalization. For the development cohort, severity of the disease was scored by the METAVIR (due to the availability of liver histology reports); in the validation cohort only the presence of liver complications was assessed. We developed a model of ALD progression and occurrence of liver complications (hepatocellular carcinoma and/or liver decompensation) in association with exposure to alcohol, age at the onset of heavy drinking, amount of alcohol intake, sex and body mass index. The model was fitted to the development cohort and then evaluated in the validation cohort. We then tested the ability of the model to predict disease progression for any patient profile (baseline evaluation). Patients with a 5-y weighted risk of liver complications greater than 5% were considered at high risk for disease progression. RESULTS: Model results are given for the following patient profiles: men and women, 40 y old, who started drinking at an age of 25 y, drank 150 g/day, and had a body mass index of 22 kg/m2 according to the disease severity at baseline evaluation. For men with baseline F0-F2 fibrosis, the model estimated the probabilities of normal liver, steatosis, or steatohepatitis at baseline to be 31.8%, 61.5% and 6.7%, respectively. The 5-y weighted risk of liver complications was 1.9%, ranging from 0.2% for men with normal liver at baseline evaluation to 10.3% for patients with steatohepatitis at baseline. For women with baseline F0-F2 fibrosis, probabilities of normal liver, steatosis, or steatohepatitis at baseline were 25.1%, 66.5% and 8.4%, respectively; the 5-y weighted risk of liver complications was 3.2%, ranging from 0.5% for women with normal liver at baseline to 14.7% for patients with steatohepatitis at baseline. Based on the model, men with F3-F4 fibrosis at baseline have a 24.5% 5-y weighted risk of complications (ranging from 20.2% to 34.5%) and women have a 30.1% 5-y weighted risk of complications (ranging from 24.7% to 41.0%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a Markov model that integrates data on level and duration of alcohol use to identify patients at high risk of liver disease progression. This model might be used to adapt patient care pathways.

3.
J Hepatol ; 72(6): 1052-1061, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is associated with a high risk of infection. The IL-33/ST2 pathway is involved in sepsis control but data regarding its role in alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are lacking. We aimed to characterize the role of IL-33/ST2 in the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of patients with ALD and SAH. METHODS: Serum and circulating neutrophils were collected from patients with SAH, alcoholic cirrhosis and healthy controls. We quantified IL-33/ST2 pathway activity and CXCR2 at baseline and after exposure to IL-33. We also determined the migration capacity of PMNs. RESULTS: The decoy receptor of IL-33 (soluble ST2 [sST2]) was increased in SAH vs. cirrhosis and controls, demonstrating the defect in this pathway during ALD. The sST2 level was associated with response to treatment, 2-month survival, infection-free survival and probability of infection in SAH. Endotoxemia was weakly correlated with sST2. GRK2, a negative regulator of CXCR2, was overexpressed in PMNs of patients with SAH and cirrhosis and was decreased by IL-33. CXCR2 levels on PMNs were lower in SAH vs. cirrhosis and controls. Treatment with IL-33 partially restored CXCR2 expression in SAH and cirrhosis. PMN migration upon IL-8 was lower in patients with SAH and cirrhosis vs. controls. Treatment with IL-33 partially restored migration in those with SAH and cirrhosis. Interestingly, the migration capacity of PMNs and the response to IL-33 were enhanced in responders to corticosteroids (Lille <0.45) compared to non-responders. CONCLUSION: The IL33/ST2 pathway is defective in SAH and predicts outcome. This defect is associated with decreased CXCR2 expression on the surface of PMNs and lower migration capacity, which can be corrected by IL-33, especially in patients responding to steroids. These results suggest that IL-33 has therapeutic potential for SAH and its infectious complications. LAY SUMMARY: The neutrophils of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis are associated with a defect in the IL-33/ST2 pathway. This defect is associated with lower migration capacities in neutrophils and a higher probability of getting infected. Administration of IL-33 to the neutrophils at least partly restores this defect and may be effective at reducing the risk of infection in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis.

