Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 970
Filtrar
1.
J Hand Surg Am ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proximal row carpectomy (PRC) is a motion-sparing procedure with good patient-reported and clinical outcomes. Although some studies have investigated the risk of conversion to total wrist arthrodesis (TWA) after PRC, additional larger studies evaluating the specific risk factors that lead to failure are required. This study aimed to investigate the patient and procedure factors that are associated with increased risk for conversion to TWA in a large cohort of patients who underwent PRC. METHODS: The current procedural technology codes identified patients in a National Veteran's Health database undergoing a PRC over a 26-year period. Risk factors of interest comprised age, posterior interosseous nerve neurectomy, wrist arthritis pattern, bilateral surgery, smoking, comorbidities, and preoperative opioid use. The primary outcome was the rate of conversion to TWA. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to create hazard ratios of selected factors for reoperation. RESULTS: There were 1,070 PRCs performed, with a mean follow-up of 79.8 ± 59.6 months. A total of 5.3% (57/1,070) wrists underwent conversion to TWA. Younger age at the time of PRC (<50 years) significantly increased the risk of TWA (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.6). With every 1-year increase in age, there was a reduction of 4% (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.98) in the hazard of conversion to TWA. No other factors, including concomitant posterior interosseous nerve neurectomy or bilateral PRC, increased the risk of conversion to TWA. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal row carpectomy is a motion-preserving salvage procedure with a low rate of conversion to wrist arthrodesis. Younger patient age increases the risk of conversion to arthrodesis, whereas posterior interosseous nerve neurectomy, bilateral PRCs, and comorbidity status do not appear to have an impact on the risk of arthrodesis. TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic II.

2.
Front Med ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811641

RESUMO

Epileptogenic hypothalamic hamartoma is characterized by intractable gelastic seizures. A systematic analysis of the overall brain metabolic pattern in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) could facilitate the understanding of the epileptic brain network and the associated brain damage effects of HH. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated 27 patients with epileptogenic HH (8 female patients; age, 2-33 years) by using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. The correlations among tomography result, seizure type, sex, and structural magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. Whole metabolic patterns and voxel-based morphometry findings were assessed by group analysis with healthy controls. Assessment of the whole metabolic pattern in patients with HH revealed several regional metabolic reductions in the cerebrum and an overall metabolic reduction in the cerebellum. In addition, areas showing hypometabolism in the neocortex were more widely distributed ipsilaterally than contralaterally to the HH. Reductions in glucose metabolism and gray matter volume in the neocortex were predominant ipsilateral to the HH. In conclusion, the glucose hypometabolism pattern in patients with epileptogenic HH involved the neocortex, subcortical regions, and cerebellum. The characteristics of glucose hypometabolism differed across seizure type and sex. Reductions in glucose metabolism and structural changes may be based on different mechanisms, but both are likely to occur ipsilateral to the HH in the neocortex. We hypothesized that the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract and cerebro-ponto-cerebellar tract, which are responsible for intercommunication between the cerebral cortex, subcortical regions, and cerebellar regions, may be involved in a pathway related to seizure propagation, particularly gelastic seizures, in patients with HH.

