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2.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33943028

RESUMO

AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are closely related and often occur simultaneously in patients. Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, resulting in intolerable pain and extremity amputation that reduces the quality of life. However, the role of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated the correlation of liver fibrosis and steatosis, which are representative histological morphologies of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes patients. RESULTS: Among the 520 patients, the prevalence of liver steatosis and fibrosis and diabetic peripheral neuropathy were 63.0% (n=328), 18.1% (n=94), and 52.1% (n=271), respectively. The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy was significantly elevated in patients with liver steatosis (55.7% vs. 44.9%, p=0.03) and fibrosis (61.5% vs. 50%, p=0.04), and it increased as liver stiffness measurement increased. Additionally, both hepatic steatosis (OR=1.48 [1.04-2.11], p=0.03) and fibrosis (OR=1.60 [1.02-2.51], p=0.04) were correlated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. After adjusting for age, sex, weight, height, BMI, waist hip ratio, duration of T2DM, blood glucose, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, serum lipid, liver enzyme, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and inflammatory factors, liver fibrosis remained associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (OR=2.24 [1.11-4.53], p=0.02). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy was elevated in patients with liver steatosis and fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was also independently associated with an increased risk of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

3.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 66, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Color vision and phototactic behavior based on opsins are important for the fitness of insects because of their roles in foraging and mate choice. Related topics, including the duplication and loss of opsin genes, have been well investigated in insect orders such as Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Odonata and Orthoptera, and the findings have been used to develop pest management strategies involving light trapping. Mirid bugs of Hemiptera, which are pests that cause heavy economic losses, show capacity for color discrimination and phototaxis. However, the opsins in mirid bugs remain uncharacterized. Herein, we examined five species to investigate the evolution of opsins in the family Miridae. RESULTS: Using RNA-seq, we identified several contigs showing high identity with opsins, including four contigs in Apolygus lucorum and three contigs each in Adelphocoris suturalis, Adelphocoris fasciaticollis, Adelphocoris lineolatus and Nesidiocoris tenuis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that one of these genes clustered with ultraviolet-sensitive (UV) opsins and that the others clustered with long-wavelength (LW) opsins, suggesting that duplication of LW opsins and loss of blue light-sensitive (B) opsins occurred in mirid bugs. The existence of introns in the LW opsins of mirid bugs suggested that the duplication events were DNA based. Both LW1 and LW2 opsins of mirid bugs were found to be under strong purifying selection. The LW1 opsins were significantly more highly expressed than the LW2 and UV opsins. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the opsins of mirid bugs using five selected mirid species as a representative sample. Phylogenetic analyses clustered one of the genes with UV opsins and the others with LW opsins, suggesting the occurrence of LW opsin duplication and B opsin loss during the evolution of mirid bugs. Intron detection suggested that the identified duplication event was DNA based. The evidence of strong purifying selection and the relatively high expression levels suggested that these opsins exhibit fundamental functions in mirid bugs.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884548

RESUMO

With the rapid promotion of new energy vehicles, in-use electric vehicle batteries (EVBs) are becoming an important component of urban mining. This paper analyzed the metal stocks in EVBs in China from 2009 to 2019 using a bottom-up method, which focused on the in-use stock of seven main metals, namely, nickel, cobalt, manganese, lithium, copper, aluminum, and iron, in primary use stage and secondary use stage of three EVB types, namely, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide battery (NMC), lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP), and lithium manganese oxide battery (LMO). It was found that the rapid development of electric vehicles (EVs) contributed to a dramatic increase in in-use metal stocks from 0.7 kt in 2009 to 1.1 Mt in 2019. To assess the increase, three scenarios simulating metal stocks in EVBs from 2020 to 2030 were analyzed, namely, baseline, NMC-dominated, and LFP-dominated, and results indicated that metal stocks will reach 20.6 Mt, 23.2 Mt, and 17.9 Mt, respectively, by 2030. Across the scenarios there is little proportional difference in metal stocks between the two use stages. The proportion of the three EVB types correlates to the development trend of EVB technology under each corresponding scenario. Besides, the in-use metal stocks in EVBs have high implied recycling potential and environmental benefit. The recycling potential of these seven metals is 1.0 Mt in 2019, and it will reach 20.0 Mt, 22.6 Mt, and 17.4 Mt, respectively, in 2030 under the three scenarios. The results reveal the current status and evolution characteristics of metal stocks in EVBs in China, and provide data for material flow analysis and life cycle management of EVBs.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 618265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816331