4.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 522-538, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228214

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption causes increased intestinal permeability and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition, which contribute to the development and progression of alcohol-related liver disease. In this setting, little is known about commensal fungi in the gut. We studied the intestinal mycobiota in a cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, patients with alcohol use disorder, and nonalcoholic controls using fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing of fecal samples. We further measured serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a systemic immune response to fungal products or fungi. Candida was the most abundant genus in the fecal mycobiota of the two alcohol groups, whereas genus Penicillium dominated the mycobiome of nonalcoholic controls. We observed a lower diversity in the alcohol groups compared with controls. Antibiotic or steroid treatment was not associated with a lower diversity. Patients with alcoholic hepatitis had significantly higher ASCA levels compared to patients with alcohol use disorder and to nonalcoholic controls. Within the alcoholic hepatitis cohort, patients with levels of at least 34 IU/mL had a significantly lower 90-day survival (59%) compared with those with ASCA levels less than 34 IU/mL (80%) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.13 (95% CI, 1.11-8.82; P = 0.031). Conclusion: Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have a lower fungal diversity with an overgrowth of Candida compared with controls. Higher serum ASCA was associated with increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Intestinal fungi may serve as a therapeutic target to improve survival, and ASCA may be useful to predict the outcome in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

5.
Nature ; 575(7783): 505-511, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723265

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease due to alcohol-use disorder contributes markedly to the global burden of disease and mortality1-3. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe and life-threatening form of alcohol-associated liver disease. The gut microbiota promotes ethanol-induced liver disease in mice4, but little is known about the microbial factors that are responsible for this process. Here we identify cytolysin-a two-subunit exotoxin that is secreted by Enterococcus faecalis5,6-as a cause of hepatocyte death and liver injury. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals or patients with alcohol-use disorder, patients with alcoholic hepatitis have increased faecal numbers of E. faecalis. The presence of cytolysin-positive (cytolytic) E. faecalis correlated with the severity of liver disease and with mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Using humanized mice that were colonized with bacteria from the faeces of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, we investigated the therapeutic effects of bacteriophages that target cytolytic E. faecalis. We found that these bacteriophages decrease cytolysin in the liver and abolish ethanol-induced liver disease in humanized mice. Our findings link cytolytic E. faecalis with more severe clinical outcomes and increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We show that bacteriophages can specifically target cytolytic E. faecalis, which provides a method for precisely editing the intestinal microbiota. A clinical trial with a larger cohort is required to validate the relevance of our findings in humans, and to test whether this therapeutic approach is effective for patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3126, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311938

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by profound hepatocellular dysfunction for which targeted treatments are urgently needed. Identification of molecular drivers is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. By performing RNA sequencing in livers from patients with different phenotypes of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), we show that development of AH is characterized by defective activity of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). TGFß1 is a key upstream transcriptome regulator in AH and induces the use of HNF4α P2 promoter in hepatocytes, which results in defective metabolic and synthetic functions. Gene polymorphisms in LETFs including HNF4α are not associated with the development of AH. In contrast, epigenetic studies show that AH livers have profound changes in DNA methylation state and chromatin remodeling, affecting HNF4α-dependent gene expression. We conclude that targeting TGFß1 and epigenetic drivers that modulate HNF4α-dependent gene expression could be beneficial to improve hepatocellular function in patients with AH.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biópsia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Alcoólica/patologia , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
7.
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 627, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214036

