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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-19, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550841

RESUMO

Black youth face significant disparities in HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) disease burden. Mental illness and emotion regulation are ontributors to HIV/STI risk, yet many HIV/STI prevention interventions do not address these factors. Project GOLD was a pilot randomized controlled trial of a psychoeducational HIV/STI prevention intervention designed to address the role of mental illness and emotion regulation in HIV/STI risk among heterosexually active Black youth aged 14-17 (N = 108). Participants were recruited from outpatient mental health treatment programs and general community settings via community partner referrals, face-to-face encounters, flyers and social media. Assessments were conducted pretest, immediate posttest, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Although there were no statistically significant differences in behavior change from baseline, there were practically significant effect sizes among HIV condition participants when compared to the general health condition (e.g., fewer sexual partners at 6 months). An increase in theoretical mediators (e.g., condom use negotiation beliefs) was sustained at 12 months. HIV condition participants also reported lower depressive symptom severity, with statistical significance noted at immediate post and at 3 months. The findings highlight the importance and challenges of engaging Black youth in culturally and contextually relevant, developmentally and psychologically appropriate HIV/STI prevention interventions.

2.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568807

RESUMO

We assessed forty HNC patients receiving treatment with curative intent. Specific quantitative muscle and fat changes were evaluated using CT. Nutrition support was provided according to ESPEN guidelines, with adjusted body weight (ABW) in overweight/obese patients used to define their nutritional targets. Linear regression models were used to evaluate clinical predictors of tissue loss. Mean overall losses were body weight (-10.5%), and CT-defined muscle (-8.4%) and fat mass (-24.8%), p < 0.001. A subset of 20 patients had high muscle loss (-14.7%) with concurrent negative energy balance as reflected by considerable fat loss (-29.7%); those tended to have higher baseline body mass index (26.2 vs. 23.3 kg/m2, p = 0.063). In multivariate regression, only ABW independently predicted muscle loss (p < 0.001) and fat loss (p = 0.002). Nutrition support according to guidelines was appropriate for a subset of patients. ABW use to set nutrition targets in overweight/obese patients would appear to be insufficient, based on large tissue losses.

3.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(2): 134-138, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This project utilized the social media platform Instagram, which focuses upon posting images with accompanied captions, as a supplemental learning tool. The objective was to assess the impact of using a clinical pharmacy-focused Instagram account on students' knowledge of ambulatory care pharmacy. METHODS: A pre- and posttest quasi-experimental design was conducted in a third-year introductory pharmacy practice experience course during fall 2018. Pharmacy students were notified of the availability of an Instagram account managed by the principal investigator that posted ambulatory care clinical pearls as an optional supplemental educational tool. The primary outcome evaluated change in scores from pre- to posttest for the cohort of students in this course who followed the Instagram account (intervention group) compared to the cohort of students who did not follow the account (control group). RESULTS: A total of 69 third-year pharmacy students completed the course, with 37 students choosing not to follow the Instagram account (control group) and 32 students opting to engage with the Instagram account (intervention group). Pretest mean scores were nonsignificant between groups. The intervention group resulted in a higher increase in mean scores from pre- to the posttest (15% vs. 3.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Use of an educational Instagram account had a positive impact on students' knowledge relating to ambulatory care pharmacy as demonstrated by this comparison study.

4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nighttime agitation or "sundowning" is challenging for clinicians and caregivers to manage in older adults in the dementia stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD-D). Our research previously revealed that nighttime agitation might be a manifestation of restless legs syndrome (RLS). The current study aims to describe the characteristics of older adults with AD-D, nighttime agitation, and RLS, and to evaluate sleep disturbance and iron status in relation to nighttime agitation severity. DESIGN: An observational study with baseline descriptive and correlational data from a clinical trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Long-term care (n = 69) and independent living (n = 7); age 82.91 ± 9.46 years, with AD-D, nighttime agitation, and RLS. MEASUREMENTS: Trained observers counted nighttime agitation behaviors. Independent variables were age; cognition measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination; minutes slept from actigraphy; transferrin saturation percentage (TS%) and transferrin from fasting blood samples; and illness severity using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression models were generated. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, sleep minutes (P = .002) and TS% (P = .003) were negatively associated with frequency of nighttime agitation behaviors, and they explained 20% of the variance. Seventy-nine percent received 1 or more medications that worsen RLS symptoms, such as antihistamines and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We encourage clinicians to consider nighttime agitation as a manifestation of RLS. Treatment of iron deficiency indicated by low TS% and deprescribing medications that exacerbate RLS may decrease nighttime agitation, improve sleep, and enhance quality of life in older adults with AD-D.

