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2.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100056

RESUMO

Both cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterization (cath) may assess patients with single ventricle physiology prior to stage II or Fontan palliation. However, development of significant aortopulmonary collaterals may invalidate assumptions of the Fick method. We compared CMR and cath flow measurements and evaluated the relation to collateral flow. This single-center study included all pre-stage II and pre-Fontan patients between 2010 and 2017 with CMR and cath within 1 month. Pulmonary (Qp) and systemic flow (Qs) by cath were calculated by Fick method. CMR Qp was calculated by total pulmonary venous flow, and Qs by total vena caval flow. Collateral flow by CMR was the difference of pulmonary vein and pulmonary artery flow. In 26 studies (16 pre-stage II and 10 pre-Fontan) in 21 patients, collateral flow was higher in pre-Fontan patients (1.8 ± 0.6 vs 0.9 ± 0.8 L/min/m2, p = 0.01). Overall, CMR and cath had good agreement for Qs and Qp:Qs, with moderate correlation (r = 0.44, p = 0.02 for Qs, r = 0.48, p = 0.02 for Qp:Qs). In pre-Fontan but not in pre-stage II patients, CMR had higher Qp (mean difference - 1.71 L/min/m2) and Qp:Qs (mean difference - 0.36). The underestimation of cath Qp correlated with amount of collateral flow (r = - 0.47, p = 0.02). Neither cath nor CMR flow measurements correlated with outcomes in this small cohort. In conclusion, collaterals lead to systematically higher Qp and Qp:Qs measurements by CMR vs cath in single ventricle patients. Measurements may not be used interchangeably, with potential clinical significance in estimating pulmonary vascular resistance. Further study is necessary to evaluate possible relation to clinical outcomes.

3.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(6): 970-976, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964501

RESUMO

In repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF), pulmonary insufficiency results in varying degrees of right ventricle (RV) dilation. A subset of patients is diagnosed at initial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with a massively dilated RV, far beyond pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) criteria, which is unlikely to return to normal size after PVR. This study aimed to identify risk factors for massive RV dilation at initial CMR. This nested case-control study included all patients at our institution with rTOF and massive RV dilation (indexed RV end-diastolic volume [RVEDVi] ≥200 ml/m2) on initial CMR. Patients were matched by age at first CMR, gender, and type of repair with rTOF controls with RVEDVi<200 ml/m2. In 39 cases (median RVEDVi 227 ml/m2, interquartile range [IQR] 213 to 250) and 73 controls (median RVEDVi 155 ml/m2, IQR 130 to 169), repair at >6 months of age, longer QRS duration, and non-Caucasian race were significantly associated with massive RV dilation on univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, repair at >6 months of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 7.55, p = 0.03), longer QRS duration (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.05, p = 0.005), and non-Caucasian race (AOR = 7.84, 95% CI 1.76 to 34.8, p = 0.01) remained independently associated with massive RV dilation. Era of repair, history of systemic to pulmonary shunt palliation, genetic anomaly, and additional cardiac lesions did not differ between groups. In conclusion, these risk factors identify a subset of patients who may benefit from earlier CMR evaluation to avoid massive irreversible RV dilation.

4.
Pediatr Transplant ; 24(1): e13647, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885147

RESUMO

Mental health concerns are associated with worse outcomes after adult heart transplant. Illness-specific anxiety is associated with worsened psychological well-being after other solid organ transplants but has never been characterized after pediatric heart transplant. This single-center cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate illness-specific and generalized anxiety after heart transplantation in adolescents. A novel 12-item PHTF, GAD-7, and the PedsQL were administered. Univariate associations of demographics, clinical features, and medication adherence as measured by immunosuppression standard deviation with the PHTF and GAD-7 scores were evaluated. Internal consistency and validity of the PHTF were examined. In total, 30 patients participated. The most common illness-specific fears were retransplantation, rejection, and more generally post-transplant complications. The PHTF had good internal consistency (Cronbach α = .88). Construct validity was demonstrated between PHTF and GAD-7 (r = .62) and PedsQL (r = -.54 to -.62). 23% endorsed moderate to severe generalized anxiety symptoms. More severe symptoms were associated with older age at survey (P = .03), older age at listing (P = .01) and having post-transplant complications (P = .004). Patients with moderate or severe symptoms were more likely to report late immunosuppression doses (P = .004). Illness-specific and generalized anxiety may be prevalent after pediatric heart transplant. Screening for anxiety in adolescents post-transplant may identify those at risk for adverse outcomes including non-adherence. The PHTF is a brief, valid, and reliable instrument identifying illness-specific anxiety in this population.