RESUMO

Background: Aging induced chronic systemic inflammatory response is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis (AS) development; however, the detailed mechanism is yet to be elucidated. Objective: To explore the underlying mechanism of how aging aggravates AS advancement. Methods: A young (five-week-old, YM) and aged group (32-week-old, OM) male apoE-/- mice with a high fat diet were used as models, and age-matched male wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) mice were used as controls. AS lesion size, serum lipid profile, cytokines, and gut microbiota-derived LPS were analyzed after 32 weeks of diet intervention. A correlation analysis between the 16S rRNA sequencing of the feces and serum metabolomics profiles was applied to examine the effect of their interactions on AS. Results: ApoE-/- mice developed severe atherosclerosis and inflammation in the aorta compared to the WT groups, and aged apoE-/- mice suffered from a more severe AS lesion than their younger counterparts and had low-grade systemic inflammation. Furthermore, increased levels of serum LPS, decreased levels of SCFAs production, as well as dysfunction of the ileal mucosal barrier were detected in aged mice compared with their younger counterparts. There were significant differences in the intestinal flora composition among the four groups, and harmful bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae_FCS020, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-009, Acetatifactor, Lachnoclostridium and Lactobacillus_gasseri were significantly increased in the aged apoE-/- mice compared with the other groups. Concurrently, metabolomics profiling revealed that components involved in the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway such as 20-HETE, PGF2α, arachidonic acid, and LTB4 were significantly higher in the aged AS group than in the other groups. This suggested that metabolic abnormalities and disorders of intestinal flora occurred in AS mice. Conclusions: Aging not only altered the gut microbiome community but also substantially disturbed metabolic conditions. Our results confirm that AA metabolism is associated with the imbalance of the intestinal flora in the AS lesions of aged mice. These findings may offer new insights regarding the role of gut flora disorders and its consequent metabolite changed in inflammaging during AS development.

6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; : 108790, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812900

RESUMO

AIMS: The pathophysiological alteration of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) in brain is unclear. Here we aimed to explore the metabolomic characteristics of brain in rats over the progression of DNP through metabolomic analysis. METHODS: Adult rats were randomly divided into control group and DNP group. Body weight, blood glucose and behavioral assessment of neuropathic pain were measured every week after streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Finally, the brains of 2 rats from control group and 6 rats from DNP group were removed every 4 weeks after STZ injection for metabolomics analysis. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of STZ-injection, the rats with diabetes developed DNP, which was characterized as mechanical allodynia and thermal nociception. As for metabolomic analysis, differentially expressed metabolites (DE metabolites) showed a dynamic alteration over the development of DNP and affected several KEGG pathways associated with amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the expression of L-Threonine, L-Methionine, D-Proline, L-Lysine and N-Acetyl-L-alanine were significantly decreased at all time points of DNP group. The amino acids which were precursor of analgesic neurotransmitters were downregulated over the progression of DNP, including L-tryptophan, L-histidine and L-tyrosine. CONCLUSIONS: The impairment of amino acid metabolism in brain might contribute to the progression of DNP through decreasing analgesic neurotransmitters.

7.
Bull Cancer ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863546

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is a human malignancy, which primarily affects the long bones and occurs in children and adolescent. Although advanced clinical approaches and the addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy improved 5-year survival of OS patients, a large fraction of them developed chemoresistance. Thus, due to the high morbidity and mortality of OS, it is urgent to investigate effectively molecular targets against chemoresistant osteosarcoma. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the functions of miR-27a-3p in the Taxol sensitivity of osteosarcoma. From fifty-paired OS tumour tissues and adjacent normal bone tissues, we detected significantly upregulated miR-27a-3p expressions in osteosarcoma. In addition, expression of miR-27a-3p was remarkedly elevated in OS cancer cell lines compared with normal osteoblast cells, hFOB1.19. Blocking miR-27a-3p effectively suppressed OS cell growth and sensitised OS cells to Taxol. miRNA target prediction indicated Fbxw7 was a potential target of miR-27a-3p. We demonstrated Fbxw7 functioned as a tumour suppressor in osteosarcoma. Overexpression of miR-27a-3p significantly suppressed Fbxw7 protein expression in OS cells. The direct binding between miR-27a-3p and Fbxw7 3'UTR was validated by luciferase assay. Particularly, results from rescue experiments by inhibiting Fbxw7 expressions in miR-23a-3p-blocked OS cells demonstrated the miR-27a-3p-mediated Taxol resistance was through direct targeting Fbxw7. In summary, our findings report a new molecular mechanism for the miR-27a-3p-mediated Taxol resistance via targeting tumour suppressor, Fbxw7 in osteosarcoma. This study potentiates a miRNA-based therapeutic approach against Taxol resistant osteosarcoma.