5.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(5): 984-993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083662

RESUMO

Purpose: Lung reirradiation for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is common for either recurrent disease or new primary cancer. Dose volume tolerance of the lung after multiple courses of radiation therapy (RT) is unknown. We review our experience with lung reirradiation for patients with NSCLC in a single community setting using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to report lung cumulative doses, survival, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients who received at least 2 curative courses of lung RT with the second course delivered between January 2012 and December 2017 were eligible. All patients had NSCLC and were treated with SBRT for reirradiation. Cumulative lung dose volume histograms for all courses were generated, summated, and converted into cumulative equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2). Actuarial overall survival (OS), local control, and toxicity is reported, including a subset of patients who received more than 2 courses of SBRT. Results: Median age of the group was 71 years (range, 51-87). Median survival of the entire group from diagnosis, first, and second courses of RT was 3.94, 3.03, and 2.03 years. Three-year actuarial OS for the entire group was 34.1% from second course of RT. The mean EQD2 Gy3 mean lung dose for all courses was 12.35 Gy (range, 2.7-26.52). The mean EQD2 Gy3 V5Gy, V10Gy, V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy were 40.9%, 25.5%, 14.7%, 10.2%, and 7.7%. Six-year actuarial freedom from grade ≥3 complications was 86.3%. The rate of grade ≥3 lung toxicity was 4.5% (2 of 44). Other late toxicities included grade 3 recurrent laryngeal nerve damage (n = 1) and grade 3 chest wall pain/rib fracture (n = 1). Overall, 32% of patients had more than 2 courses of RT to the lung (range, 3-7). Conclusions: Long-term OS is possible with multiple RT courses to the lung for NSCLC with low toxicity.

6.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102201

RESUMO

Purpose/Objective(s): The current study reports long-term overall survival (OS) and biochemical freedom from recurrence (BFFR) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for men with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer in a single community hospital setting with early adoption. Materials/Methods: Ninety-seven consecutive men with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT between 2007 and 2015 were retrospectively studied. Categorical variables for analysis included National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group, race, Gleason grade group, T stage, use of androgen deprivation therapy, and planning target volume dose. Continuous variables for analysis included pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA), percent cores positive, age at diagnosis, PSA nadir, prostate volume, percent prostate that received 40 Gy, and minimum dose to 0.03 cc of prostate (Dmin). BFFR was assessed using the Phoenix nadir +2 definition. OS and BFFR were estimated using Kaplan-Meier (KM) methodology with comparisons accomplished using log-rank statistics. Multivariable analysis (MVA) was accomplished with a backwards selection Cox proportional-hazards model with statistical significance taken at the p < 0.05 level. Results: Median FU is 78.4 months. Five- and ten-year OS KM estimates are 90.9 and 73.2%, respectively, with 19 deaths recorded. MVA reveals pretreatment PSA (p = 0.032), percent prostate 40 Gy (p = 0.003), and race (p = 0.031) were predictive of OS. Five- and nine-year BFFR KM estimates are 92.1 and 87.5%, respectively, with 10 biochemical failures recorded. MVA revealed PSA nadir (p < 0.001) was the only factor predictive of BFFR. Specifically, for every one-unit increase in PSA nadir, there was a 4.2-fold increased odds of biochemical failure (HR = 4.248). No significant differences in BFFR were found between favorable intermediate, unfavorable intermediate, and high-risk prostate cancer (p = 0.054) with 7-year KM estimates of 96.6, 81.0, and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Favorable OS and BFFR can be expected after SBRT for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer with non-significant differences seen for BFFR between favorable intermediate, unfavorable intermediate, and high-risk groups. Our 5-year BFFR compares favorably with the HYPO-RT-PC trial of 84%. PSA nadir was predictive of biochemical failure. This study is ultimately limited by the small absolute number of high-risk patients included.