RESUMO

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a natural component of cannabis that possesses a widespread and complex immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anxiolytic, and antiepileptic properties. Much experimental data suggest that CBD could be used for various purposes in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol-related damage on the brain and the liver. Aim: To provide a rationale for using CBD to treat human subjects with AUD, based on the findings of experimental studies. Methods: Narrative review of studies pertaining to the assessment of CBD efficiency on drinking reduction, or on the improvement of any aspect of alcohol-related toxicity in AUD. Results: Experimental studies find that CBD reduces the overall level of alcohol drinking in animal models of AUD by reducing ethanol intake, motivation for ethanol, relapse, anxiety, and impulsivity. Moreover, CBD reduces alcohol-related steatosis and fibrosis in the liver by reducing lipid accumulation, stimulating autophagy, modulating inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, and by inducing death of activated hepatic stellate cells. Finally, CBD reduces alcohol-related brain damage, preventing neuronal loss by its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Conclusions: CBD could directly reduce alcohol drinking in subjects with AUD. Any other applications warrant human trials in this population. By reducing alcohol-related steatosis processes in the liver, and alcohol-related brain damage, CBD could improve both hepatic and neurocognitive outcomes in subjects with AUD, regardless of the individual's drinking trajectory. This might pave the way for testing new harm reduction approaches in AUD, in order to protect the organs of subjects with an ongoing AUD.

10.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 50(1): 75-83, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Further study is needed on the prognostic impact of cirrhosis on haemodialysis patients. AIM: To evaluate cirrhosis' impact according to severity on survival and to provide therapeutic guidelines for haemodialysis cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Patients with end-stage renal failure treated with haemodialysis were included retrospectively from 01/01/2000 to 31/12/2004 and prospectively from 01/01/2005 to 31/12/2014 in our French Region. Clinical data, presence of cirrhosis and its severity were recorded at the beginning of haemodialysis. The primary endpoint was 2-year survival. RESULTS: Seven thousand three hundred and fifty-four patients (96%) without cirrhosis and 304 patients (4%) with cirrhosis were included. Two-year survival in noncirrhotic patients was higher than in cirrhotic patients (71.7% vs 54.4%, P < 0.0001). Patients with decompensated cirrhosis had a worse 2-year outcome (44.1%) as compared to compensated cirrhotic (62.8%, P = 0.002) and noncirrhotic patients (71.7%, P < 0.0001). Compensated and decompensated cirrhosis were independent predictive factors of 2-year mortality. In sensitivity analysis restricted to cirrhotic patients, 2-year survival of Child-Pugh A patients was higher than in Child-Pugh B and C patients (65.5% vs 27.7% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Development of predictive models based either on severity scores (MELD and Child-Pugh) and extrahepatic comorbidities allowed correct classification of around 70% of patients in terms of mortality and may help to better stratify mortality risk in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Cirrhosis is independently associated with mortality in haemodialysis patients. Patients with severe cirrhosis have a poor 2-year outcome. Severity of cirrhosis and presence of extrahepatic comorbidities should be considered when deciding to initiate renal replacement therapy.