3.
Anal Chem ; 93(45): 15159-15166, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736318

RESUMO

Intracellular pH homeostasis is essential for the survival and function of biological cells. Negatively charged molecular probes, such as pyranine (HPTS), tend to exhibit poor salt tolerance and unsatisfactory cell permeability, limiting their widespread use in intracellular assays. Herein, we explored a charge neutralization strategy using multicharged cationic nanocarriers for an efficient and stable assembly with the pH-sensitive HPTS. Through immobilization and neutralization with poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-stabilized red-emitting gold nanoclusters (PAH-AuNCs), the resulting nanoprobes (HPTS-PAH-AuNCs) offered improved salt tolerance, satisfactory cell permeability, and dual-emission properties. The fluorescence ratio exhibited a linear response over the pH range of 3.0-9.0. Moreover, the proposed HPTS-PAH-AuNCs were successfully applied to determine and visualize lysosomal pH variations in living cells, which indicated great potential for biosensing and bioimaging applications in living systems. Benefiting from the charge neutralization strategy, various types of probes can be expected to achieve broader analytical applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Corantes Fluorescentes , Ouro , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
4.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the expression and biological functions of mitogen-induced gene 6 (Mig-6) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: The expression of Mig-6 in ESCC tissues and normal esophageal epithelial tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. MTT test was applied to detect the proliferative ability of ESCC cells after Mig-6 was upregulated by transfection. A fluid cytology assay was used to detect apoptosis of ESCC cells. Agilent whole human genome oligo microarray was used to screen different expressed genes and the possible signaling pathways which might be involved. RESULTS: The expression of Mig-6 protein was lower in ESCC tissues compared to normal esophageal epithelial tissues. Mig-6 could restrain the ESCC cell growth and induce cell apoptosis. PPAR, CAMs and MAPK signaling pathways might be involved. CONCLUSIONS: Mig-6 might be a new tumor suppressor gene and a possible target for the specific therapy of ESCC.

5.
Urol Int ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes between trimodal therapy (TT) and partial cystectomy (PC) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients. METHODS: The data of 13,096 patients with MIBC diagnosed between 2004 and 2015 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Among them, 4,041 patients underwent TT and 1,670 patients underwent PC. Propensity score matching was performed to balance the characteristics between the 2 treatment groups. A multivariate Cox regression analysis model and a competing risk model were used to evaluate overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival. Cumulative incidence survival curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Results of multivariate Cox analysis before propensity score matching showed that the TT group had a 31% reduction in cause-specific survival relative to the PC group (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.61-0.78, p < 0.001) and a 28% reduction in OS (HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.66-0.79, p < 0.001). After propensity score matching, the 2 groups yielded 972 patients, with 3-year cause-specific survival rates of 54.1% and 68.5% in the TT group and the PC group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent PC had a better prognosis than those who received TT. In addition, for MIBC patients who required bladder-sparing therapy, advanced age (≥80 years), pathological type of squamous cell carcinoma, and tumor stage of T3-4, N2-3, and M1 were independent poor prognostic factors.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(18): 180502, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767431

RESUMO

We report phase-programmable Gaussian boson sampling (GBS) which produces up to 113 photon detection events out of a 144-mode photonic circuit. A new high-brightness and scalable quantum light source is developed, exploring the idea of stimulated emission of squeezed photons, which has simultaneously near-unity purity and efficiency. This GBS is programmable by tuning the phase of the input squeezed states. The obtained samples are efficiently validated by inferring from computationally friendly subsystems, which rules out hypotheses including distinguishable photons and thermal states. We show that our GBS experiment passes a nonclassicality test based on inequality constraints, and we reveal nontrivial genuine high-order correlations in the GBS samples, which are evidence of robustness against possible classical simulation schemes. This photonic quantum computer, Jiuzhang 2.0, yields a Hilbert space dimension up to ∼10^{43}, and a sampling rate ∼10^{24} faster than using brute-force simulation on classical supercomputers.

7.
Mol Cell ; 81(23): 4876-4890.e7, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739871

RESUMO

Histone H3.3 lysine-to-methionine substitutions K27M and K36M impair the deposition of opposing chromatin marks, H3K27me3/me2 and H3K36me3/me2. We show that these mutations induce hypotrophic and disorganized eyes in Drosophila eye primordia. Restriction of H3K27me3 spread in H3.3K27M and its redistribution in H3.3K36M result in transcriptional deregulation of PRC2-targeted eye development and of piRNA biogenesis genes, including krimp. Notably, both mutants promote redistribution of H3K36me2 away from repetitive regions into active genes, which associate with retrotransposon de-repression in eye discs. Aberrant expression of krimp represses LINE retrotransposons but does not contribute to the eye phenotype. Depletion of H3K36me2 methyltransferase ash1 in H3.3K27M, and of PRC2 component E(z) in H3.3K36M, restores the expression of eye developmental genes and normal eye growth, showing that redistribution of antagonistic marks contributes to K-to-M pathogenesis. Our results implicate a novel function for H3K36me2 and showcase convergent downstream effects of oncohistones that target opposing epigenetic marks.

