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1.
Avian Pathol ; 45(4): 418-25, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926786

RESUMO

Trichodinid ciliophorans are opportunistic parasites of many species of fish, amphibians, and molluscs, but yet never reported in association with lesions in birds. Postmortem and histopathological evaluation of a commercial adult Toulouse gander and female goose, and a wild Mallard drake revealed the presence of severe pathological parasitic colonization of their reproductive tracts. Histopathological findings included moderate to severe granulocytic inflammation, acanthosis, accentuation of the rete pegs, and proliferative hyperplastic squamous metaplasia of the mucosa of the ejaculatory ducts and groove, sulcus spermaticus, glandular part of the phallus (cavum penis), and oviduct in association with large numbers of ciliated protozoa anchored to the tissues or free in the lumen. These protozoa had characteristic morphological features analogous to the family of Trichodinidae. The source of this parasitism could not be determined. To our knowledge, this is the first report of trichodinosis associated with pathology in birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Patos/parasitologia , Gansos/parasitologia , Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Infecções do Sistema Genital/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Feminino , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Oligoimenóforos/ultraestrutura , Infecções do Sistema Genital/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Testículo/patologia , Traqueia/patologia
2.
Vet Pathol ; 53(2): 250-76, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26721908

RESUMO

The great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) are our closest relatives. Despite the many similarities, there are significant differences in aging among apes, including the human ape. Common to all are dental attrition, periodontitis, tooth loss, osteopenia, and arthritis, although gout is uniquely human and spondyloarthropathy is more prevalent in apes than humans. Humans are more prone to frailty, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, longevity past reproductive senescence, loss of brain volume, and Alzheimer dementia. Cerebral vascular disease occurs in both humans and apes. Cardiovascular disease mortality increases in aging humans and apes, but coronary atherosclerosis is the most significant type in humans. In captive apes, idiopathic myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyopathy predominate, with arteriosclerosis of intramural coronary arteries. Similar cardiac lesions are occasionally seen in wild apes. Vascular changes in heart and kidneys and aortic dissections in gorillas and bonobos suggest that hypertension may be involved in pathogenesis. Chronic kidney disease is common in elderly humans and some aging apes and is linked with cardiovascular disease in orangutans. Neoplasms common to aging humans and apes include uterine leiomyomas in chimpanzees, but other tumors of elderly humans, such as breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers, are uncommon in apes. Among the apes, chimpanzees have been best studied in laboratory settings, and more comparative research is needed into the pathology of geriatric zoo-housed and wild apes. Increasing longevity of humans and apes makes understanding aging processes and diseases imperative for optimizing quality of life in all the ape species.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/patologia , Hominidae , Animais , Gorilla gorilla , Humanos , Pan paniscus , Pan troglodytes , Pongo , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Vet Pathol ; 52(6): 1172-5, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25516065

RESUMO

Suspected Streptomyces spp infections were identified in 4 cats at UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1982 and 2011. Three had ulcerated, dark red mycetomas involving the dermis, subcutis, and fascia with fistulous tracts and/or regional lymphadenopathy. One cat had pyogranulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis. Granulomatous inflammation in all cats contained colonies of Gram-positive, non-acid-fast organisms. All 4 cats failed to respond to aggressive medical and surgical treatment and were euthanized. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to selectively harvest DNA from the affected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Cloned amplicons from LCM-derived tissue confirmed the presence of Streptomyces spp in the dermatitis cases. Amplicons from the remaining cat with peritoneal involvement aligned with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene for Actinomycetales. Usually considered a contaminant, Streptomyces spp can be associated with refractory pyogranulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis in cats with outdoor access. LCM is useful in the diagnosis of bacterial diseases where contamination may be an issue.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/veterinária , Dermatite/veterinária , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser/veterinária , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Celulite (Flegmão)/microbiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/patologia , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dermatite/microbiologia , Dermatite/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Inclusão em Parafina/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Streptomyces/genética
4.
Vet Pathol ; 49(6): 1057-69, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23135296