8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 506-516, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773227

RESUMO

Although previous studies have found that melatonin can promote seed germination, the phytohormone regulation mechanism by which exogenous melatonin mediates salt tolerance during cotton seed germination is still largely unknown. The effects of melatonin on germination traits and physiological parameters of GXM9 cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under three salt stress treatments (CK, germination of seeds pretreated with water alone; S, germination of seeds pretreated in 150 mM NaCl under salt stress; SM, germination of seeds pretreated in 20 µM melatonin under 150 mM NaCl solution) in the laboratory was investigated. The results showed that salt stress (150 mM) inhibited cotton seed germination and endogenous melatonin accumulation, and pretreatment with 20 µM exogenous melatonin enhanced the cotton germination rate and hypocotyl length as well as the content of endogenous melatonin during seed germination. This suggests that exogenous melatonin promotes seed germination from a morphological perspective. The contents of starch, α-amylase (EC3.3.1.1), ß-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.23), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellin (GA) were determined simultaneously. The results showed that the α-amylase and ß-galactosidase contents in the cotton seeds decreased by 56.97% and 20.18%, respectively, under salt stress compared with the control, while the starch content increased by 11.53% compared with the control at day 7. The ABA content increased by 25.18% and GA content decreased by 27.99% under salt stress compared with the control at 24 h. When exogenous melatonin was applied to the cotton seeds, the content of α-amylase and ß-galactosidase increased by 121.77% and 32.76%, respectively, whereas the starch contents decreased by 13.55% compared with the S treatment at day 7. Similarly, the ABA content increased by 12.20% and the GA content increased by 4.77% at 24 h. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which melatonin promotes seed germination under salt stress, the effects of ABA- and GA-related genes on plant hormone signal transduction were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and RNA sequencing. The results indicated that melatonin regulated the expression of ABA and GA genes in the plant signal transduction pathway, induced embryo root development and seed germination, and alleviated dormancy. The expression of the ABA signaling gene GhABF2 was up-regulated and GhDPBF2 was down-regulated, and the expression of GA signaling genes (e.g., GhGID1C and GhGID1B) was up-regulated by melatonin. In conclusion, melatonin enhances salt tolerance in cotton seeds by regulating ABA and GA and by mediating the expression of hormone-related genes in plant hormone signal transduction. This should help us to explore the regulatory mechanisms of cotton resistance and provide a foundation for the cultivation of new varieties.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Melatonina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Giberelinas , Gossypium , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Sementes
10.
EMBO J ; 40(8): e106283, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665835

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes several key components of respiratory chain complexes that produce cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. mtDNA is vulnerable to damage under various physiological stresses, especially oxidative stress. mtDNA damage leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, and dysfunctional mitochondria can be removed by mitophagy, an essential process in cellular homeostasis. However, how damaged mtDNA is selectively cleared from the cell, and how damaged mtDNA triggers mitophagy, remain mostly unknown. Here, we identified a novel mitophagy receptor, ATAD3B, which is specifically expressed in primates. ATAD3B contains a LIR motif that binds to LC3 and promotes oxidative stress-induced mitophagy in a PINK1-independent manner, thus promoting the clearance of damaged mtDNA induced by oxidative stress. Under normal conditions, ATAD3B hetero-oligomerizes with ATAD3A, thus promoting the targeting of the C-terminal region of ATAD3B to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Oxidative stress-induced mtDNA damage or mtDNA depletion reduces ATAD3B-ATAD3A hetero-oligomerization and leads to exposure of the ATAD3B C-terminus at the mitochondrial outer membrane and subsequent recruitment of LC3 for initiating mitophagy. Furthermore, ATAD3B is little expressed in m.3243A > G mutated cells and MELAS patient fibroblasts showing endogenous oxidative stress, and ATAD3B re-expression promotes the clearance of m.3243A > G mutated mtDNA. Our findings uncover a new pathway to selectively remove damaged mtDNA and reveal that increasing ATAD3B activity is a potential therapeutic approach for mitochondrial diseases.

