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2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170539

RESUMO

Differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among intellectually-able adults often presents a clinical challenge, particularly when individuals present in crisis without diagnostic history. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a multiscale personality and psychopathology instrument utilized across clinical settings, but to date there are no published normative data for use of the PAI with adults with ASD. This study provides normative PAI data for adults diagnosed with ASD, with effect size comparisons to the PAI clinical standardization sample and an inpatient sample. Additionally, a discriminant function was developed and cross-validated for identification of ASD-like symptomatology in a clinical population, which demonstrates promise as a screening tool to aid in the identification of individuals in need of specialized ASD assessment.

3.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538260

RESUMO

Mode of delivery, preterm birth, and low birth weight (LBW) are hypothesized to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. Using data from 343 ASD cases (2-8 years) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls in Jamaica we investigated these hypotheses. Our statistical analyses revealed that the parish of residence could modify the association between cesarean delivery and ASD, with a difference found in this relationship in Kingston parish [matched odds ratio (MOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) 2.30 (1.17-4.53)] and other parishes [MOR (95% CI) 0.87 (0.48-1.59)]. Although the associations of LBW and preterm birth with ASD were not significant, we observed a significant interaction between LBW and the household socioeconomic status. These findings require replication.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261817

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al) has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a pilot study during May 2015-May 2107 to estimate blood concentrations of six metals (Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Mn, and Al) and identify their associated factors for children with ASD or suspected of having ASD in Romania. Sixty children, age 2-8 years, were administered versions of ADOS or ADI-R translated from English to Romanian. After assessment, 2-3 mL of blood was obtained and analyzed for the concentrations of the six metals. The mean age of children was 51.9 months and about 90% were male. More than half (65%) of the children were born in Bucharest. Over 90% of concentrations of As and Cd were below limits of detection. Geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Mn, Al, and Hg were 1.14 µg/dL, 10.84 µg/L, 14.44 µg/L, and 0.35 µg/L, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that children who were female, had less educated parents, exhibited pica, and ate cold breakfast (e.g., cereal), watermelon, and lamb had significantly higher concentrations of Pb compared to their respective referent categories (all p < 0.05 except for eating lamb, which was marginally significant, p = 0.053). Although this is the first study that provides data on concentrations of the six metals for Romanian children with ASD, the findings from this study could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies for investigating the role of these six metals in ASD in Romanian children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Metais Pesados/sangue , Alumínio/sangue , Arsênico/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Mercúrio/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Romênia
5.
Biom J ; 61(4): 934-954, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058353

RESUMO

A weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression has been used to assess the associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes. However, the currently available WQS approach, which is based on additive effects, does not allow exploring for potential interactions of exposures with other covariates in relation to a health outcome. In addition, the current WQS cannot account for clustering, thus it may not be valid for analysis of clustered data. We propose a generalized WQS approach that can assess interactions by estimating stratum-specific weights of exposures in a mixture, while accounting for potential clustering effect of matched pairs of cases and controls as well as censored exposure data due to being below the limits of detection. The performance of the proposed method in identifying interactions is evaluated through simulations based on various scenarios of correlation structures among the exposures and with an outcome. We also assess how well the proposed method performs in the presence of the varying levels of censoring in exposures. Our findings from the simulation study show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional WQS, as indicated by higher power of detecting interactions. We also find no strong evidence that the proposed method falsely identifies interactions when there are no true interactive effects. We demonstrate application of the proposed method to real data from the Epidemiological Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Jamaica (ERAJ) by examining interactions between exposure to manganese and glutathione S-transferase family gene, GSTP1 in relation to ASD.