RESUMO

The combination of loss of habitat, human population encroachment, and increased demand of select nonhuman primates for biomedical research has significantly affected populations. There remains a need for knowledge and expertise in understanding background findings as related to the age, source, strain, and disease status of nonhuman primates. In particular, for safety/biomedical studies, a broader understanding and documentation of lesions would help clarify background from drug-related findings. A workshop and a minisymposium on spontaneous lesions and diseases in nonhuman primates were sponsored by the concurrent Annual Meetings of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology held December 3-4, 2011, in Nashville, Tennessee. The first session had presentations from Drs Lowenstine and Montali, pathologists with extensive experience in wild and zoo populations of nonhuman primates, which was followed by presentations of 20 unique case reports of rare or newly observed spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates (see online files for access to digital whole-slide images corresponding to each case report at http://www.scanscope.com/ACVP%20Slide%20Seminars/2011/Primate%20Pathology/view.apml). The minisymposium was composed of 5 nonhuman-primate researchers (Drs Bradley, Cline, Sasseville, Miller, Hutto) who concentrated on background and spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates used in drug safety studies. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were emphasized, with some material presented on common marmosets. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and neoplastic changes were highlighed with a focus on clinical, macroscopic, and histopathologic findings that could confound the interpretation of drug safety studies.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças dos Primatas/patologia , Primatas , Experimentação Animal , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Modelos Animais
5.
Vet Pathol ; 49(6): 1032-5, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22184185

RESUMO

Amanitin is a toxic cyclopeptide present in several species of poisonous mushrooms. Amanitin toxicosis was diagnosed in 2 cats from separate premises. Both cats initially had lethargy and vomiting, and they rapidly developed depression and neurological signs over 24-48 hours. Marked elevation of alanine aminotransferase was the primary finding, with subsequent serum chemistry values compatible with hepatic and renal failure. Histopathological findings consisted of submassive to massive acute hepatic necrosis, renal proximal tubular epithelial necrosis, and foci of necrosis and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Amanitin exposure was confirmed postmortem by detection of α-amanitin in the kidney by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A similar clinical course and pathological changes are reported in human and canine amanitin intoxication; however, gastrointestinal lesions are not typically described.


Assuntos
Alfa-Amanitina/envenenamento , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Falência Hepática/veterinária , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/veterinária , Insuficiência Renal/veterinária , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Letargia/veterinária , Fígado/patologia , Falência Hepática/etiologia , Falência Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/patologia , Necrose/veterinária , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/patologia
6.
Vet Pathol ; 46(4): 642-55, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19276047

RESUMO

Metastatic carcinoma of urogenital origin is a common cause of mortality in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). The etiology of this cancer is likely multifactorial, with viral infection, genetic factors, and exposure to environmental organochlorine contaminants possible contributing factors. In this study, expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and Ki67 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 12 sea lions with metastatic carcinoma, genital epithelial dysplasia, and intraepithelial neoplasia; 4 with genital epithelial dysplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia without metastases; and 6 control animals. Dysplastic and neoplastic lesions were identified in multiple areas of the cervix, vagina, penis, prepuce, and urethra in affected animals, suggesting multicentric development. Lesions were graded according to degree of epithelial dysplasia and infiltration and lesions of different grades were evaluated separately. Estrogen receptor expression was lower in intraepithelial lesions compared with normal genital epithelium, and expression in metastatic lesions was completely absent. There was progesterone receptor expression in neoplastic cells in intraepithelial lesions of all grades and in metastases, with no significant difference between lesion grades or between control and affected epithelium. Ki67 index and p53 expression increased with lesion grade and were higher in lesions than normal epithelium. Metastatic tumors exhibited highly variable morphology; however, proliferation index, ER alpha, PR, and p53 expression were similar in tumors with different patterns of growth. These results suggest that endogenous hormones, environmental contaminants that interact with steroid hormone receptors, and alterations in p53 may play a role in urogenital carcinogenesis in California sea lions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma/veterinária , Leões-Marinhos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Urogenitais/patologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/veterinária , Animais , California , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
7.
J Comp Pathol ; 140(2-3): 105-12, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19114281

RESUMO

Amyloidosis was diagnosed in 26 stranded adult California sea lions between 1983 and 2006 by retrospective case analysis. The kidneys (92.3% of animals), blood vessels (80.7%) and thyroid glands (65.4%) were most commonly affected. Macroscopically, affected kidneys were swollen, with pale tan cortices and loss of corticomedullary differentiation. Amyloid deposits in the kidney were located in the glomeruli, blood vessels, and peritubular interstitium, most prominently in the outer stripe of the medulla. The amyloid deposits were identified as type amyloid A (AA) by potassium permanganate staining and immunolabelling with antibodies against AA protein. Concurrent diseases, including inflammatory processes and genital carcinoma, were common in affected animals. Serum amyloid A concentrations were high (>1200 microg/ml) in six of seven affected sea lions, while the median value in clinically healthy animals was <10 microg/ml. These findings suggest that renal amyloidosis contributes to morbidity and mortality in stranded adult California sea lions.