11.
Eur J Radiol ; 138: 109634, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA; CT-FFR) and combined plaque characteristics for ischemia in different CCTA stenosis levels. METHODS: This clinical trial analyzed 317 patients with 30 %-90 % coronary stenosis in 366 vessels from 5 centers undergoing CCTA and invasive FFR. 366 vessels were assigned into < 50 % (nonobstructive) and ≥ 50 % (obstructive) stenosis groups. Lesion length (LL), plaque burden (PB), diameter stenosis (DS), volume ratio of plaque subcomponents < 30 HU (VR < 30HU), and high-risk features were analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to identify plaque characteristic predictors for lesion-specific ischemia in different stenosis grades. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of integrated plaque characteristics and CT-FFR were calculated and compared. RESULTS: In < 50 % stenosis lesions, PB (OR: 1.296, p = 0.002), LL (OR:1.075, p = 0.020), and DS (OR:1.085, p = 0.031) were independent predictors of ischemia. In ≥ 50 % stenosis lesions, VR < 30HU (OR:1.031, p = 0.005) and DS (OR: 1.020, p = 0.044) were independent predictors for ischemia. AUC of plaque characteristic (VR < 30HU plus DS) for ischemia was 0.67 (95 % CI: 0.61-0.72) in ≥ 50 % stenosis level, which was significantly lower than CT-FFR (AUC=0.90; 95 % CI: 0.86-0.93) (p < 0.001). For lesions causing < 50 % stenosis, AUC of combined plaque model (VR < 30HU plus DS) was 0.88 (95 % CI: 0.80-0.95), equivalent to AUC of CT-FFR (AUC = 0.88; 95 % CI: 0.80-0.96; p = 0.957). CONCLUSION: CT-FFR is a powerful functional assessment tool for both obstructive and nonobstructive diseases. However, for nonobstructive CAD confirmed by CCTA, a model of a combination of plaque characteristics could be a valuable alternative to CT-FFR.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , China/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Isquemia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669628

RESUMO

Labyrinth seals as a noncontact sealing technology are widely used in aero-engine. To improve the efficiency of the aero-engine, the clearance between the rotor and stator must be as small as possible. However, the change of the clearance between the rotor and stator because of thermal expansion, vibration, mechanical loading may lead to undesirable high-speed rub, which will lead to the cracking of the seal fins. This paper focuses on the wear of the seal fin after the rub and presents the rubbing tests between seal fins and the metal honeycomb under rubbing speed of 380 m/s and incursion rates between 20 and 180 µm/s, with an incursion depth of 1500 µm and a temperature of 350 °C. The rubbing force and temperature were recorded, and the seal fins were checked by SEM and EDS. The results show that the wear mechanism of seal fins changed from oxidation wear and adhesive wear to delamination wear and then to metal wear with the increasing incursion rate. The axial cracks appeared on the worn surface of the seal fins due to the cracking of tribo-layers under periodic thermomechanical stress. The wear mechanism of the seal fin also has a great influence on the rubbing force and temperature.

14.
Opt Express ; 29(3): 3147-3162, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770920

RESUMO

In this letter, a distributed optical fiber hydrophone (DOFH) based on Φ-OTDR is demonstrated and tested in the field. The specially designed sensitized optical cable with sensitivity up to -146 dB rad/µPa/m is introduced, and an array signal processing model for DOFH is constructed to analyze the equivalence and specificity of the distributed array of acoustic sensors. In the field test, a 104-meter-long optical cable and a Φ-OTDR system based on heterodyne coherent detection (Het Φ-OTDR) is utilized, and underwater acoustic signal spatial spectrum estimation, beamforming and motion trajectory tracking with high accuracy can be realized. As far as we know, this is the first report on the field trial of DOFH based on Φ-OTDR. The DOFH has the potential to achieve an array range of tens of kilometers, with elements spaced up to the meter level and flexible configuration, which has a broad application prospect for marine acoustic detection.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 251, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674562