11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(7): 1878-1892, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related liver disease is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver disease are not well understood. Oxylipins play a crucial role in numerous biological processes and pathological conditions. Nevertheless, oxylipins are not well studied in alcohol-related liver disease. AIMS: (1) To characterize the patterns of bioactive ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites in alcohol use disorder and alcoholic hepatitis patients and (2) to identify associations of serum oxylipins with clinical parameters in patients with alcohol-related liver disease. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of serum and fecal oxylipins derived from ω-6 arachidonic acid, ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in a patient cohort with alcohol-related liver disease. RESULTS: Our results show profound alterations in the serum oxylipin profile of patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic hepatitis compared to nonalcoholic controls. Spearman correlation of the oxylipins with clinical parameters shows a link between different serum oxylipins and intestinal permeability, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, international normalized ratio, platelet count, steatosis, fibrosis and model for end-stage liver disease score. Especially, higher level of serum 20-HETE was significantly associated with decreased albumin, increased hepatic steatosis, polymorphonuclear infiltration, and 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with alcohol-related liver disease have different oxylipin profiles. Future studies are required to confirm oxylipins as disease biomarker or to connect oxylipins to disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Fezes/química , Hepatite Alcoólica/sangue , Oxilipinas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Feminino , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
J Hepatol ; 70(5): 831-838, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Before antiviral therapy, kidney transplant recipients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) had poor outcomes. Since the 90s, nucleos(t)ide analogues have been widely used in HBV-infected patients, while interferon-based therapy was rarely used in HCV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HBV and HCV on patient and graft survival, according to viral replication status. METHODS: Data from January 1993 to December 2010 were extracted from the French national database CRISTAL. A total of 31,433 kidney transplant recipients were included, of whom 575, 1,060 and 29,798 had chronic hepatitis B, C, or were not infected, respectively. RESULTS: Ten-year survival was lower in HCV-infected (71.3%) than in HBV-infected (81.2%, p = 0.0004) or non-infected kidney transplant recipients (82.7%, p <0.0001). Ten-year kidney graft survival was lower in HCV-infected (50.6%) than in HBV-infected (62.3%, p <0.0001) or non-infected kidney transplant recipients (64.7%, p <0.0001). A random analysis of the medical records of 184 patients with HBV and 504 patients with HCV showed a control of viral replication in 94% and 35% of cases, respectively. Ten-year patient and graft survival in patients with detectable HCV RNA was lower than in their matching controls. Conversely, patients with HCV and undetectable HCV RNA had higher 10-year survival than their matched controls without significant differences in graft survival. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HBV infection does not impact 10-year patient and kidney graft survival thanks to control of viral replication with nucleos(t)ide analogues. In kidney transplant recipients infected with HCV, patients with detectable RNA had worse outcomes, whereas the outcomes of those with undetectable RNA were at least as good as non-infected patients. Thus, direct-acting antivirals should be systematically offered to HCV-infected patients. LAY SUMMARY: Previously, infections with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus led to poor outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. However, the outcomes of kidney transplants in patients with viral suppression are as good as those for kidney transplants in non-infected patients. Antiviral therapy should be systematically proposed to hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C-infected kidney transplant recipients or candidates to prevent the deleterious hepatic and extrahepatic impact of chronic viral replication. Recent access to direct-acting antivirals in patients with hepatitis C virus and renal dysfunction provides exciting new opportunities.