Assuntos
Amiloidose/patologia , Amiloidose/veterinária , Leões-Marinhos , Amiloidose/metabolismo , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Rim/patologia , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 42(11): 4181-7, 2008 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18589985

RESUMO

California sea lions have high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in their blubber. Animals affected by domoic acid fast and refeed during their rehabilitation. We studied the effect of decreases in total body mass (16 +/- 7% of initial body mass) on blubber POP contaminant concentrations and estimated POP burdens during fasting (12 +/- 5 days) in 19 California sea lions. The effect of refeeding (92 +/- 8% of initial body mass) was also investigated. Significant increases in the concentration of all POPs were found over the mass loss period and decreases during mass gain. A basic mass balance model indicated that the changes did not conform to a simple concentrating and diluting pattern and a proportion of the contaminants were lost from the lipid pool. During mass loss, the lower chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, chlordanes, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were lost at a higher rate than the other contaminant classes (particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers). During mass gain the behavior of all contaminant classes was more consistent with the dilution model. These results indicate the importance of considering the energetic contextwhen sampling blubberfor long-term contaminant monitoring and suggest an initial approach to adjust for such differences.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Leões-Marinhos/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Éteres Fenílicos/metabolismo , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo
9.
Vet J ; 173(2): 437-9, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16386440

RESUMO

A female American saddlebred horse was presented for surgical correction of a possible pseudohermaphrodite condition. The horse had abnormal external genitalia and exhibited stallion-like behaviour. No evidence of uterine or ovarian tissue was identified on laparoscopic examination, but hypoplastic testicular-like tissue was removed, although this was found to contain no spermatogonia upon histopathological examination. A karyotype was performed and showed the normal chromosomal complement for a female horse (64,XX). Polymerase chain reaction to detect the SRY gene was negative in peripheral blood as well as the testicular-like tissue. This case represents the first report of an SRY negative XX-male sex reversal intersex phenotype, which is a potentially inherited condition, in an American saddlebred horse.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos/genética , Cavalos/fisiologia , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/metabolismo , Animais , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genitália/anormalidades , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Cariotipagem , Fenótipo , Diferenciação Sexual , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética
10.
J Wildl Dis ; 42(3): 651-7, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17092897

RESUMO

An adult female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) stranded in northern California on 25 June 2004, exhibited progressive weakness, disorientation, and seizures, and despite therapy, died within 4 days. On pathologic examination, a lead fishing sinker was in the stomach, and changes in the brain, heart, kidney, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen were supportive of acute lead toxicosis. The diagnosis was made on the basis of concentrations of lead in the sinker (90-98% lead), antemortem whole blood (0.66 ppm), and postmortem tissues (84 ppm, wet weight liver). This first documented case of lead toxicosis in a wild marine mammal demonstrates an additional way in which human fishing activities can harm marine mammals.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo/veterinária , Phoca , Doença Aguda , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Intoxicação por Chumbo/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Chumbo/patologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/veterinária
11.
J Comp Pathol ; 135(4): 183-9, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17034810

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine if Otarine Herpesvirus-1 (OtHV-1) is associated with the presence of urogenital carcinomas in California sea lions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with primers specific for OtHV-1 was used to compare the prevalence of OtHV-1 infection in 15 sea lions affected by urogenital carcinoma with that of age-matched and juvenile tumour-free animals, and animals with tumours of non-urogenital origin. The herpesvirus was more prevalent (100%) and more widespread in the 15 animals with urogenital carcinoma than in 25 control animals, and was most often found in the urogenital tissue (vagina and prostate) and in the draining lymph nodes. Moreover, OtHV-1 DNA was not found in any juvenile animal, or in the neoplastic tissues of animals with non-urogenital tumours. Papillomavirus-specific PCR analysis of urogenital carcinoma tissues detected papillomavirus sequences in only one carcinomatous tissue. Further studies are needed to determine if OtHV-1 contributes to oncogenesis in the California sea lion; these data show, however, that OtHV-1 is associated with urogenital carcinomas, is preferentially present in urogenital tissues, and may be sexually transmitted. Papillomaviruses, which are known to contribute to urogenital tumours in other species, did not appear to be associated with the sea lion carcinomas.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas , Gammaherpesvirinae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Leões-Marinhos/virologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Carcinoma/complicações , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/virologia , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/etiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Distribuição Tecidual , Neoplasias Urogenitais/complicações , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/virologia
12.
Vet Pathol ; 43(4): 541-4, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16846996

