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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 588-594, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793471

RESUMO

Overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndromes are characterized by increased growth (height and/or head circumference ≥+2 SD) in association with an intellectual disability. Constitutive EED variants have previously been reported in five individuals with an OGID syndrome, eponymously designated Cohen-Gibson syndrome and resembling Weaver syndrome. Here, we report three additional individuals with constitutive EED variants, identified through exome sequencing of an OGID patient series. We compare the EED phenotype with that of Weaver syndrome (56 individuals), caused by constitutive EZH2 variants. We conclude that while there is considerable overlap between the EED and EZH2 phenotypes with both characteristically associated with increased growth and an intellectual disability, individuals with EED variants more frequently have cardiac problems and cervical spine abnormalities, boys have cryptorchidism and the facial gestalts can usually be distinguished.

6.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900417

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS; OMIM 615879), also known as the DNMT3A-overgrowth syndrome, is an overgrowth intellectual disability syndrome first described in 2014 with a report of 13 individuals with constitutive heterozygous DNMT3A variants. Here we have undertaken a detailed clinical study of 55 individuals with de novoDNMT3A variants, including the 13 previously reported individuals. An intellectual disability and overgrowth were reported in >80% of individuals with TBRS and were designated major clinical associations. Additional frequent clinical associations (reported in 20-80% individuals) included an evolving facial appearance with low-set, heavy, horizontal eyebrows and prominent upper central incisors; joint hypermobility (74%); obesity (weight ³2SD, 67%); hypotonia (54%); behavioural/psychiatric issues (most frequently autistic spectrum disorder, 51%); kyphoscoliosis (33%) and afebrile seizures (22%). One individual was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia in teenage years. Based upon the results from this study, we present our current management for individuals with TBRS.

7.
Eur Urol ; 74(3): 248-252, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935977

RESUMO

Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men. Multiplex TGCT families have been well reported and analyses of population cancer registries have demonstrated a four- to eightfold risk to male relatives of TGCT patients. Early linkage analysis and recent large-scale germline exome analysis in TGCT cases demonstrate absence of major high-penetrance TGCT susceptibility gene(s). Serial genome-wide association study analyses in sporadic TGCT have in total reported 49 independent risk loci. To date, it has not been demonstrated whether familial TGCT arises due to enrichment of the same common variants underpinning susceptibility to sporadic TGCT or is due to shared environmental/lifestyle factors or disparate rare genetic TGCT susceptibility factors. Here we present polygenic risk score analysis of 37 TGCT susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 236 familial and 3931 sporadic TGCT cases, and 12 368 controls, which demonstrates clear enrichment for TGCT susceptibility alleles in familial compared to sporadic cases (p=0.0001), with the majority of familial cases (84-100%) being attributable to polygenic enrichment. These analyses reveal TGCT as the first rare malignancy of early adulthood in which familial clustering is driven by the aggregate effects of polygenic variation in the absence of a major high-penetrance susceptibility gene. PATIENT SUMMARY: To date, it has been unclear whether familial clusters of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) arise due to genetics or shared environmental or lifestyle factors. We present large-scale genetic analyses comparing 236 familial TGCT cases, 3931 isolated TGCT cases, and 12 368 controls. We show that familial TGCT is caused, at least in part, by presence of a higher dose of the same common genetic variants that cause susceptibility to TGCT in general.

8.
Oncotarget ; 9(16): 12630-12638, 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560096

RESUMO

Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT), the most common cancer in men aged 18 to 45 years, has a strong heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proposed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at a number of loci influencing TGCT risk. To further evaluate the association of recently proposed risk SNPs with TGCT at 2q14.2, 3q26.2, 7q36.3, 10q26.13 and 15q21.3, we analyzed genotype data on 3,206 cases and 7,422 controls. Our analysis provides independent replication of the associations for risk SNPs at 2q14.2 (rs2713206 at P = 3.03 × 10-2; P-meta = 3.92 × 10-8; nearest gene, TFCP2L1) and rs12912292 at 15q21.3 (P = 7.96 × 10-11; P-meta = 1.55 × 10-19; nearest gene PRTG). Case-only analyses did not reveal specific associations with TGCT histology. TFCP2L1 joins the growing list of genes located within TGCT risk loci with biologically plausible roles in developmental transcriptional regulation, further highlighting the importance of this phenomenon in TGCT oncogenesis.