7.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(10): 1276-1281, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicare Part D sponsors are required to offer medication therapy management (MTM) programs to eligible beneficiaries. Recent studies have demonstrated that there have been racial/ethnic disparities in MTM eligibility criteria. For example, compared with non-Hispanic White beneficiaries, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black beneficiaries are less likely to be eligible for MTM. However, there is limited evidence for socioeconomic and geographical characteristics of those who are eligible and receive MTM services. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who received MTM services. METHODS: As part of a previous study, a national survey evaluated a convenience sample of perspectives of Medicare beneficiaries on the MTM standardized format. The survey was distributed through Medicare Part D plans to beneficiaries receiving MTM services from 2017-2018. As part of the survey, respondents could provide their ZIP codes. Geographical variables, such as the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) urban-rural classification scheme and economic research service (ERS) county typology codes, were then applied to respondents' ZIP codes, allowing for the classification of counties or census tracts by urbanization and economic dependence measures. Descriptive statistics are reported for demographic, geographical, and socioeconomic information. RESULTS: Of the 300 (of 434) respondents who provided their ZIP codes, 51.3% were aged 65-74 years; 50% were male; and 66.7% had at least a college education. There were 82.7% who self-identified as White, while only 8% self-identified as Hispanic or Black/African American. The majority of respondents (58.4%) lived in large metropolitan areas as defined by the NCHS urban-rural classification scheme. Respondents' counties were characterized by economic dependence with 14.0% of respondents living in federal/state government-dependent counties and 12.7% living in recreation-dependent counties. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of respondents who provided their ZIP codes identified themselves as White and lived in large metropolitan areas. Respondents who identified themselves as Hispanic or Black/African American were not well represented. This study provides geographical and socioeconomic characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who received MTM services and highlights racial/ethnic differences. Further work is needed to confirm geographical and socioeconomic disparities among beneficiaries who received MTM services. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this study. Pellegrin is a member of the AMCP MTM Advisory Group. The other authors have nothing to disclose.

8.
Res Gerontol Nurs ; 13(6): 280-288, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966585

RESUMO

Nighttime agitation is a prevalent symptom in persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Effective treatments are absent due to our limited knowledge of its etiology. We hypothesized that restless legs syndrome (RLS), a common neurological sensorimotor disorder of uncomfortable leg sensations that appear at night and interfere with sleep, might be a cause for nighttime agitation in persons with AD. RLS is infrequently identified in persons with AD because traditional diagnosis is dependent on patients answering complex questions about their symptoms. With a validated observational tool for RLS diagnosis, the Behavioral Indicators Test-Restless Legs, we aim to diagnose RLS and determine the effect of gabapentin enacarbil (GEn) compared to placebo on nighttime agitation, sleep, antipsychotic medications, and the mechanism for these effects. We hypothesize that frequency of RLS behaviors will mediate the relationship between GEn and nighttime agitation. This study is an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot clinical trial, followed by an 8-week open-label trial, that is being conducted in long-term care settings and private homes. The results of this study may shift, personalize, and improve standards of care for treatment of nighttime agitation; reduce aggression and other nighttime agitation behaviors; and improve sleep. TARGETS: Persons with AD with nighttime agitation potentially caused by RLS. INTERVENTION DESCRIPTION: Diagnose RLS and determine the effect of GEn. MECHANISMS OF ACTION: The frequency of RLS behaviors will mediate the relationship between GEn and nighttime agitation. OUTCOMES: Determine the effect of GEn on nighttime agitation, sleep, and antipsychotic medications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03082755 (Date of registration March 6, 2017). [Research in Gerontological Nursing, 13(6), 280-288.].

9.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 5(1): e000468, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566757

RESUMO

Background: Trauma patients with penetrating vascular injuries have a higher rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The objective of this study was to determine the risk of VTE formation in penetrating femoral and popliteal vascular injuries and the effects of endovascular management of these injuries. Methods: A retrospective study of Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study registry was conducted during a 5-year period (2013-2017). All adult patients with a penetrating mechanism with femoral/popliteal vascular injuries were studied. Primary outcome was incidence of VTE in patients with isolated arterial injuries versus combined arterial/venous injuries. Secondary endpoints were intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS and mortality. Statistical comparisons were accomplished using Fisher's exact tests, and parametric two-sample t-tests or non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results: Of the 865 patients with penetrating extremity vascular injuries, 207 had femoral or popliteal artery injuries. Patients with isolated arterial injuries (n=131) had a significantly lower deep venous thrombosis (DVT) rate compared with those with concurrent venous injuries (n=76) (3.1% vs. 13.2%, p=0.008). There were 14 patients in the study who developed DVTs. Among the four patients with isolated femoral or popliteal arterial injuries who had developed DVTs, three had an open repair. Among patients with isolated arterial injuries, those with DVT spend significantly more time on the ventilator (median=2 vs. 0, p=0.0020) compared with patients without DVT. Patients with DVT also had longer stay in the hospital (median=17.5 vs. 8, p=0.0664) and in the ICU (median=3 vs. 1, p=0.0585). Conclusions: Risk of DVT exists in patients with penetrating isolated femoral and popliteal artery trauma. Open repair was associated with significantly higher DVT rates in isolated arterial injuries. Level of evidence: Level IV therapeutic care/management.