RESUMO

A young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardi), stranded on the coast of California, was found to have a 20-cm-diameter cranial cervical mass. Surgical excision revealed the subcutaneous mass to be covered in haired skin with multiple glabrous areas and structures resembling a jaw with tooth buds, eyelids, and a tail. The mass deformed the host pup's skull. Histologic examination revealed a complete vertebra in the tail, teeth in the jaw, and areas resembling tongue and larynx. Class 1 MHC sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the mass and the host twin were identical. The mass was diagnosed as a fetus in fetu, a rare congenital anomaly in which 1 conjoined twin is completely enclosed in the body of the other twin. The host pup died, and no additional defects were found; however, blubber levels of persistent organic pollutants were high. The cause of the congenital anomaly in this pup is uncertain.


Assuntos
Phoca/anormalidades , Gêmeos Unidos/patologia , Animais , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Feto/anormalidades , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Histocitoquímica/veterinária , Phoca/embriologia , Phoca/genética , Phoca/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
13.
Mol Ecol ; 15(2): 529-33, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16448418

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB genotypes were examined in two geographically isolated populations of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (Gulf of California and California coastal Pacific Ocean). Genomic DNA from 227 California sea lions was examined using eight sequence-specific primer (SSP) pairs flanking the putative peptide-binding site. A total of 40 different Zaca-DRB genotype configurations were identified among the 227 individuals. Using SSP-PCR, significant differences were found between coastal California and Gulf of California Zalophus populations in numbers of DRB sequences per individual and configuration of sequences within individuals. Additionally, unique local patterns of MHC diversity were identified among the Midriff Island animals. These population differences are consistent with either ecologically distinct patterns of selection pressures and/or geographical isolation. The consequences of these partitioned MHC configurations at the population level are as yet unknown; however, the worldwide increase in emerging marine diseases lends urgency to their examination.


Assuntos
Genes MHC da Classe II , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Leões-Marinhos/genética , California , Ecologia , Análise de Regressão
14.
J Comp Pathol ; 133(2-3): 175-83, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16045920

RESUMO

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the tissue distribution of phocine herpesvirus-1 (PhHV-1) DNA in 20 stranded Pacific harbour seals (17 pups and three seals older than one year) that died during rehabilitation. The aim was to begin to define stages of infection and to investigate the relation between the presence of PhHV-1 in tissues, histological lesions and serology. PhHV-1 DNA was detected in a wide range of tissues from 10/17 pups and 3/3 subadults or adults. Different clinical patterns emerged from the examination of ante- and post-mortem samples. These patterns probably represented pups with active PhHV-1 infection, pups recovering from infection, and older harbour seals with chronic, reactivated infection. As PhHV-1 DNA was detected in tissues in the absence of typical histological lesions in seven seals and in the absence of PhHV-1 specific antibodies in four seals, it is clear that both histological examination and serology underestimate the presence of infection. These results showed that infection can occur in the absence of obvious disease and that seroconversion may be associated with clinical recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Phoca/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Varicellovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/patologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , California/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , DNA Viral/análise , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Varicellovirus/genética , Varicellovirus/imunologia
15.
Vet Pathol ; 42(2): 184-91, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15753472

RESUMO

Over 100 free-ranging adult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and one Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), predominantly adult females, were intoxicated by domoic acid (DA) during three harmful algal blooms between 1998 and 2000 in central and northern California coastal waters. The vector prey item was Northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and the primary DA-producing algal diatom was Psuedonitzschia australis. Postmortem examination revealed gross and histologic findings that were distinctive and aided in diagnosis. A total of 109 sea lions were examined, dying between 1 day and 10 months after admission to a marine mammal rehabilitation center. Persistent seizures with obtundation were the main clinical findings. Frequent gross findings in animals dying acutely consisted of piriform lobe malacia, myocardial pallor, bronchopneumonia, and complications related to pregnancy. Gross findings in animals dying months after intoxication included bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Histologic observations implicated limbic system seizure injury consistent with excitotoxin exposure. Peracutely, there was microvesicular hydropic degeneration within the neuropil of the hippocampus, amygdala, pyriform lobe, and other limbic structures. Acutely, there was ischemic neuronal necrosis, particularly apparent in the granular cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cells within the hippocampus cornu ammonis (CA) sectors CA4, CA3, and CA1. Dentate granular cell necrosis has not been reported in human or experimental animal DA toxicity and may be unique to sea lions. Chronically, there was gliosis, mild nonsuppurative inflammation, and loss of laminar organization in affected areas.