13.
J Hepatol ; 70(6): 1159-1169, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In liver transplantation, organ shortage leads to the use of marginal grafts that are more susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We identified nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) as an important modulator of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-induced liver injury, which occurs in IR. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the role of NOD1 in IR injury, particularly focusing on its effects on the endothelium and hepatocytes. METHOD: Nod1 WT and KO mice were treated with NOD1 agonists and subjected to liver IR. Expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed in total liver, isolated hepatocytes and endothelial cells. Interactions between PMNs and hepatocytes were studied in an ex vivo co-culture model using electron microscopy and lactate dehydrogenase levels. We generated NOD1 antagonist-loaded nanoparticles (np ALINO). RESULTS: NOD1 agonist treatment increased liver injury, PMN tissue infiltration and upregulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression 20 hours after reperfusion. NOD1 agonist treatment without IR increased expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) in total liver and more particularly in WT hepatocytes, but not in Nod1 KO hepatocytes. This induction is dependent of p38 and ERK signaling pathways. Compared to untreated hepatocytes, a NOD1 agonist markedly increased hepatocyte lysis in co-culture with PMNs as shown by the increase of lactate dehydrogenase in supernatants. Interaction between hepatocytes and PMNs was confirmed by electron microscopy. In a mouse model of liver IR, treatment with np ALINO significantly reduced the area of necrosis, aminotransferase levels and ICAM-1 expression. CONCLUSION: NOD1 regulates liver IR injury through induction of adhesion molecules and modulation of hepatocyte-PMN interactions. NOD1 antagonist-loaded nanoparticles reduced liver IR injury and provide a potential approach to prevent IR, especially in the context of liver transplantation. LAY SUMMARY: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is as an important modulator of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-induced liver injury, which occurs in ischemia-reperfusion. Here, we show that the NOD1 pathway targets liver adhesion molecule expression on the endothelium and on hepatocytes through p38 and ERK signaling pathways. The early increase of adhesion molecule expression after reperfusion emphasizes the importance of adhesion molecules in liver injury. In this study we generated nanoparticles loaded with NOD1 antagonist. These nanoparticles reduced liver necrosis by reducing PMN liver infiltration and adhesion molecule expression.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 155(6): 1816-1827.e9, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is debate over the effects of long-term oral fluoroquinolone therapy in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment with the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin on survival of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a double-blind trial of 291 patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis who had not received recent fluoroquinolone therapy. The study was performed at 18 clinical sites in France from April 2010 through November 2014. Patients were randomly assigned to groups given 400 mg norfloxacin (n = 144) or placebo (n = 147) once daily for 6 months. Patients were evaluated monthly for the first 6 months and at 9 months and 12 months thereafter. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality, estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, censoring spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, liver transplantation, or loss during follow-up. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 6-month mortality was 14.8% for patients receiving norfloxacin and 19.7% for patients receiving placebo (P = .21). In competing risk analysis that took liver transplantation into account, the cumulative incidence of death at 6 months was significantly lower in the norfloxacin group than in the placebo group (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.99). The subdistribution hazard ratio for death at 6 months with norfloxacin vs placebo was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.93) in patients with ascites fluid protein concentrations <15 g/L and 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-4.57) in patients with ascites fluid protein concentrations ≥15 g/L. Norfloxacin significantly decreased the incidence of any and Gram-negative bacterial infections without increasing infections caused by Clostridium difficile or multiresistant bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized controlled trial of patients with advanced cirrhosis without recent fluoroquinolone therapy, norfloxacin did not reduce 6-month mortality, estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Norfloxacin, however, appears to increase survival of patients with low ascites fluid protein concentrations. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01037959.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Norfloxacino/administração & dosagem , Ascite/etiologia , Ascite/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Hepatol ; 69(6): 1274-1283, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: More than 90% of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occur in patients with cirrhosis, of which alcohol is a major cause. The CIRRAL cohort aimed to assess the burden of complications in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, particularly the occurrence of HCC. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were included then prospectively followed. The main endpoint was the incidence of HCC. Secondary outcomes were incidence of hepatic focal lesions, overall survival (OS), liver-related mortality and event-free survival (EFS). RESULTS: From October 2010 to April 2016, 652 patients were included in 22 French and Belgian centers. During follow-up (median 29 months), HCC was diagnosed in 43 patients. With the limitation derived from the uncertainty of consecutive patients' inclusion and from a sizable proportion of dropouts (153/652), the incidence of HCC was 2.9 per 100 patient-years, and one- and two-year cumulative incidences of 1.