RESUMO

Ciclopirox (CPX) is an antifungal drug that has recently been reported to act as a potential anticancer drug. However, the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of CPX on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remain unknown. Bortezomib (BTZ) is the first proteasome inhibitor-based anticancer drug approved to treat multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, as BTZ exhibits toxic effects on diverse tumor cells. Herein, we show that CPX displays strong anti-tumorigenic activity on GBM. Mechanistically, CPX inhibits GBM cellular migration and invasion by reducing N-Cadherin, MMP9 and Snail expression. Further analysis revealed that CPX suppresses the expression of several key subunits of mitochondrial enzyme complex, thus leading to the disruption of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in GBM cells. In combination with BTZ, CPX promotes apoptosis in GBM cells through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Moreover, CPX and BTZ synergistically activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and induces cellular senescence. Our findings suggest that a combination of CPX and BTZ may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to enhance the anticancer activity of CPX against GBM.

16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 615913, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746900

RESUMO

Background: Cathepsin S, as an adipokine, was reported to play a critical role in various disease, including atherosclerosis and diabetes. The present study aims to elucidate the relationship between circulating cathepsin S and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 339 type 2 diabetes individuals were enrolled in this cross-sectional community-based study. Basic information, medical and laboratory data were collected. Serum cathepsin S levels were assessed by ELISA. Results: Compared to the CVD (-) group, levels of serum cathepsin S were significantly higher in the CVD (+) group, with the median 23.68 ng/ml (18.54-28.02) and 26.81 ng/ml (21.19-37.69) respectively (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) had substantially higher levels of serum cathepsin S than those with stable angina pectoris (SAP), with the median 34.65 ng/ml (24.33-42.83) and 25.52 ng/ml (20.53-31.47) respectively (P < 0.01). The spearman correlation analysis showed that circulating cathepsin S was correlated with several cardiovascular risk factors. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating cathepsin S was an independent risk factor for CVD (all P < 0.001) after adjustment for potential confounders. Restricted cubic spline analysis showed circulating cathepsin S had a linearity association with CVD. In addition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that the area under curve (AUC) values of cathepsin S was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.84, P < 0.001), with the optimal cutoff value of cathepsin 26.28 ng/ml. Conclusion: Circulating cathepsin S was significantly higher in the CVD (+) group than that in the CVD (-) one among type 2 diabetes. The increased serum cathepsin S levels were associated with increased risks of CVD, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Thus, cathepsin S might be a potential diagnostic biomarker for CVD.

17.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782726

RESUMO

After more than a century of development, autologous fat transplantation (AFT), a repair method for soft tissue defects and deformities, has the advantages of being simple, rapid, effective and safe, and it is increasingly favoured by plastic surgeons. This article reviews the developmental history of AFT, analyses its clinical application status in the oral and maxillofacial regions, and provides a preliminary summary and discussion of the research progress related to AFT. The hope is that that this technique could be widely applied for oral and maxillofacial diseases as well as facial rejuvenation indications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 80, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As important forest tree species, biological stress and soil salinization are important factors that restrict the growth of Populus × euramericana. WRKYs are important transcription factors in plants that can regulate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, PeWRKY31 was isolated from Populus × euramericana, and its bioinformation, salt resistance and insect resistance were analyzed. This study aims to provide guidance for producing salt-resistant and insect-resistant poplars. RESULTS: PeWRKY31 has a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 1842 bp that encodes 613 amino acids. The predicted protein is the unstable, acidic, and hydrophilic protein with a molecular weight of 66.34 kDa, and it has numerous potential phosphorylation sites, chiefly on serines and threonines. PeWRKY31 is a zinc-finger C2H2 type-II WRKY TF that is closely related to WRKY TFs of Populus tomentosa, and localizes to the nucleus. A PeWRKY31 overexpression vector was constructed and transformed into Nicotiana tabacum L. Overexpression of PeWRKY31 improved the salt tolerance and insect resistance of the transgenic tobacco. Transcriptome sequencing and KEGG enrichment analysis showed the elevated expression of genes related to glutathione metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and MAPK signaling pathways, the functions of which were important in plant salt tolerance and insect resistance in the overexpressing tobacco line. CONCLUSIONS: PeWRKY31 was isolated from Populus × euramericana. Overexpression of PeWRKY31 improved the resistance of transgenic plant to salt stress and pest stress. The study provides references for the generation of stress-resistant lines with potentially great economic benefit.