5.
Palliat Med ; : 269216319874689, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults undergoing heart transplantation experience risks of morbidity and mortality both pre- and post-transplant. To improve end-of-life care for this population, it is necessary to understand their medical and end-of-life decision-making preferences. AIM: (1) To examine adolescent/young adult decision-making involvement specific to heart transplant listing, and (2) to characterize their preferences specific to medical and end-of-life decision making. DESIGN: This cross-sectional research study utilized survey methods. Data were collected from October 2016 to March 2018. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Twelve adolescent and young adult patients listed for heart transplant (ages = 12-19 years) and one parent for each were enrolled at a single-center, US children's hospital. RESULTS: Consistent with their preferences, the majority of adolescent/young adult participants (82%) perceived a high level of involvement in the decision to be listed for transplant. Patient involvement in this decision was primarily by way of seeking advice or information from their parents and being asked to express their opinion from parents. Despite a preference among patients to discuss their prognosis and be involved in end-of-life decision making if seriously ill, only 42% of patients had discussed their end-of-life wishes with anyone. Few parents recounted having such discussions. Preferences regarding the timing and nature of end-of-life decision-making discussions varied. CONCLUSIONS: Although young people are involved in the decision to pursue heart transplantation, little attention is paid to involving them in discussions regarding end-of-life decision making in a manner that is consistent with individual preferences.

6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(6): 1849-1855, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although overall outcomes have improved for single-ventricle patients, substantial morbidity and mortality remain for certain high-risk groups. The hybrid stage I procedure is an alternative to the Norwood operation for stage I palliation, but it remains unclear whether it is associated with improved outcomes in high-risk patients. METHODS: This single-center, nested, case-control study included high-risk patients with a systemic right ventricle who underwent hybrid stage I or Norwood palliation from January 2000 to December 2016. High-risk features included prematurity < 34 weeks, birth weight < 2.5 kg, restrictive/intact atrial septum, at least moderate atrioventricular valve regurgitation or right ventricular dysfunction, genetic or extracardiac anomalies, or left ventricular sinusoids. Patients were matched by presence of genetic anomaly, restrictive/intact atrial septum, and prematurity/weight < 2 kg. Early and midterm outcomes were compared in the matched hybrid vs Norwood groups. RESULTS: The study included 96 patients (35 hybrid, 61 Norwood). Despite improved 30-day survival in hybrid patients (91% vs 66%, P < .01), 1-year survival was similar between the hybrid and Norwood groups (46% vs 48%, P = .9). No hybrid patients required dialysis or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after stage I palliation as compared with 19% and 22% of Norwood patients, respectively (both P < .01). Hybrid patients, however, required more unplanned reinterventions (43% vs 21%, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: There remains significant morbidity and mortality among high-risk single-ventricle infants. Despite an early survival benefit, hybrid stage I palliation has not been associated with improved midterm outcomes at our center.

7.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(8): 1633-1637, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468061

RESUMO

We sought to assess acute hemodynamic changes after implementation of negative extrathoracic pressure (NEP) in spontaneously breathing ambulatory Fontan patients with symptomatic heart failure. We hypothesized that application of NEP would result in an acute decrease in pulmonary artery pressure. Ten patients with clinical evidence of Fontan failure underwent baseline hemodynamic catheterization while breathing spontaneously. Hemodynamic measurements were then repeated after 30 min of continuous NEP. After 30 min of continuous NEP, 4/10 patients had a decrease in their Fontan pressure by 2 mmHg and one patient had a decrease by 1 mmHg. There were three patients that had an increase in Fontan pressure by 2 mmHg. In 7/10 patients, indexed pulmonary vascular resistance decreased by an average of 31%. In symptomatic Fontan patients with a favorable hemodynamic response to NEP during catheterization, potential benefit of longer-term NEP to improve clinical status should be explored.