6.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 48(8): 2766-2778, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549549

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. Many maternal exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding potentially interfere with neurodevelopment. Using data from two age- and sex-matched case-control studies in Jamaica (n = 298 pairs), results of conditional logistic regression analyses suggest that maternal exposures to fever or infection (matched odds ratio (MOR) = 3.12, 95% CI 1.74-5.60), physical trauma (MOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.01-4.05), and oil-based paints (MOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.14-3.46) may be associated with ASD. Additionally, maternal exposure to oil-based paints may modify the relationship between maternal exposure to pesticides and ASD, which deepens our understanding of the association between pesticides and ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Gravidez , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
7.
Res Autism Spectr Disord ; 55: 50-63, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930959

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported a significant interactive association between polymorphisms of GSTP1 and blood manganese concentrations (BMC) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Jamaican children. In this paper, we investigate the same interactive association with ASD while adjusting for the mixture of four metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic). Method: We used data from 163 case-control pairs of children 2-8 years of age from our autism project in Jamaica, in which we collected blood for heavy metals analysis at enrollment. To minimize potential multicollinearity between concentrations of the four metals, we generated a mixture index using generalized weighted quantile sum regression, which was used in conditional logistic regression models to control for the four metals while assessing the interactive association between GSTP1 and BMC with ASD. Results: Similar to the findings we reported previously, we found that in co-dominant and dominant models for GSTP1, among children with the Ile/Ile genotype, those with BMC > 12µg/L had 4.6 and 4.27 times higher odds of ASD compared to those with BMC < 12µg/L (adjusted Matched Odds Ratio (MOR) = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.21 - 17.42 and adjusted MOR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.15 - 15.85, respectively). In the co-dominant model, for children with the Ile/Val and Val/Val genotypes, the adjusted MORs were 1.26 (95% CI: 0.32, 5.01) and 0.26 (95% CI: 0.05, 1.42), respectively. Conclusions: After adjusting for the mixture of four metals, the interactive association of BMC and GSTP1 with ASD remained significant with similar magnitude of associations. Results should be interpreted cautiously.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160842

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to organic endocrine disrupting chemicals, including dioxins, dibenzofurans, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a pilot monitoring study of 30 ASD cases and 10 typically developing (TD) controls ages 2-8 years from communities along the Gulf of Mexico near Alabama, which houses 14 Superfund sites, to assess the concentrations of dioxins and dibenzofurans in serum, and BPA and phthalate ester metabolites in urine. Based on General Linear Models, the lipid- or creatinine-adjusted geometric mean concentrations of the aforementioned chemicals did not differ between the ASD case and TD control groups (all p ≥ 0.27). We compared our findings to the adjusted means as reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, survey years 2011-2012, and found that TD controls in our study had lower BPA (59%) and MEHHP (26%) concentrations, higher MBP (50%) concentration, and comparable (<20% difference) MEP, MBZP, MEOHP, and MCPP concentrations. We also conducted a preliminary investigation of dietary exposures and found that the consumption of certain types of fish may be associated with higher OCDD concentrations, and the consumption of soft drinks and juices may be associated with lower BPA and MEOHP concentrations, respectively.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/urina , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dibenzofuranos/sangue , Dieta , Dioxinas/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Feminino , Golfo do México/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina
9.
Res Autism Spectr Disord ; 39: 20-32, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29081833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are frequent and well documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children with internalizing problems, however limited work has examined sleep problems in children presenting with comorbid ASD/ADHD. In healthy children, sleep problems negatively impact social, emotional, and academic functioning. The current study sought to examine diagnostic severity as predictors of sleep problems in children with comorbid ASD/ADHD. Additionally, the association between sleep and "real-life" functional domains (i.e., intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and executive functioning) were assessed. METHOD: Sleep, internalizing difficulties, intellectual functioning, academic achievement and executive functioning were assessed in 85 children with who carried the dual diagnoses of ASD and ADHD. RESULTS: Internalizing difficulties, rather than ASD or ADHD symptom severity, was the most consistent predictor of problematic sleep behaviors (i.e., nightmares overtiredness, sleeping less than other children, trouble sleeping, and Total Problematic Sleep Behaviors) in this sample. Further, parent report of problematic sleep behaviors was significantly associated with functional domains after controlling for ASD, ADHD, and internalizing symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that internalizing symptoms are associated with problematic sleep behaviors in children with comorbid ASD/ADHD and may have implications for the "real-life" functioning among children with comorbid ASD/ADHD.