19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(2): 277-287, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539318

RESUMO

Background: Tripterygium glycosides (TG) has been used to treat a spectrum of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Our preliminary studies have shown that TG is effective in the treatment of active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of TG with intravenous methylprednisolone (iv.MP) in patients with active moderate-to-severe GO. Methods: This study was an observer-masked, single-centre, block-randomised trial. Patients with active moderate-to-severe GO were randomly assigned to receive iv.MP (500 mg once per week for 6 weeks followed by 250 mg per week for 6 weeks) or with TG (20 mg tablet three times per day for 24 weeks). The primary endpoints were the overall response rate and the patients' quality of life at 12 and 24 weeks. Results: In this study, 161 patients were enrolled and randomised from 2015 to 2019. A total of 79 were randomly assigned to receive iv.MP and 82 to receive TG. A greater overall response rate was found in the TG group compared with the iv.MP group at week 24 (90.2% vs 68.4%, P = 0.000). Similarly, the patients' quality of life of the TG group showed a significantly higher response than the iv.MP group at week 24 (89.02% vs 72.15%, P = 0.001). The TG therapy showed a better CAS response than the iv.MP (91.5% vs 70.9% improved, P < 0.05), and up to 91.2% of patients were inactive. Also, the TG group showed a significantly higher improved rate of diplopia, proptosis, visual acuity, soft tissue involved and the decrease of eye muscle motility than the iv.MP group at week 24. Significantly more patients in the iv.MP group than the TG group experienced adverse events. Conclusion: Compared with iv.MP treatment, TG therapy is more effective and safer for patients with active moderate to severe GO.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Oftalmopatia de Graves/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tripterygium , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Antitireóideos/uso terapêutico , Diplopia/fisiopatologia , Exoftalmia/fisiopatologia , Dor Ocular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Doença de Graves/tratamento farmacológico , Oftalmopatia de Graves/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 173: 108684, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539867

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the association between dynamic islet secretory function and TIR (time in range), a new valuable metric of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: In this observational study 256 patients with type 2 diabetes were included and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) were applied to monitor blood glucose and also the calculation of TIR [the time spent in an individual's target glucose range (usually 3.9-10 mmol/L)]. The participants were divided into 3 groups according to the tertiles of TIR, 85 cases with TIR ≥ 65.05% (T1 group), 86 cases with 41.84 < TIR ≤ 65.05% (T2 group) and 85 cases with TIR < 41.84% (T3 group). Serum glucagon (GLA0h, GLA0.5h, GLA1h, GLA2h, GLA3h), C-peptide (Cp0h, Cp0.5h, Cp1h, Cp2h, Cp3h) concentration at different time points were measured after a 100 g standard steamed buns meal test to assess the pancreatic alpha cell and beta cell function. Spearman correlation analysis and multivariate linear stepwise regression analysis were adopted for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The average age and diabetes duration of all the participants were separately 56.09 ± 13.8 years and 8.0 (4.0,15.0) years. Compared with patients in T1 group, participants in group T2 and T3 tend to have a lower concentration of C-peptide at all time points, as well as GLA0h, GLA2h and GLA3h (p < 0.05). TIR was positively correlated with C-peptide at different time points, area under the curve of C-peptide in half an hour (AUCCp0.5h), GLA0h, GLA3h, area under the curve of glucagon in half an hour (AUCGLA0.5h)(rs = 0.263, 0.414, 0.510, 0.587, 0.528, 0.360, 0.259, 0.144 and 0.208, respectively, p < 0.05) and was negatively correlated with the increment of serum glucagon from baseline at 0.5 h, 1 h and 2 h after the standard energy loaded(△GLA0.5h, △GLA1h, △GLA2h)(rs = -0.152,-0.172 and -0.203, respectively, p < 0.05). Cp2h, Cp0h and GLA0h were independent factors for TIR (ß = 6.558,-6.930, 0.247, respectively, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Both islet alpha cell and beta cell secretory function have important influence on TIR, a novel vital index of glycemic fluctuation.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
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