Assuntos
Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiradores de Pressão Negativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(7): 1503-1508, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346663

RESUMO

In patients with D-looped transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) status post atrial switch operation, the systemic right ventricle (RV) shifts to predominantly circumferential (CS) rather than longitudinal strain (LS), which may represent adaptation or dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate myocardial mechanics in pressure loaded, volume-loaded, and normal RVs by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Patients with D-TGA post atrial switch operation with CMR from 2008 to 2015 were matched 1:1 for age and RV ejection fraction (EF) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients (volume-loaded RVs), and 1:1 for age with control patients. RV free wall LS and CS were measured using feature tracking software (TomTec, Unterscleissheim, Germany). A total of 32 D-TGA (median age 32 years, 56% male), 32 TOF, and 32 control patients were included. D-TGA patients had less dilatation than TOF patients (125 ± 35 ml/m2 vs. 149 ± 44 ml/m2, p = 0.02) and lower RVEF than controls (42.9 ± 7.7% vs. 56.3 ± 5.6%, p < 0.0001). RV LS was similar in D-TGA and TOF ( - 13.2 ± 4.5% vs. - 14.5 ± 5.9%, p = 0.32), both decreased compared to controls. However, CS in D-TGA was higher than controls ( - 14.1 ± 4.1% vs. - 11.4 ± 4.4%, p = 0.01), with a higher CS:LS ratio (1.2 ± 0.7 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001), while CS in TOF and controls did not differ. RVEF in D-TGA correlated closely with CS (r = - 0.85, p < 0.0001) but not LS (r = 0.10, p = 0.58). I n conclusion, CMR can differentiate strain patterns in pressure- and volume-loaded RVs, with decreased LS in both conditions, while systemic RVs compensate with supra-normal CS. CS may be a more clinically relevant measure of RV function in this population.


Assuntos
Transposição das Grandes Artérias/efeitos adversos , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
J Pediatr ; 212: 73-78, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We previously reported common knowledge deficits and lack of transition readiness in 13- 25-year-olds with congenital or acquired heart disease. The aims of this study were to re-evaluate transition readiness in this cohort at follow-up and to examine the relationship between changes in transition readiness and quality of life (QOL). STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study, patients completed the Transition Readiness Assessment and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory using an e-tablet, web-based format at a routine follow-up visit. Changes from initial to follow-up scores were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of patients (106 of 164) completed follow-up assessments at a median age of 18.7 years (IQR, 16.5-21.2 years) at a median follow-up of 1 year. The average perceived knowledge deficit score (percent of items with no knowledge) at follow-up was 18.0 ± 15.2%, which decreased from 24.7 ± 16.5% (P < .0001). On a 100-point scale, the mean score for self-efficacy increased from 71.4 ± 17.0 to 76.7 ± 18.2 (P = .0004) and for self-management increased from 47.9 ± 18.4 to 52.0 ± 20.7 (P = .004). Although physical QOL did not change, the mean psychosocial QOL score increased significantly (P = .02). A decrease in the knowledge deficit score at follow-up was significantly associated with an increased psychosocial QOL score (P = .03). An increase in the self-efficacy score was associated with an increase in psychosocial QOL score (P = .04), especially social QOL (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Although deficits in knowledge and self-management skills persist, transition readiness assessment and recognition of deficits can improve transition readiness with improved psychosocial QOL.

10.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 20(8): 728-736, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the variation in timing of left atrial decompression and its association with clinical outcomes in pediatric patients supported with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation across a multicenter cohort. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective study. SETTING: Eleven pediatric hospitals within the United States. PATIENTS: Patients less than 18 years on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation who underwent left atrial decompression from 2004 to 2016. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 137 patients (median age, 4.7 yr) were included. Cardiomyopathy was the most common diagnosis (47%). Cardiac arrest (39%) and low cardiac output (50%) were the most common extracorporeal membrane oxygenation indications. Median time to left atrial decompression was 6.2 hours (interquartile range, 3.8-17.2 hr) with the optimal cut-point of greater than or equal to 18 hours for late decompression determined by receiver operating characteristic curve. In univariate analysis, late decompression was associated with longer extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration (median 8.5 vs 5 d; p = 0.02). In multivariable analysis taking into account clinical confounder and center effects, late decompression remained significantly associated with prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration (adjusted odds ratio, 4.4; p = 0.002). Late decompression was also associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 4.8; p = 0.002). Timing of decompression was not associated with in-hospital survival (p = 0.36) or overall survival (p = 0.42) with median follow-up of 3.2 years. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study of pediatric patients receiving venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, late left atrial decompression (≥ 18 hr) was associated with longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support and mechanical ventilation. Although no survival benefit was demonstrated, the known morbidities associated with prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use may justify a recommendation for early left atrial decompression.