10.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e036507, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As a common form of sedentary behaviour, television viewing is associated with an increase in body mass index (BMI) as well as overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study examined the extent to which meeting the recommended volume of weekly physical activity (PA) reduced the association between television viewing with the outcomes of BMI and CVD risk. A second aim was to determine the number of hours (ie, cut-point) of daily television viewing that conferred a higher BMI and CVD risk for a large population-based sample of adults. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. SETTING: UK Biobank recruited across 35 centres in the UK between 2006 and 2010. PRIMARY OUTCOME: CVD risk, as measured by the 30-year Framingham risk score. RESULTS: Linear regression models indicated that every additional hour of television viewing per day was associated with a 3% increase in CVD risk (aCoeff=0.03, d=0.16, p<0.0001); the interaction between television viewing with meeting PA guidelines was marginally associated with CVD risk (aCoeff=0.0010, d=0.01, p=0.014). Each additional hour of television viewing per day was associated with a 0.54 increase in BMI (aCoeff=0.54, d=0.13, p<0.0001); the interaction between television viewing with meeting PA guidelines was not significantly associated with BMI. Regression tree models of the study outcomes revealed that 2.5 hours of television viewing was associated with pronounced increases in BMI and CVD risk. CONCLUSIONS: These data underscore the independent association between television viewing with cardiovascular risk and suggest that reducing television viewing to less than 2.5 hours per day, even in physically active adults, is a clinical and public health priority.

11.
Hand (N Y) ; : 1558944720919181, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447994

RESUMO

Background: In an effort to reduce surgical complications, some institutions have implemented universal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) screening for all preoperative patients. However, the value of HbA1c screening for predicting clinically meaningful complications after elective carpal tunnel release (CTR) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinically meaningful predicative value of HbA1c screening on postoperative complications following elective CTR. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 790 patients who underwent CTR was performed. All patients had an HbA1c screening performed, regardless of whether they underwent the diagnosis for diabetes or not. Primary outcomes were overall complication rate, rates of major complications (readmission or reoperation), and rates of minor complications (surgical site infection and wound dehiscence). Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on HbA1c: HbA1c <7, HbA1c 7-8, and HbA1c >8. Results: The overall complication rate for all groups was 4.8%. Rates of major complications were 0.4% for readmission and 0.1% for reoperation. For minor complications, the odds ratio (OR) for the HbA1c 7-8 group was 0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.77), and for the HbA1c >8 group, the OR was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.66-3.60). All minor complications resolved with outpatient treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for any comparisons. Conclusions: Elective CTR has a low complication rate. Routine preoperative screening of HbA1c is of little value in predicting clinically meaningful complications.