10.
Autism ; 21(5): 564-572, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367671

RESUMO

The administration requirements of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, widely used in high-income countries, make them less feasible for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in low- and middle-income countries. The flexible administration requirements of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale have resulted in its use in both high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the agreement between assessments using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale with those using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule or Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in Jamaica. Children aged 2-8 years (n = 149) diagnosed with autism by an experienced clinician using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale were re-evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. The proportion diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition, and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised was determined and mean domain scores compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean age was 64.4 (standard deviation = 21.6) months; the male:female ratio was 6:1. The diagnostic agreement of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition was 100.0% and 98.0%, respectively. Agreement with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised was 94.6%. Domain scores were highest for children with more severe symptoms (p < 0.01). Despite a high level of agreement of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition, and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale should be evaluated further with a broader range of autism spectrum disorder symptomatology, and by clinicians with varying experience before recommendation for use in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pobreza , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino
11.
Res Dev Disabil ; 60: 52-64, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889487

RESUMO

Comorbid diagnoses identified in pediatric samples have been correlated with a range of outcomes, including greater levels of emotional, behavioral, and educational impairment and the need for more intensive treatment. Given that previous research has documented high levels of comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), this study closely examines the relationship between parent-reported ADHD symptoms (i.e., Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised [CPRS-R]) and the prevalence of additional comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in a pediatric ASD sample (n=99). Regression analyses revealed that greater severity of ADHD symptomatology was significantly related to a greater number of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, as identified using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and adolescents, 4th Edition (DICA-IV). Additionally, more severe ADHD symptoms were also associated with higher levels of symptom severity on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome subscales. Interestingly, increasing severity of ASD symptomatology, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R), was not associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses or CBCL syndrome severity. Our study concluded that higher levels of ADHD severity-not ASD severity-were associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in school-age children with ASD. These findings may encourage clinicians to thoroughly assess ADHD symptomatology in ASD children to better inform treatment planning.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27834815

RESUMO

Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal with known health effects in animals and humans. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes and enzymes play a major role in detoxification of several heavy metals. Besides a direct relationship with oxidative stress; aluminum decreases GST enzyme activities. Using data from 116 Jamaican children; age 2-8 years; with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 116 sex- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children; we investigated the association of polymorphisms in three GST genes (GSTP1; GSTM1; and GSTT1) with mean blood aluminum concentrations in children with and without ASD. Using log-transformed blood aluminum concentration as the dependent variable in a linear regression model; we assessed the additive and interactive effects of ASD status and polymorphisms in the three aforementioned GST genes in relation to blood aluminum concentrations. Although none of the additive effects were statistically significant (all p > 0.16); we observed a marginally significant interaction between GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695) and ASD status (p = 0.07); even after controlling for parental education level and consumption of avocado; root vegetables; and tuna (canned fish). Our findings indicate a significantly lower (p < 0.03) adjusted geometric mean blood aluminum concentration for TD children who had the Val/Val genotype (14.57 µg/L); compared with those with Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotypes who had an adjusted geometric mean of 23.75 µg/L. However; this difference was not statistically significant among the ASD cases (p = 0.76). Our findings indicate that ASD status may be a potential effect modifier when assessing the association between GSTP1 rs1695 and blood aluminum concentrations among Jamaican children. These findings require replication in other populations.


Assuntos
Alumínio/sangue , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27775677

RESUMO

To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100%) concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD). Mean (standard deviation (SD)) lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21), 7.16 (1.71), 7.30 (1.74) and 28.15 (6.03) ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD) for the 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78) and 61.60 (70.76) ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Jamaica , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Gravidez
14.
Res Autism Spectr Disord ; 18: 73-82, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309447

RESUMO

We used data from 100 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs (age 2-8 years) from Jamaica to investigate whether there is an interaction between glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes and blood manganese concentrations (BMC) in relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Our findings, indicate that among children who had the Ile/Ile genotype for GST pi 1 (GSTP1), those with BMC ≥ 12µg/L had about 4 times higher odds of ASD than those with BMC < 12µg/L, (P=0.03) under a co-dominant genetic model. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the subgroup of children with genotype Ile/Ile, those with BMC ≥ 12µg/L had about six times higher odds of ASD than those with BMC < 12µg/L, (P=0.04). The results were similar when a recessive genetic model was used. These findings suggest a possible synergic effect of BMC and GSTP1 in ASD. Since our analysis included a variety of genetic models and was not adjusted for multiple testing, replication in other populations is warranted.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(5): 4481-501, 2015 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25915835

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 µg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 µg/L), 10.9 (9.2 µg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 µg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 µg/L vs. 6.4 µg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations.