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Although HCC fulfilled the Milan criteria in 33 cases (77%), only 24 patients (56%) underwent curative treatment. An explorative prognostic analysis showed that age, male gender, baseline alpha-fetoprotein, bilirubin and prothrombin were significantly associated with the risk of HCC occurrence. Among 73 deaths, 61 had a recorded cause and 27 were directly attributable to liver disease. At two years, OS, EFS and cumulative incidences of liver-related deaths were 93% (95% CI 90.5-95.4), 80.3% (95% CI 76.9-83.9), and 3.2% (95% CI 1.6-4.8) respectively. CONCLUSION: This large prospective cohort incompletely representative of the whole population with alcoholic cirrhosis showed: a) an annual incidence of HCC of up to 2.9 per 100 patient-years, suggesting that surveillance might be cost effective in these patients; b) a high proportion of HCC detected within the Milan criteria, but only one-half of detected HCC cases were referred for curative treatments; c) a two-year mortality rate of up to 7%. LAY SUMMARY: Cirrhosis is a risk factor for primary liver cancer, leading to recommendations for periodic screening. However, for alcohol-related liver disease the rational of periodic screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial, as registry and databased studies have suggested a low incidence of HCC in these patients and highly competitive mortality rates. In this study, a large cohort of patients with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis prospectively screened for HCC demonstrated a high annual incidence of HCC (2.9%) and a high percentage of small cancers theoretically eligible for curative treatment. This suggests that patients with liver disease related to alcohol should not be ruled out of screening.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bilirrubina/sangue , Biópsia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Protrombina/análise , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise
16.
Gastroenterology ; 155(2): 458-468.e8, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 11 randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids, pentoxifylline, or their combination in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. We compared the effects of the treatments on survival for 28 days or 6 months, and response to treatment based on the Lille model. METHODS: We searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis. Our final analysis comprised 11 studies, of 2111 patients. We performed 4 meta-analyses of the effects of corticosteroids vs placebo or control, corticosteroids vs pentoxifylline, corticosteroids and pentoxifylline vs corticosteroids and placebo or control, and pentoxifylline vs placebo. In each meta-analysis, the effect of treatment on the primary outcome (overall survival at 28 days, defined as the period from the first day of assigned treatment to 28 days) was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, including trials as random effect. RESULTS: Corticosteroid treatment significantly decreased risk of death within 28 days compared with controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.86) or to pentoxifylline (HR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43-0.95). In multiple-imputation and complete case analyses, the effect of corticosteroids compared with controls remained significant. When we compared corticosteroids vs pentoxifylline, the corticosteroid effect remained significant in the complete case analysis (HR 0.66; P = .04) but not in multiple-imputation analysis (HR 0.71; P = .08). There was no difference in 28-day mortality when patients were given a combination of corticosteroids and pentoxifylline vs corticosteroids alone or between patients given pentoxifylline vs control. In our analysis of secondary outcomes, we found no significant differences in 6-month mortality when any treatments or controls were compared. Corticosteroids were significantly associated with increased response to therapy compared with controls (relative risk 1.24; 95% CI 1.10-1.41) or pentoxifylline (relative risk 1.43; 95% CI 1.20-1.68). We found no difference in response to therapy between patients given a combination of corticosteroids and pentoxifylline vs corticosteroids alone or pentoxifylline vs controls. CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of 4 controlled trials, we found corticosteroid use to reduce risk of death within 28 days of treatment, but not in the following 6 months. This loss of efficacy over time indicates a need for new therapeutic strategies to improve medium-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hepatite Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Hepatite Alcoólica/mortalidade , Humanos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 30(10): 1216-1223, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on infectious endocarditis (IE) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are sparse. We aimed to describe the characteristics and predictors of mortality from IE in patients with LC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 101 patients with LC and 101 controls with IE matched for sex, age, date of IE, and diabetes were retrospectively selected in 23 liver units between 2000 and 2013. RESULTS: Mean age was 60.8±10.5 and 60.6±11.5 years in LC and controls, respectively. Causes of cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A/B/C: 10.4%/41.7%/47.9%, MELD score: 17±7.8) were excess alcohol intake (79.6%), viral hepatitis (17.3%), and metabolic syndrome (14.3%). Previous history of cardiopathy was found in 24.8% of LC (prosthetic valve 8.9%) and 37.6% of controls (P=0.07). The most frequent bacteria involved were gram-positive cocci. LC had significantly fewer aminoglycosides (P=0.0007), rifamycin (P=0.03), and valve surgery (P=0.02) than controls. The proportion of patients who died following cardiac surgery was similar between the two groups (9.7% for LC vs. 8.7% for controls, P=1). In-hospital mortality for Child-Pugh C patients was significantly higher than controls (61.4 vs. 23%, P<0.001), but not for Child-Pugh A (33.3%) or B patients (25.0%). A Child-Pugh score of above C10 was the best predictor of in-hospital mortality. In LC, Child-Pugh score (odds ratio=1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.0; P=0.002) and history of decompensation (odds ratio=3.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-9.0; P=0.003) were independent predictive factors for in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Severe liver failure but not cirrhosis is the strongest predictive factor of mortality related to IE in LC. Use of aminosides and rifamycin should be reassessed in LC, and cardiac surgery should be considered for selected patients.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Falência Hepática/mortalidade , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Falência Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suíça/epidemiologia
18.
J Hepatol ; 69(2): 534-543, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753761