9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(11): 4275-4282, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590403

RESUMO

Context: To date, penetrance figures for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) for variants in rearranged during transfection (RET) have been estimated from families ascertained because of the presence of MTC. Objective: To gain estimates of penetrance, unbiased by ascertainment, we analyzed 61 RET mutations assigned as disease causing by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) in population whole-exome sequencing data. Design: For the 61 RET mutations, we used analyses of the observed allele frequencies in ∼51,000 individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database that were not contributed via The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; non-TCGA ExAC), assuming lifetime penetrance for MTC of 90%, 50%, and unbounded. Setting: Population-based. Results: Ten of 61 ATA disease-causing RET mutations were present in the non-TCGA ExAC population with observed frequency consistent with penetrance for MTC of >90%. For p.Val804Met, the lifetime penetrance for MTC, estimated from the allele frequency observed, was 4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9% to 8%]. Conclusions: Based on penetrance analysis in carrier relatives of p.Val804Met-positive cases of MTC, p.Val804Met is currently understood to have high-lifetime penetrance for MTC (87% by age 70), albeit of later onset of MTC than other RET mutations. Given our unbiased estimate of penetrance for RET p.Val804Met of 4% (95% CI, 0.9% to 8%), the current recommendation by the ATA of prophylactic thyroidectomy as standard for all RET mutation carriers is likely inappropriate.

10.
Eur Urol ; 73(6): 828-831, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433971

RESUMO

Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT), the most common cancer in young men, has a significant heritable basis that has long raised questions as to the existence of underlying major high-penetrance susceptibility gene(s). To determine the contribution of rare gene mutations to the inherited risk of TGCT, we analysed germline whole-exome data for 919 TGCT cases and 1609 cancer-free controls. We compared frequencies between TGCT cases and controls of rare (<1%) and low-frequency (1-5%) coding variants (1) individually and (2) collapsed at the gene level via burden testing (T1, disruptive; T2, all deleterious; and T3, all nonsynonymous) using Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction of significance thresholds. No individual variant or individual gene showed a significant association with TGCT after correction for multiple testing. In the largest whole-exome sequencing study of testicular cancer reported to date, our findings do not support the existence of a major high-penetrance TGCT susceptibility gene (of odds ratio >10 and allele frequency [combined]>0.01%). Owing to its power, this study cannot exclude the existence of susceptibility genes responsible for occasional TGCT families or of rare mutations that confer very modest relative risks. In concert with findings from genome-wide association studies, our data support the notion that inherited susceptibility is largely polygenic with substantial contribution from common variation. PATIENT SUMMARY: In the largest study of its kind, we sequenced ∼20 000 genes in 919 men with testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) and 1609 TGCT-free individuals and found no evidence of a single major gene underlying predisposition to TGCT (in the manner of BRCA1 for breast cancer). Instead, familial risk of TGCT is likely to be due to varying dosages of hundreds of minor genetic factors.

12.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1133-1140, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604728

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed understanding of susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), but much of the heritability remains unexplained. Here we report a new GWAS, a meta-analysis with previous GWAS and a replication series, totaling 7,319 TGCT cases and 23,082 controls. We identify 19 new TGCT risk loci, roughly doubling the number of known TGCT risk loci to 44. By performing in situ Hi-C in TGCT cells, we provide evidence for a network of physical interactions among all 44 TGCT risk SNPs and candidate causal genes. Our findings implicate widespread disruption of developmental transcriptional regulators as a basis of TGCT susceptibility, consistent with failed primordial germ cell differentiation as an initiating step in oncogenesis. Defective microtubule assembly and dysregulation of KIT-MAPK signaling also feature as recurrently disrupted pathways. Our findings support a polygenic model of risk and provide insight into the biological basis of TGCT.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Adulto , Cromatina/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(5): 725-736, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475857

RESUMO

To explore the genetic architecture of human overgrowth syndromes and human growth control, we performed experimental and bioinformatic analyses of 710 individuals with overgrowth (height and/or head circumference ≥+2 SD) and intellectual disability (OGID). We identified a causal mutation in 1 of 14 genes in 50% (353/710). This includes HIST1H1E, encoding histone H1.4, which has not been associated with a developmental disorder previously. The pathogenic HIST1H1E mutations are predicted to result in a product that is less effective in neutralizing negatively charged linker DNA because it has a reduced net charge, and in DNA binding and protein-protein interactions because key residues are truncated. Functional network analyses demonstrated that epigenetic regulation is a prominent biological process dysregulated in individuals with OGID. Mutations in six epigenetic regulation genes-NSD1, EZH2, DNMT3A, CHD8, HIST1H1E, and EED-accounted for 44% of individuals (311/710). There was significant overlap between the 14 genes involved in OGID and 611 genes in regions identified in GWASs to be associated with height (p = 6.84 × 10-8), suggesting that a common variation impacting function of genes involved in OGID influences height at a population level. Increased cellular growth is a hallmark of cancer and there was striking overlap between the genes involved in OGID and 260 somatically mutated cancer driver genes (p = 1.75 × 10-14). However, the mutation spectra of genes involved in OGID and cancer differ, suggesting complex genotype-phenotype relationships. These data reveal insights into the genetic control of human growth and demonstrate that exome sequencing in OGID has a high diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epigênese Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Blood ; 126(10): 1214-23, 2015 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26162409