11.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(4): 744-752, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710164

RESUMO

Prolonged pleural drainage is a common complication in patients after Fontan palliation and is associated with short- and long- term morbidities. Among many potential etiologies, prolonged drainage has an inflammatory component, but there are no descriptions of cytokines in Fontan pleural drainage to date. This study aimed to examine the inflammatory make-up of Fontan pleural drainage. This prospective age-range-matched cohort study recruited 25 patients undergoing Fontan procedure and 15 bi-ventricular patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Chest tube samples were taken on postoperative day (POD) 1-4, 7, and 10. Cytokines were measured using Bio-Plex Assays. Univariate comparisons were made in patient characteristics and cytokine levels. Median age was 3.7 y (IQR 2.8-3.9) for controls and 2.5 y (IQR 2.1-2.9) in Fontan patients (p = 0.02). Median drainage duration and daily volume was higher in Fontan patients (both p < 0.001). Inflammatory cytokines (IL-17A, IFN-y, MIP-1ß, and TNF-α) were higher in Fontan patients than controls (all p < 0.02). There was an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, MIP-1ß, and TNF-α) from POD1 to the last chest tube day (LCD) in Fontan patients (all p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (p = 0.001). There was no difference in cytokine concentration from POD1 to LCD among controls. There was a significant association with the cytokine concentration of TNF-α on POD1 and duration of chest tube drainage (p < 0.05). Inflammatory cytokine levels in the pleural fluid of Fontan patients are higher compared to bi-ventricular controls and rise over time where controls do not. This suggests ongoing localized inflammation that is not a result of CPB alone and may be an important contributor to pleural drainage in patients after the Fontan procedure.


Assuntos
Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Interleucinas/análise , Derrame Pleural/metabolismo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL3/análise , Tubos Torácicos , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas , Drenagem , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Proteínas Quimioatraentes de Monócitos/análise , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
12.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(1): 17-25, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy's (PLE) severity, duration, and treatment on heart transplant (HTx) outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that long-standing PLE and PLE requiring more intensive therapy are associated with increased post-HTx mortality. METHODS: This 12-center, retrospective cohort study of post-Fontan patients with PLE referred for HTx from 2003 to 2015 involved collection of demographic, medical, surgical, and catheterization data, as well as PLE-specific data, including duration of disease, intensity/details of treatment, hospitalizations, and complications. Factors associated with waitlist and post-HTx outcomes and PLE resolution were sought. RESULTS: Eighty patients (median of 5 per center) were referred for HTx evaluation. Of 68 patients listed for HTx, 8 were removed due to deterioration, 4 died waiting, and 4 remain listed. In 52 patients undergoing HTx, post-HTx 1-month survival was 92% and 1-year survival was 83%. PLE-specific factors, including duration of PLE pre-HTx, pre-HTx hospitalizations, need for/frequency of albumin replacement, PLE therapies, and growth parameters had no association with post-HTx mortality. Immunosuppressant regimen was associated with mortality; standard mycophenolate mofetil immunotherapy was used in 95% of survivors compared with only 44% of non-survivors (p = 0.03). Rejection (53%) and infection (42%) post-HTx were common, but not associated with PLE-specific factors. PLE resolved completely in all but 1 HTx survivor at a median of 1 month (interquartile range 1 to 3 months); resolution was not affected by PLE-specific factors. CONCLUSIONS: PLE severity, duration, and treatment do not influence post-HTx outcome, but immunosuppressive regimen may have an impact on survival. PLE resolves in nearly all survivors.