12.
Nurs Res ; 69(2): 157-164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment frequently represents a predementia stage of Alzheimer's disease. Although obstructive sleep apnea is increasingly recognized as a common comorbidity of mild cognitive impairment, most apnea research has focused on middle-aged adults with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Mild obstructive sleep apnea, defined as 5-14 apneas or hypopneas per hour slept, is common in older adults. Little is known about the effect on cognition of adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in older adults with mild obstructive sleep apnea and mild cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the effect of CPAP adherence on cognition in older adults with mild obstructive sleep apnea and mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from Memories 1, a 1-year quasiexperimental clinical trial on the effect of CPAP adherence in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and obstructive sleep apnea. Those with mild obstructive sleep apnea were divided into two groups based on their CPAP adherence over 1 year: (a) CPAP adherent group (mild cognitive impairment + CPAP) with an average CPAP use of ≥4 hours per night and (b) CPAP nonadherent group (mild cognitive impairment - CPAP) with an average CPAP use of <4 hours per night. Individuals currently using CPAP were not eligible. A CPAP adherence intervention was provided for all participants, and an attention control intervention was provided for participants who chose to discontinue CPAP use during the 1-year follow-up. Descriptive baseline analyses, paired t tests for within-group changes, and general linear and logistic regression models for between-group changes were conducted. RESULTS: Those in the mild cognitive impairment + CPAP group compared to the mild cognitive impairment - CPAP group demonstrated a significant improvement in psychomotor/cognitive processing speed, measured by the Digit Symbol Coding Test. Eight participants improved on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, whereas six worsened or were unchanged. Twelve participants rated themselves as improved on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change Scale, whereas three reported their status as worsened or unchanged. The mild cognitive impairment + CPAP group had greater than an eightfold increased odds of improving on the Clinical Dementia Rating and greater than a ninefold increased odds of improving on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change Scale, compared to the mild cognitive impairment - CPAP group. DISCUSSION: CPAP adherence may be a promising intervention for slowing cognitive decline in older adults with mild obstructive sleep apnea and mild cognitive impairment. A larger, adequately powered study is needed.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(3): 474-480, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621452

RESUMO

Objectives: Fear of falling (FOF) causes excess disability in nursing home (NH) residents and is associated with vision and hearing impairment. We explored factors associated with FOF in 225 NH residents with vision, hearing or dual sensory impairment.Methods: We explored age, gender, cognition, depression, social engagement, illness burden, falls, physical function, mobility, falls self-efficacy and outcome expectancy as predictors of FOF using univariate logistic regression modeling, followed by multivariate analysis by group (visual, hearing, dual, total sample).Results: Fifty-one percent of residents had FOF. Residents who had FOF reported better cognition, lower falls self-efficacy, and higher outcome expectancy in the total sample and in most impairment groups. Falls outcome expectancy predictedFOF in the total sample and in the visual and hearing sensory impairment groups.Conclusion: When addressing FOF in NH residents it is important to address sensory status along with fears about falling to promote function.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e013269, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581870

RESUMO

Background Some, but not all, studies report associations between shift work and hypertension, suggesting that particular subgroups may be at risk. We examined moderating effects of sleep duration and circadian preference on the relationship between shift work and new blood pressure (BP) medicine use at follow-up. Methods and Results Baseline and 5-year follow-up data from the UK Biobank cohort (N=9200) were used to generate logistic regression models for shift workers and nonshift workers. The moderating effects of sleep duration (short ≤6 hours; adequate 7-8 hours; long ≥9 hours) and circadian preference (morning "larks;" intermediate; evening "owls") at baseline were examined with new BP medicine use at follow-up, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, employment, urban/rural, cardiovascular disease family history, depression, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, smoking, and body mass index. The sample was predominately middle aged (55.3±7.4), female (57.3%), and white (97.9%). Most reported adequate sleep duration (7-8 hours, 73.7%) and were intermediate type (65.3%); 8.0% were shift workers at baseline. Only 6.5% reported new BP medicine use at follow-up. Short sleep duration was a significant moderator of new BP medicine use in shift workers. Among short sleepers, shift workers had a 2.1-fold increased odds of new BP medicine use compared with nonshift workers (odds ratio=2.08, 95% CI=1.21-3.58, P=0.008). In those reporting adequate (odds ratio=0.82, 95% CI=0.54-1.25, P=0.35) and long sleep (odds ratio=0.64, 95% CI=0.11-3.54, P=0.60), this relationship was protective but nonsignificant. Interaction between circadian preference and shift work on BP medicine use was nonsignificant. Conclusions Shift workers with short sleep duration may be at risk for hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
15.
Res Gerontol Nurs ; 12(5): 217-226, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283831

RESUMO

Sensory impairment, explicitly vision and hearing impairment, among nursing home (NH) residents decreases their ability to socially engage. However, it is not known to what extent visual, hearing, or dual impairment is associated with social engagement. The aims of the current retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study were to determine the relationship between social engagement and (a) levels of sensory impairment (vision, hearing, and dual); (b) depression; and (c) cognition. The authors analyzed baseline data from 213 NH residents with sensory impairment from the I-SEE study. Multivariable model results demonstrated that sensory impairment was not associated with social engagement when adjusting for all covariates. Greater social engagement was associated with less depression, better cognition, and greater comorbidity. Clinicians should be aware of these risks to social engagement in NH residents with sensory impairment and monitor for decreased social engagement and isolation in residents with less comorbidities, higher depression levels, and poorer cognition. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2019; 12(5):217-226.].