8.
Opt Express ; 29(21): 33322-33330, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809146

RESUMO

We propose and demonstrate an all-fiber Er-doped mode-locked laser with a 3-dB spectrum of 114 nm by using nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), which to the best of our knowledge is the first realization to date of such a broad spectrum without any spatial optical devices. The repetition rate and pulse width of the laser are 183.6 MHz and 3.7 ps, respectively. Such an all-fiber NPR mode-locked laser is then applied in time-stretch optical coherence tomography. The axial resolution is 12.1 µm. The all-fiber high speed broadband swept laser based on the time stretching technique has compact structure and high stability, which is a promising source for frequency metrology and high resolution optical coherence tomography.

9.
Life (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833071

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that cell behaviors can be influenced by the direct current electric fields (EFs). Some behaviors may influence wound healing directly. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EF (200 mV/mm) on immortalized nontumorigenic human epidermal (HaCaT) cells. We established a setup that can transmit an EF and maintain a stable cell culture environment. An EF was applied to HaCaT cells, and scratch-assays were performed as a model of wound healing to observe cell migration. Proliferation was evaluated by mitochondrial activity, total protein, and DNA content. Secretion of healing-associated cytokines was evaluated via cytokine arrays, and Western blot was applied to investigate signaling pathway alterations. Compared with the control group, the migration of cells exposed to EFs significantly increased (p < 0.01). After 7 days, the changes in proliferation also increased significantly (p < 0.05). The cytokine arrays revealed that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was the most abundant factor secreted by HaCaT following EF exposure. The signals for phospho-Erk1/2 showed a significant (p < 0.0001) increase following EF exposure. The results demonstrate that exposure of HaCaT cells to EFs has positive effects on migration, proliferation, and cytokine secretion-three important steps in wound healing-and these effects may be partially mediated by activation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847196

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by various mechanisms, including antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cisplatin, and radiocontrast. Tunicamycin (TM) is a nucleoside antibiotic that induces ER stress and is a commonly used model of AKI. 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been shown to protect the kidney from ER stress, apoptosis, and structural damage in a tunicamycin model of AKI. The renal protection provided by 4-PBA is attributed to its ability to prevent misfolded protein aggregation and inhibit ER stress; however, the HDAC inhibitor effects of 4-PBA have not been examined in the TM-induced model of AKI. As such, the main objective of this study was to determine if histone hyperacetylation provides any protective effects against TM-mediated AKI. The FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor vorinostat was used, as it has no ER stress inhibitory effects and therefore the histone hyperacetylation properties alone could be investigated. In vitro work demonstrated that vorinostat inhibited histone deacetylation in cultured proximal tubular cells but did not prevent ER stress or protein aggregation induced by TM. Vorinostat induced a significant increase in cell death, and exacerbated TM-mediated total cell death and apoptotic cell death. Wild type male mice were treated with TM (0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), with or without vorinostat (50 mg/kg/day) or 4-PBA (1 g/kg/day). Mice treated with 4-PBA or vorinostat exhibited similar levels of histone hyperacetylation. Expression of the pro-apoptotic protein CHOP was induced with TM, and not inhibited by vorinostat. Further, vorinostat did not prevent any renal damage or decline in renal function caused by tunicamycin. These data suggest that the protective mechanisms found by 4-PBA are primarily due to its molecular chaperone properties, and the HDAC inhibitors used did not provide any protection against renal injury caused by ER stress.

