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1.
Environ Int ; 135: 105316, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported data about environmental exposures can lead to measurement error. OBJECTIVES: To validate the self-reported perception of proximity to industrial facilities. METHODS: MCC-Spain is a population-based multicase-control study of cancer in Spain that recruited incident cases of breast, colorectal, prostate, and stomach cancer. The participant's current residence and the location of the industries were geocoded, and the linear distance between them was calculated (gold standard). The epidemiological questionnaire included a question to determine whether the participants perceived the presence of any industry at ≤1 km from their residences. Sensitivity and specificity of individuals' perception of proximity to industries were estimated as measures of classification accuracy, and the area under the curve (AUC) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of misclassification were calculated as measures of discrimination. Analyses were performed for all cases and controls, and by tumor location, educational level, sex, industrial sector, and length of residence. Finally, aORs of cancer associated with real and self-reported distances were calculated to explore differences in the estimation of risk between these measures. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the questionnaire was limited (0.48) whereas specificity was excellent (0.89). AUC was sufficient (0.68). Participants with breast (aOR(95%CI) = 2.03 (1.67;2.46)), colorectal (aOR(95%CI) = 1.41 (1.20;1.64)) and stomach (aOR(95%CI) = 1.59 (1.20;2.10)) cancer showed higher risk of misclassification than controls. This risk was higher for lower educational levels (aOR15 years (95%CI) = 0.56 (0.36;0.85)). The use of self-reported proximity vs. real distance to industrial facilities biased the effect on cancer risk towards the nullity. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported distance to industrial facilities can be a useful tool for hypothesis generation, but hypothesis-testing studies should use real distance to report valid conclusions. The sensitivity of the question might be improved with a more specific formulation.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 64: 101629, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756676

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preventable risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and CLL, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. METHODS: A total of 318 CLL cases and 1293 population-based controls were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on the 2018 recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, and diet) was constructed. We used logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Individuals in the highest tertile of the WCRF/AICR score had an odds ratio for CLL of 1.25 (95 % CI 0.91; 1.73) compared with individuals with low adherence (p-trend = 0.172). Each point increment in the score was associated with an OR for CLL of 1.06 (95 % CI 0.91; 1.23). Analyses by severity of disease did not show significant heterogeneity of effects. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results do not support an association between the WCRF/AICR score and CLL, yet we might have been limited by statistical power and study design to detect modest associations. Further research, ideally with a prospective design, long follow-up, and including additional lymphoma subtypes, is warranted to confirm the impact of composite healthy lifestyle behaviors on lymphoma risk.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234427

RESUMO

Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60-2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99-1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26-1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oxirredução , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813581

RESUMO

There are many different methods used to measure the degree of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD), limiting comparison and interpretation of their results. The concordance between different methodologies has been questioned and their evaluation recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement among five indexes that measure adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The study population included healthy adults selected in the Multi-Case Control Spain (MCC-Spain) study recruited in 12 provinces. A total of 3640 controls were matched to cases by age and sex. To reach the aim, the following scores of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern were calculated: Mediterranean diet score (MDS), alternative Mediterranean diet (aMED), relative Mediterranean diet (rMED), dietary score (DS) and literature-based adherence score (LBAS). The relative frequency of subjects with a high level of adherence to a MD varied from 22% (aMED index) to 37.2% (DS index). Similarly, a high variability was observed for the prevalence of a low level of MD: from 24% (rMED) to 38.4% (aMED). The correlation among MDS, aMED and rMED indexes was moderate, except for MDS and aMED with a high coefficient of correlation 0.75 (95% CI 0.74⁻0.77). The Cohen's Kappa coefficient among indexes showed a moderate⁻fair concordance, except for MDS and aMED with a 0.56 (95% CI 0.55⁻0.59) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.66⁻0.68) using linear and quadratic weighting, respectively. The existing MD adherence indexes measured the same, although they were based on different constructing algorithms and varied in the food groups included, leading to a different classification of subjects. Therefore, concordance between these indexes was moderate or low.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
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