RESUMO

In-depth molecular investigation of familial leukemia has been limited by the rarity of recognized cases. This study examines the genetic events initiating leukemia and details the clinical progression of disease across multiple families harboring germ-line CEBPA mutations. Clinical data were collected from 10 CEBPA-mutated families, representing 24 members with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whole-exome (WES) and deep sequencing were performed to genetically profile tumors and define patterns of clonal evolution. Germline CEBPA mutations clustered within the N-terminal and were highly penetrant, with AML presenting at a median age of 24.5 years (range, 1.75-46 years). In all diagnostic tumors tested (n = 18), double CEBPA mutations (CEBPAdm) were detected, with acquired (somatic) mutations preferentially targeting the C-terminal. Somatic CEBPA mutations were unstable throughout the disease course, with different mutations identified at recurrence. Deep sequencing of diagnostic and relapse paired samples confirmed that relapse-associated CEBPA mutations were absent at diagnosis, suggesting recurrence was triggered by novel, independent clones. Integrated WES and deep sequencing subsequently revealed an entirely new complement of mutations at relapse, verifying the presentation of a de novo leukemic episode. The cumulative incidence of relapse in familial AML was 56% at 10 years (n = 11), and 3 patients experienced ≥3 disease episodes over a period of 17 to 20 years. Durable responses to secondary therapies were observed, with prolonged median survival after relapse (8 years) and long-term overall survival (10-year overall survival, 67%). Our data reveal that familial CEBPA-mutated AML exhibits a unique model of disease progression, associated with favorable long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(17): 4775-9, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25972378

RESUMO

Overgrowth syndromes comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterised by excessive growth parameters, often in association with intellectual disability. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we have been undertaking trio-based exome sequencing studies in overgrowth patients and their unaffected parents. Prioritisation of functionally relevant genes with multiple unique de novo mutations revealed four mutations in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B family genes protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', beta (PPP2R5B); protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', gamma (PPP2R5C); and protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', delta (PPP2R5D). This observation in 3 related genes in 111 individuals with a similar phenotype is greatly in excess of the expected number, as determined from gene-specific de novo mutation rates (P = 1.43 × 10(-10)). Analysis of exome-sequencing data from a follow-up series of overgrowth probands identified a further pathogenic mutation, bringing the total number of affected individuals to 5. Heterozygotes shared similar phenotypic features including increased height, increased head circumference and intellectual disability. The mutations clustered within a region of nine amino acid residues in the aligned protein sequences (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)). We mapped the mutations onto the crystal structure of the PP2A holoenzyme complex to predict their molecular and functional consequences. These studies suggest that the mutations may affect substrate binding, thus perturbing the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate particular protein substrates. PP2A is a major negative regulator of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT). Thus, our data further expand the list of genes encoding components of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling cascade that are disrupted in human overgrowth conditions.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Exoma , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Proteína Fosfatase 2/química
16.
Nature ; 493(7432): 406-10, 2013 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23242139

RESUMO

Improved sequencing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities for investigating the role of rare genetic variation in common disease. However, there are considerable challenges with respect to study design, data analysis and replication. Using pooled next-generation sequencing of 507 genes implicated in the repair of DNA in 1,150 samples, an analytical strategy focused on protein-truncating variants (PTVs) and a large-scale sequencing case-control replication experiment in 13,642 individuals, here we show that rare PTVs in the p53-inducible protein phosphatase PPM1D are associated with predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer. PPM1D PTV mutations were present in 25 out of 7,781 cases versus 1 out of 5,861 controls (P = 1.12 × 10(-5)), including 18 mutations in 6,912 individuals with breast cancer (P = 2.42 × 10(-4)) and 12 mutations in 1,121 individuals with ovarian cancer (P = 3.10 × 10(-9)). Notably, all of the identified PPM1D PTVs were mosaic in lymphocyte DNA and clustered within a 370-base-pair region in the final exon of the gene, carboxy-terminal to the phosphatase catalytic domain. Functional studies demonstrate that the mutations result in enhanced suppression of p53 in response to ionizing radiation exposure, suggesting that the mutant alleles encode hyperactive PPM1D isoforms. Thus, although the mutations cause premature protein truncation, they do not result in the simple loss-of-function effect typically associated with this class of variant, but instead probably have a gain-of-function effect. Our results have implications for the detection and management of breast and ovarian cancer risk. More generally, these data provide new insights into the role of rare and of mosaic genetic variants in common conditions, and the use of sequencing in their identification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Alelos , Análise por Conglomerados , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2C , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
17.
Oncotarget ; 3(3): 327-35, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22470196