11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To adapt to daily changes in the external environment, organisms have developed circadian rhythm systems with a period of approximately 24 h. Many studies have reported that both circadian rhythms and exosomes play important roles in the development and metastasis of tumors. However, whether circadian clock genes can affect the progression of tumors by regulating exosomes remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we isolated exosomes from the supernatant of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, including SW480, SW620, and HCT116 cells, by differential centrifugation and characterized exosomes by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blot analysis. Then, we found that exosomes derived from SW480, SW620 and HCT116 cells could promote the migration of HCT116 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Exosomes derived from SW620 cells showed increased stimulating effects when we increased the expression of BMAL1, a core circadian protein. In contrast, exosomes derived from SW480 and HCT116 cells showed decreased stimulating effects when we knocked down the expression of BMAL1. Furthermore, we discovered that BMAL1 promotes the release of exosomes by HCT116 and SW620 cells. In addition, by luciferase assay, we confirmed that BMAL1 transcriptionally regulates the expression of Rab27a, a key molecule related to the secretion of exosomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal a new mechanism by which BMAL1 induces CRC metastasis by stimulating exosome secretion. This finding may help further clarify the role of circadian rhythm in the progression of CRC.

12.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723464

RESUMO

Graphitic carbon nitride with ordered two-dimensional structure displays multiple properties, including tunable structure, suitable bandgap, high stability, and facile synthesis. Many achievements on this material have been made in photocatalysis, but the advantages have not yet been fully explored in electrochemical fields. The bulk structure with low conductivity impedes charge-transfer kinetics during electrochemical processes. Excessive nitrogen content leads to insufficient charge transfer, while bulk structures produce tortuous channels for mass transport. Some attempts have been made to address these issues by nanostructure engineering, such as ultrathin structure design, heterogeneous composition, defect engineering, and morphology control. These structure-engineered nanomaterials have been successfully applied in electrochemical fields, including ionic actuators, flexible supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and electrochemical sensors. Herein, a timely review on the latest advances in graphitic carbon nitride through various engineering strategies for electrochemical applications has been summarized. A perspective on critical challenges and future research directions is highlighted for graphitic carbon nitride in electrochemistry on the basis of existing research works and our experimental experience.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739383

RESUMO

We introduce an innovative solution approach to the challenging dynamic load-shedding problem which directly affects the stability of large power grid. Our proposed deep Q-network for load-shedding (DQN-LS) determines optimal load-shedding strategy to maintain power system stability by taking into account both spatial and temporal information of a dynamically operating power system, using a convolutional long-short-term memory (ConvLSTM) network to automatically capture dynamic features that are translation-invariant in short-term voltage instability, and by introducing a new design of the reward function. The overall goal for the proposed DQN-LS is to provide real-time, fast, and accurate load-shedding decisions to increase the quality and probability of voltage recovery. To demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed approach and its scalability to large-scale, complex dynamic problems, we utilize the China Southern Grid (CSG) to obtain our test results, which clearly show superior voltage recovery performance by employing the proposed DQN-LS under different and uncertain power system fault conditions. What we have developed and demonstrated in this study, in terms of the scale of the problem, the load-shedding performance obtained, and the DQN-LS approach, have not been demonstrated previously.

14.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 147, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with salt-sensitive hypertension are often accompanied with severe renal damage and accelerate to end-stage renal disease, which currently lacks effective treatment. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been shown to suppress nephropathy in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mice. Here, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of FGF21 in salt-sensitive hypertension-induced nephropathy. METHODS: Changes of FGF21 expression in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertensive mice were detected. The influence of FGF21 knockout in mice on DOCA-salt-induced nephropathy were determined. Recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21) was intraperitoneally injected into DOCA-salt-induced nephropathy mice, and then the inflammatory factors, oxidative stress levels and kidney injury-related indicators were observed. In vitro, human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were challenged by palmitate acid (PA) with or without FGF21, and then changes in inflammation and oxidative stress indicators were tested. RESULTS: We observed significant elevation in circulating levels and renal expression of FGF21 in DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive mice. We found that deletion of FGF21 in mice aggravated DOCA-salt-induced nephropathy. Supplementation with rhFGF21 reversed DOCA-salt-induced kidney injury. Mechanically, rhFGF21 induced AMPK activation in DOCA-salt-treated mice and PA-stimulated HK-2 cells, which inhibited NF-κB-regulated inflammation and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress and thus, is important for rhFGF21 protection against DOCA-salt-induced nephropathy. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that rhFGF21 could be a promising pharmacological strategy for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension-induced nephropathy.