RESUMO

A 33-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to hospital with recent onset of jaundice of 2-3 weeks duration. He reported heavy use of alcohol for the last 10 years with the last drink a day prior to the onset of symptoms. At admission, he was alert and oriented to time, place, and person, and was deeply jaundiced. His laboratory profile can be summarised as follows: haemoglobin 12.1 g/dl, white blood cell count 18,700 with 81% neutrophils, serum bilirubin 33 (direct 22) mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase 147 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase 62 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 117 IU/L, serum albumin 2.8 gm/dl, serum creatinine 0.6 mg/dl, prothrombin time 18.3 (control 14.5) seconds, and international normalized ratio 1.48. He was diagnosed with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey discriminant function score of 50) and treated with prednisolone for 28 days with symptomatic and biochemical improvement. His Lille score at seven days was 0.4, and his serum bilirubin had decreased to 3.5 mg/dl at the end of treatment. He was also seen by the addiction team during hospitalisation; he agreed to follow through on recommendations. He was dismissed after completing a three-week inpatient rehabilitation programme but relapsed to alcohol use three months later, and was readmitted with alcohol withdrawal. He was readmitted two months later (about six months from the first episode) for a second episode of severe alcoholic hepatitis. At admission, his model for end-stage liver disease score was 32 and he was treated again with corticosteroids. His Lille score at seven days was 0.6 and steroids were discontinued. The hospital course was complicated by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia with development of acute kidney injury. He continued to worsen, developing multiorgan failure. After a course of one month, the family's preference was for him to receive comfort measures. This scenario raises several questions.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Hepatite Alcoólica , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Fígado/patologia , Biópsia/métodos , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatite Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Hepatol ; 69(3): 687-696, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sterile inflammation resulting in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) occurs unpredictably after many years of excess alcohol intake. The factors responsible for the development of AH are not known but mitochondrial damage with loss of mitochondrial function are common features. Hcar2 is a G-protein coupled receptor which is activated by ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). We aimed to determine the relevance of the BHB-Hcar2 pathway in alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: We tested if loss of BHB production can result in increased liver inflammation. We further tested if BHB supplementation is protective in AH through interaction with Hcar2, and analyzed the immune and cellular basis for protection. RESULTS: Humans with AH have reduced hepatic BHB, and inhibition of BHB production in mice aggravated ethanol-induced AH, with higher plasma alanine aminotransferase levels, increased steatosis and greater neutrophil influx. Conversely supplementation of BHB had the opposite effects with reduced alanine aminotransferase levels, reduced steatosis and neutrophil influx. This therapeutic effect of BHB is dependent on the receptor Hcar2. BHB treatment increased liver Il10 transcripts, and promoted the M2 phenotype of intrahepatic macrophages. BHB also increased the transcriptional level of M2 related genes in vitro bone marrow derived macrophages. This skewing towards M2 related genes is dependent on lower mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) induced by BHB. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data shows that BHB production during excess alcohol consumption has an anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective role through an Hcar2 dependent pathway. This introduces the concept of metabolite-based therapy for AH. LAY SUMMARY: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening condition with no approved therapy that occurs unexpectedly in people who consume excess alcohol. The liver makes many metabolites, and we demonstrate that loss of one such metabolite ß-hydroxybutyrate occurs in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. This loss can increase alcohol-induced liver injury, and ß-hydroxybutyrate can protect from alcohol-induced liver injury via a receptor on liver macrophages. This opens the possibility of metabolite-based therapy for alcoholic hepatitis.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Fígado , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Etanol/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Testes de Função Hepática , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo
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