Assuntos
Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Enteropatias Perdedoras de Proteínas/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Enteropatias Perdedoras de Proteínas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 39(8): 1627-1634, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310939

RESUMO

Recurrence of subaortic stenosis (SubAS) is up to ~ 19% following resection. Historically, treatment has consisted of membrane resection alone. This study investigated the effect of routine septal myectomy in addition to membrane resection. A single-center retrospective review was performed in all patients < 18 years of age undergoing membrane resection with septal myectomy for SubAS from 2003 to 2013. Demographic, perioperative, and follow-up data were collected. Freedom from reoperation and risk factors for reoperation were determined. 107 patients (median age 4.8 years) were included. There was one in-hospital death, five patients (5%) requiring pacemaker, and no iatrogenic ventricular septal defects. Follow-up was 80% complete and median follow-up was 4.9 years (range 0.5-12 years). Fourteen (16%) subjects required reoperation. Freedom from reoperation was 98% at 1 year, 86% at 5 years, and 69% at 10 years (Fig. 1). There was no difference in decrease of peak gradient between subjects who did and did not require reoperation (- 47 vs. - 40 mmHg; p = 0.59). In univariate analysis, chromosomal anomaly (hazard ratio [HR] 5.0, p = 0.02), smaller body surface area (HR 0.1, p = 0.03), and younger age at surgery (HR 0.7, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with reoperation. The routine use of myectomy with membrane excision did not result in a lower rate of reoperation or higher rates of complications compared to historical controls. Younger age, smaller size, and chromosomal anomaly were associated with increased risk for reoperation. Patients with these risk factors may benefit from more intensive long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Estenose Subaórtica Fixa/cirurgia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cardiol Young ; 28(8): 1031-1036, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although interstage mortality for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome has declined within the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative, variation across centres persists. It remains unclear whether centres with lower interstage mortality have lower-risk patients or whether differences in care may explain this variation. We examined previously established risk factors across National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative centres with lower and higher interstage mortality rates. METHODS: Lower-mortality centres were defined as those with >25 consecutive interstage survivors. Higher-mortality centres were defined as those with cumulative interstage mortality rates >10%, which is a collaborative historic baseline rate. Baseline risk factors and perioperative characteristics were compared. RESULTS: Seven lower-mortality centres were identified (n=331 patients) and had an interstage mortality rate of 2.7%, as compared with 13.3% in the four higher-mortality centres (n=173 patients, p<0.0001). Of all baseline risk factors examined, the only factor that differed between the lower- and higher-mortality centres was postnatal diagnosis (18.4 versus 31.8%, p=0.001). In multivariable analysis, there remained a significant mortality difference between the two groups of centres after adjusting for this variable: adjusted mortality rate was 2.8% in lower-mortality centres compared with 12.6% in higher-mortality centres, p=0.003. Secondary analyses identified multiple differences between groups in perioperative practices and other variables. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in interstage mortality rates between these two groups of centres does not appear to be explained by differences in baseline risk factors. Further study is necessary to evaluate variation in care practices to identify targets for improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/organização & administração , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/cirurgia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 9(4): 407-411, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstage outcomes for single ventricle infants following Norwood operation have been well studied, showing significant mortality. Other single ventricle infants require only an aortopulmonary shunt. The aim of the study was to describe the interstage outcomes of this group compared to Norwood patients and identify risk factors for mortality. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort review was performed in patients who underwent a Norwood operation (Norwood) or aortopulmonary shunt (Shunt) during 2000 to 2011 and survived to discharge. Hybrid or pulmonary artery banding patients were excluded. Univariate comparison was made between Norwood and Shunt patients as well as a Shunt subgroup analysis. RESULTS: A total of 486 patients (368 Norwood and 118 Shunt) were included. Norwood and Shunt patients were similar in terms of preterm birth, surgery weight, and stage 1 complications. Shunt patients were more likely to be female, have an extracardiac or genetic anomaly, and have a shorter hospital length of stay compared to the Norwood patients (all P < .0001). No significant difference in interstage mortality was seen between the Shunt and Norwood patients (6.8% vs 11.1%, respectively; P = .17). Stage 2 mortality was also similar (Shunt 4.6% vs Norwood 7.8%; P = .25). In the Shunt patients, those who died during interstage weighed less at surgery (2.7 [0.7] kg vs 3.3 [0.7] kg, P = .03) and were more likely to have arrhythmias (50% vs 12%, P = .01), compared to survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Shunt patients have an interstage mortality that is not significantly less than Norwood patients. Lower weight at surgery and arrhythmias are risk factors for interstage death in Shunt patients.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/cirurgia , Procedimentos de Norwood , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 9(4): 434-439, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single ventricle (SV) patients with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) are at high risk. Given the limited published data available, we examined outcomes and the implications of a prenatal diagnosis of SV/TAPVC. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective review was performed in neonates with SV/TAPVC from 1998 to 2014, identified through institutional databases. Patient demographic, perioperative, and follow-up data were collected. RESULTS: Thirty-four eligible infants with SV/TAPVC were identified (mean birth weight: 3.0 kg). The TAPVC types were supracardiac (59%), infracardiac (21%), mixed (12%), and cardiac (9%). Heterotaxy syndrome was present in 25 (74%) infants. A prenatal diagnosis of SV was made in 26 (76%) infants, with TAPVC identified in 12 (35%). Seventeen (50%) had obstructed TAPVC within the first 48 hours of life; 7 of these patients had obstructed TAPVC identified prenatally. There were two preoperative deaths. Overall survival for the cohort was 65% at 1 year and 50% at 3 years. Survival in the obstructed group was significantly worse compared to the unobstructed group (47% vs 81% at 1 year; 27% vs 73% at 3 years, P = .01). Obstructed TAPVC and a prenatal prediction of obstructed TAPVC were significantly associated with postoperative mortality ( P = .01 and .03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SV/TAPVC remain a high-risk group, with obstructed TAPVC a significant risk factor for mortality. Prenatal diagnosis of TAPVC in SV patients is challenging, but given those with obstructed TAPVC are especially at high risk, improved prenatal diagnostic techniques in this group may enhance counseling/delivery planning.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Síndrome de Cimitarra/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/mortalidade , Anormalidades Múltiplas/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/mortalidade , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/cirurgia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Cimitarra/mortalidade , Síndrome de Cimitarra/cirurgia
17.
Cardiol Young ; 28(4): 561-570, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316996