15.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 5004-5016, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620045

RESUMO

Thymoma is the most common primary mass in anterior mediastinum. Although associated with low malignancy, it is often accompanied by myasthenia gravis resulting in poor prognosis. Due to the dual factors of tumor immune tolerance and autoimmune reaction, it is urgent to understand the immune status of MG with thymoma. In this study, RNA sequencing data were obtained from the TCGA and GEO cohorts to identify differentially expressed messenger RNAs and infiltrated immune cells. A total of 121 samples in TCGA and 43 samples in GEO were screened out. The infiltrated immune cells were identified by CIBERSORT, in which Tfh cells and activated DC cells were abnormal in thymoma patients. The differently expressed genes were performed by package LIMMA. The functional characteristics of differently expression genes were analyzed by GO and KEGG; one GO and seven KEGG pathways were both found in both TCGA and GEO cohorts. Meanwhile, 27 common differently expressed genes were obtained and were displayed by a Venn diagram. The TRRUST was used to screen the hub genes for the common 27 different genes and 6 genes were found. Then, PPI networks were constructed. Subsequently, the relationship between SCNAs of common genes and related immune cells tested by TIMER. Kaplan-Meier plots, ROC curve and Cox's expression model for immune infiltration and hub genes were also tested. In conclusion, we found that two types of immune infiltrated cells and six hub genes can predict the occurrence of myasthenia gravis in thymoma patients.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670842

RESUMO

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens with pandemic potential requires safe, protective, inexpensive, and easily accessible vaccines that can be developed and manufactured rapidly at a large scale. DNA vaccines can achieve these criteria, but induction of strong immune responses has often required bulky, expensive electroporation devices. Here, we report an ultra-low-cost (<1 USD), handheld (<50 g) electroporation system utilizing a microneedle electrode array ("ePatch") for DNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The low cost and small size are achieved by combining a thumb-operated piezoelectric pulser derived from a common household stove lighter that emits microsecond, bipolar, oscillatory electric pulses and a microneedle electrode array that targets delivery of high electric field strength pulses to the skin's epidermis. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 induced by this electroporation system in mice were strong and enabled at least 10-fold dose sparing compared to conventional intramuscular or intradermal injection of the DNA vaccine. Vaccination was well tolerated with mild, transient effects on the skin. This ePatch system is easily portable, without any battery or other power source supply, offering an attractive, inexpensive approach for rapid and accessible DNA vaccination to combat COVID-19, as well as other epidemics.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Eletroporação/instrumentação , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Eletroporação/economia , Eletroporação/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microeletrodos , Agulhas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Transfecção , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/instrumentação , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6160, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697317

RESUMO

Pparg, a nuclear receptor, is downregulated in basal subtype bladder cancers that tend to be muscle invasive and amplified in luminal subtype bladder cancers that tend to be non-muscle invasive. Bladder cancers derive from the urothelium, one of the most quiescent epithelia in the body, which is composed of basal, intermediate, and superficial cells. We find that expression of an activated form of Pparg (VP16;Pparg) in basal progenitors induces formation of superficial cells in situ, that exit the cell cycle, and do not form tumors. Expression in basal progenitors that have been activated by mild injury however, results in luminal tumor formation. We find that these tumors are immune deserted, which may be linked to down-regulation of Nf-kb, a Pparg target. Interestingly, some luminal tumors begin to shift to basal subtype tumors with time, down-regulating Pparg and other luminal markers. Our findings have important implications for treatment and diagnosis of bladder cancer.