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Casas de Saúde , Participação Social , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Idoso , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0209813, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022202

RESUMO

Neuroangiostrongyliasis, caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, has been reported in Hawai'i since the 1950's. An increase in cases is being reported primarily from East Hawai'i Island, correlated with the introduction of the semi-slug Parmarion martensi. Households in areas lacking infrastructure for water must use rainwater catchment as their primary domestic water supply, for which there is no federal, state, or county regulation. Despite evidence that slugs and snails can contaminate water and cause infection, regulatory bodies have not addressed this potential transmission route. This study evaluates: 1) the emergence of live, infective-stage A. cantonensis larvae from drowned, non-native, pestiforous gastropods; 2) larvae location in an undisturbed water column; 3) longevity of free-living larvae in water; and 4) effectiveness of rainwater catchment filters in blocking infective-stage larvae. Larvae were shed from minced and whole gastropods drowned in either municipal water or rainwater with ~94% of larvae recovered from the bottom of the water column 72-96 hours post drowning. Infective-stage larvae were active for 21 days in municipal water. Histological sectioning of P. martensi showed proximity of nematode larvae to the body wall of the gastropod, consistent with the potential for shedding of larvae in slime. Gastropod tissue squashes showed effectivity as a quick screening method. Live, infective-stage larvae were able to traverse rainwater catchment polypropylene sediment filters of 20 µm, 10 µm, 5 µm, and 1 µm filtration ratings, but not a 5 µm carbon block filter. These results demonstrate that live, infective-stage A. cantonensis larvae emerge from drowned snails and slugs, survive for extended periods of time in water, and may be able to enter a catchment user's household water supply. This study illustrates the need to better investigate and understand the potential role of contaminated water as a transmission route for neuroangiostrongyliasis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/fisiologia , Filtração/instrumentação , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Água/parasitologia , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/patogenicidade , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Hawaii , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva/patogenicidade , Larva/fisiologia , Filtros Microporos , Projetos Piloto , Chuva , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Res Nurs Health ; 42(1): 8-28, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730043

RESUMO

Black youth account for the largest number of new HIV infections among heterosexual youth. Mental illness and difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to increased reports of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-related sexual behaviors in this group. Yet limited interventions exist to address this affective component of the sexual decision-making process. The purpose of this paper was to describe the trial design, research challenges, and baseline characteristics from a study designed to fill this gap. Project GOLD was a pilot randomized controlled trial of a psychoeducational HIV/STI prevention intervention designed to address the role of mental illness and emotion regulation in HIV/STI risk among heterosexually-active Black youth aged 14 to 17 (N = 108). Challenges encountered in the research process warrant further attention in future research (e.g., disagreement among the regulatory bodies on parental permission requirements). The most common mental health diagnoses were Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder (15.7%) and current substance abuse (7.4%). Participants reported higher levels of emotional suppression, and adaptive methods of emotion management, than culturally inappropriate expressions of anger or sadness. They also reported a mean age of 13.6 at first vaginal sex, used condoms 66% of the time for vaginal sex, and had an average of three sexual partners in the past 6 months. More than one-quarter (26.9%) had sex with more than one person in the same day. These findings indicate intervention is crucial for this population. The forthcoming trial evaluation will indicate the promise of such interventions in reducing HIV/STI infections in this key population.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Educação Sexual/métodos , Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
18.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(3): 558-564, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but little prospective evidence exists on the effects of OSA treatment in preclinical AD. The objective was to determine if continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment adherence, controlling for baseline differences, predicts cognitive and everyday function after 1 year in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to determine effect sizes for a larger trial. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental pilot clinical trial with CPAP adherence defined as CPAP use 4 hours or more per night over 1 year. SETTING: Sleep and geriatric clinics and community. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults, aged 55 to 89 years, with an apnea-hypopnea index of 10 or higher participated: (1) MCI, OSA, and CPAP adherent (MCI +CPAP), n = 29; and (2) MCI, OSA, CPAP nonadherent (MCI -CPAP), n = 25. INTERVENTION: CPAP. MEASUREMENTS: The primary cognitive outcome was memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised), and the secondary cognitive outcome was psychomotor/cognitive processing speed (Digit Symbol subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Substitution Test). Secondary function and progression measures were the Everyday Cognition, Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change Scale, and Clinical Dementia Rating. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvements in psychomotor/cognitive processing speed in the MCI +CPAP group vs the MCI -CPAP group were observed at 1 year after adjustment for age, race, and marital status (parameter estimate = 1.68; standard error = 0.47; 95% confidence interval = 0.73-2.62), with a 6-month effect size (ES) of 0.46 and a 1-year ES of 1.25. There were small to moderate ESs for memory (ES 0.20, 6 mo), attention (ES 0.25, 1 y), daytime sleepiness (ES 0.33, 6 mo and ES 0.22, 1 y), and everyday function (ES 0.50, 6 mo) favoring the MCI +CPAP group vs the MCI -CPAP group. CONCLUSION: Controlling for baseline differences, 1 year of CPAP adherence in MCI +OSA significantly improved cognition, compared with a nonadherent control group, and may slow the trajectory of cognitive decline. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Memories; NCT01482351; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01482351?cond=MCI+and+OSA&rank=1 J Am Geriatr Soc 67:558-564, 2019.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Polissonografia/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Escalas de Wechsler
19.
Prev Med ; 121: 47-54, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695719