RESUMO

Children with single-ventricle disease experience high mortality and complex care. In other life-limiting childhood illnesses, paediatric palliative care may mitigate maternal stress. We hypothesised that early palliative care in the single-ventricle population may have the same benefit for mothers. In this pilot randomised trial of early palliative care, mothers of infants with prenatal single-ventricle diagnoses completed surveys measuring depression, anxiety, coping, and quality of life at a prenatal visit and neonatal discharge. Infants were randomised to receive early palliative care - structured evaluation, psychosocial/spiritual, and communication support before surgery - or standard care. Among 56 eligible mothers, 40 enrolled and completed baseline surveys; 38 neonates were randomised, 18 early palliative care and 20 standard care; and 34 postnatal surveys were completed. Baseline Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Index scores exceeded normal pregnant sample scores (mean 13.76±8.46 versus 7.0±5.0 and 46.34±12.59 versus 29.8±6.35, respectively; p=0.0001); there were no significant differences between study groups. The early palliative care group had a decrease in prenatal to postnatal State-Trait Anxiety Index scores (-7.6 versus 0.3 in standard care, p=0.02), higher postnatal Brief Cope Inventory positive reframing scores (p=0.03), and a positive change in PedsQL Family Impact Module communication and family relationships scores (effect size 0.46 and 0.41, respectively). In conclusion, these data show that mothers of infants with single-ventricle disease experience significant depression and anxiety prenatally. Early palliative care resulted in decreased maternal anxiety, improved maternal positive reframing, and improved communication and family relationships.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/anormalidades , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 13(3): 413-418, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29372620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks in children and patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) remain a major complication of device therapy, occurring in as many as 50% of children with ICDs. New generation devices include algorithms designed to minimize inappropriate shocks. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of new generation ICDs on the incidence of inappropriate shocks in the pediatric and CHD population. DESIGN: Retrospective study of patients with CHD or under age 25 receiving ICDs between 2000 and 2015. New generation ICDs were defined as those with Medtronic "SmartShock" algorithms. RESULTS: Two hundred eight devices were implanted in 146 patients. Rates of inappropriate shocks were similar between diagnoses (P = .71). The rate of inappropriate shock was 15% over median 5.8 years follow-up. In the 36 patients (25%) with new generation ICDs, the rate of inappropriate shock was 6.3% over 4 years. Comparing old to new generation ICDs, freedom from first inappropriate shock was 90.6% versus 97.1% at 1 year and 80.4% versus 97.1% at 3 years (P = .01). Lead fracture was associated with having inappropriate shock (hazard ratio 8.5, P < .0001), and there was no significant difference between the device groups when lead fractures were excluded. Clinical actions were taken in 69% of patients after initial inappropriate shock (such as medication or program change, system revision, or explant). When an action was taken, subsequent inappropriate shock was reduced (5.3% vs 49.2% at 1 year; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric and CHD patients are experiencing reduced inappropriate shocks with new generation ICD systems, though reduced lead fracture may account for this improvement. Clinical interventions after inappropriate shock favorably impact the subsequent rate of shocks once an inappropriate shock occurs.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cardiol Young ; 28(4): 554-560, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental impairment is increasingly recognised as a potentially disabling outcome of CHD and formal evaluation is recommended for high-risk patients. However, data are lacking regarding the proportion of eligible children who actually receive neurodevelopmental evaluation, and barriers to follow-up are unclear. We examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure to attend neurodevelopmental follow-up clinic after infant cardiac surgery. METHODS: Survivors of infant (<1 year) cardiac surgery at our institution (4/2011-3/2014) were included. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated in neurodevelopmental clinic attendees and non-attendees in univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: A total of 552 patients were included; median age at surgery was 2.4 months, 15% were premature, and 80% had moderate-severe CHD. Only 17% returned for neurodevelopmental evaluation, with a median age of 12.4 months. In univariate analysis, non-attendees were older at surgery, had lower surgical complexity, fewer non-cardiac anomalies, shorter hospital stay, and lived farther from the surgical center. Non-attendee families had lower income, and fewer were college graduates or had private insurance. In multivariable analysis, lack of private insurance remained independently associated with non-attendance (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, p=0.01), with a trend towards significance for distance from surgical center (adjusted odds ratio 2.86, p=0.054 for ⩾200 miles). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of infants with CHD at high risk for neurodevelopmental dysfunction evaluated in this study are not receiving important neurodevelopmental evaluation. Efforts to remove financial/insurance barriers, increase access to neurodevelopmental clinics, and better delineate other barriers to receipt of neurodevelopmental evaluation are needed.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 90(3): 398-406, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28471080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe our 20-year experience with intraoperative pulmonary artery (PA) stent placement and evaluate long-term patient outcomes, specifically the need and risk factors for reintervention. BACKGROUND: Intraoperative PA stent placement is an alternative to surgical patch arterioplasty and percutaneous angioplasty or stent placement to treat branch PA stenosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all intraoperative PA stents placed at our institution from 1994-2013. Patient and stent characteristics and outcome data were collected. Risk factors associated with reintervention were identified using univariate cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-one PA stents were placed in 68 patients. The procedural complication rate was 4.4%. During a median follow-up period of 6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 0.9-12.7), 30 patients (44%) underwent reintervention on the stented PA with a median time to first reintervention of 2.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.4 years). The first reintervention was surgical in 30% and catheter-based in 70%. Risk factors for reintervention included age < 18 months (Hazard ratio [HR] 2.97, P = 0.005) and body surface area < 0.47 m2 (HR 3.20, P = 0.003) at the time of stent implantation, and the presence of multiple aortopulmonary collaterals in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (HR 4.61, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative PA stent implantation is a safe and effective alternative to percutaneous stent implantation and offers several advantages, including the ability to implant adult-size stents in small patients while avoiding injury to peripheral vessels, to position stents to facilitate future percutaneous stent redilation, and to access the PAs directly, which eliminates radiation exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estenose de Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Stents , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/instrumentação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estenose de Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose de Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
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