18.
Opt Express ; 29(19): 30473-30482, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614770

RESUMO

We propose and experimentally demonstrate symmetrical (homo-modal) and asymmetrical (hetero-modal) full-duplex bi-directional architectures based on dual-vector eigenmodes multiplexing over a 3 km few mode fiber (FMF). Firstly, 4 vector modes (VMs) of 2 mode groups (MGs), l = 0 (HE11o and HE11e modes) and l = +2 (EH11o and EH11e modes), each carrying a 14 GBaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal, are utilized in the up and down links and a 224 Gb/s same-mode bi-directional transmission is successfully realized. The crosstalk between the VMs in l = 0 and l = +2 of this full-duplex system is less than -13.8 dB. To strengthen the immunity to performance degradation induced by connector reflection and back scattering, we propose an effective approach to mitigate impairments by using hetero-modes on two terminals of the bi-directional system. Then, 2 VMs of l = 0 and 2 VMs of l = +2 are respectively employed in the up and down streams. The channel isolation between the VMs in l = 0 and l = +2 of such full-duplex link is larger than 19 dB, which supports a 448 Gb/s bi-directional transmission with 28 GBaud 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) modulation over a 3 km FMF by using 2 × 2 MIMO. Moreover, mode-wavelength division multiplexing including 2 modes and 4 wavelengths in both up and down streams is implemented in the transmission system. A total capacity of the 1.792 Tb/s link with 28 GBaud 16-QAM signal over each channel is successfully realized over the 3 km FMF. The measured bit-error-ratios (BERs) of all channels are below the 7% hard decision forward error correction (FEC) threshold at 3.8 × 10-3. The experimental results adequately indicate that such a scheme has a great potential in high-speed bi-directional point-to-point (P2P) optical interconnects.

19.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 24735-24749, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614823

RESUMO

To combat chromatic dispersion (CD) in intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) systems, three chirp-free demonstrations are experimentally performed with an iterative pre-electronic dispersion compensation (pre-EDC) algorithm at the transmitter end, for 28 GBaud non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK), 56 GBaud NRZ-OOK and 28 GBaud four-level pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM-4) signals, over distances of 100 km, 50 km and 40 km of single mode fiber (SMF), respectively. The iterative pre-EDC algorithm is based on the Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm, which treats the unconstrained phase at the direct detection receiver as a degree of freedom. At the receiver side, only a linear fractionally-spaced (T/2) post-feed-forward equalizer (post-FFE) is employed to combat the residual inter-symbol interference (ISI). Experimental results show that the aforementioned three demonstrations can approach the forward error correction (FEC) bit error rate (BER) threshold of 3.8 × 10-3 with (15 pre-EDC iterations and 5-tap post-FFE), (30 pre-EDC iterations and 15-tap post-FFE), and (10 pre-EDC iterations and 25-tap post-FFE), respectively. The results indicate the applicability of the pre-EDC algorithm in high-capacity IM/DD systems for transmission distances below 100 km of SMF.

20.
Opt Express ; 29(17): 26375-26384, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615074

RESUMO

In this paper, an all-fiber sensor based on hollow core Bragg fiber (HCBF) is proposed and successfully manufactured, which can be used for human breath monitoring. Benefiting from the identical outer diameters of HCBF and single mode fibers (SMFs), the sensor can be directly constructed by sandwiching a segment of HCBF between two SMFs. Based on optical propagation properties of HCBF, the transmission light is sensitive to specific environmental change induced by human breath. Thus, the breath signals can be explicitly recorded by measuring the intensity of the transmitted laser. The sensor presents a rapid response time of ∼0.15 s and recovery time of ∼0.65 s. In addition, the HCBF-based sensor shows good insensitivity to the variation of temperature and curvature, which enables its reliable sensing performance in the dynamic and changeful environment.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...