Assuntos
Alumínio/sangue , Arsênico/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Sangue Fetal/química , Metais Pesados/sangue , Adulto , Cádmio/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Jamaica , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Mercúrio/sangue , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25837555

RESUMO

Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2-8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009-2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 µg dL(-1). In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 µg dL(-1) vs. 2.31 µg dL(-1); P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 µg dL(-1) vs. 2.52 µg dL(-1); P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 µg dL(-1) vs. 1.65 µg dL(-1); P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 µg dL(-1) vs. 2.19 µg dL(-1); P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. We believe increasing awareness among parents regarding these risk factors could potentially lead to a lower level of lead exposure in Jamaican children.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Res Autism Spectr Disord ; 12: 1-9, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25685181

RESUMO

We investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We used data from 111 pairs of age- and sex-matched ASD cases and typically developing (TD) controls between 2-8 years of age from Jamaica to investigate the role of GST pi 1 (GSTP1), GST theta 1 (GSTT1), and GST mu 1 (GSTM1) polymorphisms in susceptibility to ASD. In univariable conditional logistic regression models we did not observe significant associations between ASD status and GSTT1, GSTM1, or GSTP1 genotype (all P > 0.15). However, in multivariable conditional logistic regression models, we identified a significant interaction between GSTP1 and GSTT1 in relation to ASD. Specifically, in children heterozygous for the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism, the odds of ASD was significantly higher in those with the null GSTT1 genotype than those with the other genotypes [Matched Odds Ratio (MOR) = 2.97, 95% CI (1.09, 8.01), P = 0.03]. Replication in other populations is warranted.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(1): 83-105, 2014 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25546274

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2-8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 µg/dL cases vs. 2.73 µg/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 µg/dL vs. 2.72 µg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 11(8): 7874-95, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25101770

RESUMO

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid with known adverse effects on human health. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes, including GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1, play a major role in detoxification and metabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the association between GST genotypes and whole blood arsenic concentrations (BASC) in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used data from 100 ASD cases and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) controls (age 2-8 years) from Jamaica. Using log-transformed BASC as the dependent variable in a General Linear Model, we observed a significant interaction between GSTP1 and ASD case status while controlling for several confounding variables. However, for GSTT1 and GSTM1 we did not observe any significant associations with BASC. Our findings indicate that TD children who had the Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotype for GSTP1 had a significantly higher geometric mean BASC than those with genotype Val/Val (3.67 µg/L vs. 2.69 µg/L, p < 0.01). Although, among the ASD cases, this difference was not statistically significant, the direction of the observed difference was consistent with that of the TD control children. These findings suggest a possible role of GSTP1 in the detoxification of arsenic.


Assuntos
Arsênico/sangue , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Polimorfismo Genético
20.
Res Autism Spectr Disord ; 8(9): 1134-1145, 2014 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25089152

RESUMO

Human exposure to cadmium has adverse effects on the nervous system. Utilizing data from 110 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs (220 children) ages 2-8 years in Kingston, Jamaica, we compared the 75th percentile of blood cadmium concentrations in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In both univariable and multivariable Quantile Regression Models that controlled for potential confounding factors, we did not find any significant differences between ASD cases and typically developing (TD) controls with respect to the 75th percentile of blood cadmium concentrations, (P > 0.22). However, we found a significantly higher 75th percentile of blood cadmium concentrations in TD Jamaican children who consumed shellfish (lobsters, crabs) (P <0.05), fried plantain (P <0.01), and boiled dumpling (P <0.01). We also observed that children living in Jamaica have an arithmetic mean blood cadmium concentration of 0.16µg/L which is similar to that of the children in developed countries and much lower than that of children in developing countries. Although our results do not support an association between blood cadmium concentrations and ASD, to our knowledge, this study is the first to report levels of blood cadmium in TD children as well as those with ASD in Jamaica.

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