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV), the physical, sexual, psychological abuse or control by a former or current intimate partner, affects almost one-third of women in the United States. IPV exposure can result in many negative outcomes including physical injury, increased stress, and depression. Currently, there is a small, but, growing body of literature examining the link between IPV victimization and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among young adult women. To better prevent this negative outcome, it is imperative to understand what factors associated with IPV victimization may be increasing this risk. A secondary analysis of Wave IV of the Add Health study was conducted to examine possible factors mediating past year IPV exposure and 30-year CVD risk score including perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and alcohol dependence among a representative sample of young adult women in the United States. Multiple mediation analyses were run to examine the possible mediating factors in the relationship between IPV and CVD risk. In a multiple mediation model, the indirect effect of perceived stress became insignificant when depressive symptoms were introduced. The findings of this study reveal that 30-year CVD risk in the context of IPV victimization should continue to be examined among this population. The mediation models suggested the importance of stress and depression in the context of IPV and heart health. Screening for depression among women exposed to IPV should be considered as an important intervention point, not only to mitigate mental health issues, but to also help prevent the development of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 28(2): 103-110, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported reduction in the rate of hospitalisations with medication harm among older adults with our 'Pharm2Pharm' intervention, a pharmacist-led care transition and care coordination model focused on best practices in medication management. The objectives of the current study are to determine the extent to which medication harm among older inpatients is 'community acquired' versus 'hospital acquired' and to assess the effectiveness of the Pharm2Pharm model with each type. METHODS: After a 3-year baseline, six non-federal general acute care hospitals with 50 or more beds in Hawaii implemented Pharm2Pharm sequentially. The other five such hospitals served as the comparison group. We measured frequencies and quarterly rates of admissions among those aged 65 and older with 'community-acquired' (International Classification of Diseases-coded as present on admission) and 'hospital-acquired' (coded as not present on admission) medication harm per 1000 admissions from 2010 to 2014. RESULTS: There were 189 078 total admissions from 2010 through 2014, 7% of which had one or more medication harm codes. There were 16 225 medication harm codes, 70% of which were community-acquired, among these 13 795 admissions. The varied times when the intervention was implemented across hospitals were associated with a significant reduction in the rate of admissions with community-acquired medication harm compared with non-intervention hospitals (p=0.001), and specifically harm by anticoagulants (p<0.0001) and by medications in therapeutic use (p<0.001). The hospital-acquired medication harm rate did not change. The rate of admissions with community-acquired medication harm was reduced by 4.28 admissions per 1000 admissions per quarter in the Pharm2Pharm hospitals relative to the comparison hospitals. CONCLUSION: The Pharm2Pharm model is an effective way to address the growing problem of community-acquired medication harm among high-risk, chronically ill patients. This model demonstrates the importance of deploying specially trained pharmacists in the hospital and in the community to systematically identify and resolve drug therapy problems.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Feminino , Hawaii , Humanos , Masculino , Risco Ajustado
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