RESUMO

Somatic defects at five loci, WT1, CTNNB1, WTX, TP53 and the imprinted 11p15 region, are implicated in Wilms tumor, the commonest childhood kidney cancer. In this study we analysed all five loci in 120 Wilms tumors. We identified epigenetic 11p15 abnormalities in 69% of tumors, 37% were H19 epimutations and 32% were paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD). We identified mutations of WTX in 32%, CTNNB1 in 15%, WT1 in 12% and TP53 in 5% of tumors. We identified several significant associations: between 11p15 and WTX (P=0.007), between WT1 and CTNNB1 (P less than 0.001), between WT1 and pUPD 11p15 (P=0.01), and a strong negative association between WT1 and H19 epimutation (P less than 0.001). We next used these data to stratify Wilms tumor into three molecular Groups, based on the status at 11p15 and WT1. Group 1 tumors (63%) were defined as 11p15-mutant and WT1-normal; a third also had WTX mutations. Group 2 tumors (13%) were WT1-mutant. They either had 11p15 pUPD or were 11p15-normal. Almost all had CTNNB1 mutations but none had H19 epimutation. Group 3 tumors (25%) were defined as 11p15-normal and WT1-normal and were typically normal at all five loci (P less than 0.001). We also identified a novel clinical association between H19 epimutation and bilateral disease (P less than 0.001). These data provide new insights into the pattern, order, interactions and clinical associations of molecular events in Wilms tumor.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Epigenômica , Técnicas Genéticas , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Tumor de Wilms/classificação , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Algoritmos , Carcinoma/classificação , Carcinoma/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genes do Tumor de Wilms/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Loci Gênicos/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/classificação , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Mutação/fisiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Tumor de Wilms/patologia
19.
Oncotarget ; 2(12): 1127-33, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22190405

RESUMO

The biological processes controlling human growth are diverse, complex and poorly understood. Genetic factors are important and human height has been shown to be a highly polygenic trait to which common and rare genetic variation contributes. Weaver syndrome is a human overgrowth condition characterised by tall stature, dysmorphic facial features, learning disability and variable additional features. We performed exome sequencing in four individuals with Weaver syndrome, identifying a mutation in the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, in each case. Sequencing of EZH2 in additional individuals with overgrowth identified a further 15 mutations. The EZH2 mutation spectrum in Weaver syndrome shows considerable overlap with the inactivating somatic EZH2 mutations recently reported in myeloid malignancies. Our data establish EZH2 mutations as the cause of Weaver syndrome and provide further links between histone modifications and regulation of human growth.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Estatura , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Facies , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Histona Metiltransferases , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2 , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Nat Genet ; 43(9): 879-882, 2011 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21822267

RESUMO

Recently, RAD51C mutations were identified in families with breast and ovarian cancer. This observation prompted us to investigate the role of RAD51D in cancer susceptibility. We identified eight inactivating RAD51D mutations in unrelated individuals from 911 breast-ovarian cancer families compared with one inactivating mutation identified in 1,060 controls (P = 0.01). The association found here was principally with ovarian cancer, with three mutations identified in the 59 pedigrees with three or more individuals with ovarian cancer (P = 0.0005). The relative risk of ovarian cancer for RAD51D mutation carriers was estimated to be 6.30 (95% CI 2.86-13.85, P = 4.8 × 10(-6)). By contrast, we estimated the relative risk of breast cancer to be 1.32 (95% CI 0.59-2.96, P = 0.50). These data indicate that RAD51D mutation testing may have clinical utility in individuals with ovarian cancer and their families. Moreover, we show that cells deficient in RAD51D are sensitive to treatment with a PARP inhibitor, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for cancers arising in RAD51D mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases
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