Assuntos
Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Leões-Marinhos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Diatomáceas/química , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Emaciação/induzido quimicamente , Emaciação/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/patologia
16.
J Comp Pathol ; 130(2-3): 195-8, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15003477

RESUMO

A Steller (northern) sea lion (SSL), stranded in northern California in July 2000 had an anaplastic pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in the latissimus dorsi muscle, with pulmonary metastasis. Diagnosis was based on light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Death was attributed to multiple parasitic and bacterial lesions. The SSL is of special concern because, for unknown reasons, the global population has declined by 50% over the last decade. Published post-mortem data, however, are scarce. This case report highlights several disease conditions that affect this species and is the first report of a malignant neoplasm in a free-ranging SSL.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia , Rabdomiossarcoma/secundário , Leões-Marinhos , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias Pulmonares/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica , Neoplasias Musculares/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias Musculares/veterinária , Rabdomiossarcoma/ultraestrutura , Rabdomiossarcoma/veterinária
17.
J Wildl Dis ; 39(3): 495-509, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14567210

RESUMO

Detailed postmortem examination of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found along the California (USA) coast has provided an exceptional opportunity to understand factors influencing survival in this threatened marine mammal species. In order to evaluate recent trends in causes of mortality, the demographic and geographic distribution of causes of death in freshly deceased beachcast sea otters necropsied from 1998-2001 were evaluated. Protozoal encephalitis, acanthocephalan-related disease, shark attack, and cardiac disease were identified as common causes of death in sea otters examined. While infection with acanthocephalan parasites was more likely to cause death in juvenile otters, Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis, shark attack, and cardiac disease were more common in prime-aged adult otters. Cardiac disease is a newly recognized cause of mortality in sea otters and T. gondii encephalitis was significantly associated with this condition. Otters with fatal shark bites were over three times more likely to have pre-existing T. gondii encephalitis suggesting that shark attack, which is a long-recognized source of mortality in otters, may be coupled with a recently recognized disease in otters. Spatial clusters of cause-specific mortality were detected for T. gondii encephalitis (in Estero Bay), acanthocephalan peritonitis (in southern Monterey Bay), and shark attack (from Santa Cruz to Point Año Nuevo). Diseases caused by parasites, bacteria, or fungi and diseases without a specified etiology were the primary cause of death in 63.8% of otters examined. Parasitic disease alone caused death in 38.1% of otters examined. This pattern of mortality, observed predominantly in juvenile and prime-aged adult southern sea otters, has negative implications for the overall health and recovery of this population.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade , Lontras , Acantocéfalos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Mordeduras e Picadas/mortalidade , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , California/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/mortalidade , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Oceanos e Mares , Lontras/lesões , Lontras/microbiologia , Lontras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Tubarões , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/mortalidade , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/veterinária
19.
J Parasitol ; 88(3): 594-9, 2002 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12099433

RESUMO

An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection was validated using serum from 77 necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) whose T. gondii infection status was determined through immunohistochemistry and parasite isolation in cell culture. Twenty-eight otters (36%) were positive for T. gondii by immunohistochemistry or parasite isolation or both, whereas 49 (64%) were negative by both tests. At a cutoff of 1:320, combined values for IFAT sensitivity and specificity were maximized at 96.4 and 67.3%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the IFAT was 0.84. A titer of 1:320 was used as cutoff when screening serum collected from live-sampled sea otters from California (n = 80), Washington (n = 21), and Alaska (n = 65) for T. gondii infection. Thirty-six percent (29 out of 80) of California sea otters (E. lutris nereis) and 38% (8 out of 21) of Washington sea otters (E. lutris kenyoni) were seropositive for T. gondii, compared with 0% (0 out of 65) of Alaskan sea otters (E. lutris kenyoni).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Lontras/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Masculino , Lontras/sangue , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Washington/epidemiologia
20.
J Med Primatol ; 31(6): 345-9, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12519213

RESUMO

Rat bite fever is a worldwide zoonotic, non-reportable disease. This entity encompasses similar, yet distinct, disease syndromes caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Naturally occurring rat bite fever has not been previously described in non-human primates. This report describes two cases of non-human primate rat bite fever caused by S. moniliformis; a rhesus macaque (Macaca mullata) with valvular endocarditis, and a titi monkey (Callicebus sp.) with septic arthritis. Potential sources of infection included direct contact, and ingestion of surface water or feed contaminated with rodent feces.


Assuntos
Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Febre por Mordedura de Rato/veterinária , Streptobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Febre por Mordedura de Rato/microbiologia , Febre por Mordedura de Rato/patologia
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