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1.
Med Hypotheses ; 85(3): 367-70, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26048359

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder in which patients' cognitive functions gradually deteriorate. Pharmacological intervention with antipsychotics has proven effective, yet it is still debatable whether to initiate treatment in patients' premorbid stage. Based on the developmental origins of schizophrenia, we hypothesize that for those who are at high risk for schizophrenia, particularly with gating problems, an early pharmacological intervention would be beneficial. We performed a pilot rodent study to evaluate this hypothesis. Our results demonstrated that isolation rearing-induced sensorimotor gating dysfunction could be reversed by a chronic risperidone regimen initiated at different age time points. As expected, interventions that we initiated earlier (in adolescent stage) appeared to have better efficacy than interventions initiated four weeks later (in young adult stage). Our hypothesis may contribute new insight for both prevention and treatment of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ratos
2.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e85373, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24416398

RESUMO

Aberrant synaptic dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The DLGAP2 gene encoding the SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein 2 (SAPAP2) located at the post-synaptic density of neuronal cells is involved in the neuronal synaptic function. This study aimed to investigate whether the DLGAP2 gene is associated with schizophrenia. We resequenced the putative promoter region and all the exons of the DLGAP2 gene in 523 patients with schizophrenia and 596 non-psychotic controls from Taiwan and conducted a case-control association analysis. We identified 19 known SNPs in this sample. Association analysis of 9 SNPs with minor allele frequency greater than 5% showed no association with schizophrenia. However, we found a haplotype (CCACCAACT) significantly associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio:2.5, p<0.001). We also detected 16 missense mutations and 1 amino acid-insertion mutation in this sample. Bioinformatic analysis showed some of these mutations were damaging or pathological to the protein function, but we did not find increased burden of these mutations in the patient group. Notably, we identified 5 private rare variants in 5 unrelated patients, respectively, including c.-69+9C>T, c.-69+13C>T, c.-69+47C>T, c.-69+55C>T at intron 1 and c.-32A>G at untranslated exon 2 of the DLGAP2 gene. These rare variants were not detected in 559 control subjects. Further reporter gene assay of these rare variants except c.-69+13C>T showed significantly elevated promoter activity than the wild type, suggesting increased DLGAP2 gene expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Our results indicate that DLGAP2 is a susceptible gene of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Éxons , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan
3.
Neurosci Lett ; 556: 210-5, 2013 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24135334

RESUMO

Serotonin (5-HT)-related drugs are extensively employed in the treatment of mental disorders. However, the roles of the central serotonergic system in impulse control over environmental stimuli remain to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated acute and subchronic effects of a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, buspirone, on the performance of rats in response control indexed by the attentional accuracy and impulsive reactivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Acute buspirone (0.5mg/kg) affected accuracy, whereas subchronic buspirone treatment augmented impulsivity. Moreover, a subchronic buspirone regimen potentiated the acute buspirone-induced reduction in motor impulsivity. Our data suggested that a time-dependent mechanism was involved in the serotonin-associated behavioral control of response accuracy and motoric impulsivity.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Buspirona/farmacologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/psicologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Aprendizagem Seriada , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Buspirona/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Agonismo Parcial de Drogas , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/administração & dosagem
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 208(1): 84-7, 2013 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23414653

RESUMO

We resequenced the exonic regions of the DLGAP3 gene, which encodes SAP90/PSD95-associated protein 3, in 215 schizophrenic patients and 215 non-psychotic controls. Seven known single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, but not associated with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, we identified several rare missense mutations and some of them might be associated with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Éxons/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 205(1-2): 13-7, 2013 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22940546

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a severe chronic mental disorder with high genetic components in its etiology. Several studies indicated that synaptic dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Postsynaptic synapse-associated protein 90/postsynaptic density 95-associated proteins (SAPAPs) constitute a part of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-associated postsynaptic density proteins, and are involved in synapse formation. We hypothesized that genetic variants of the SAPAPs might be associated with schizophrenia. Thus, we systemically sequenced all the exons of the discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 1 (DLGAP1) gene that encodes SAPAP1 in a sample of 121 schizophrenic patients and 120 controls from Taiwan. We totally identified six genetic variants, including five known SNPs (rs145691437, rs3786431, rs201567254, rs3745051 and rs11662259) and one rare missense mutation (c.1922A>G) in this sample. SNP- and haplotype-based analyses showed no association of these SNPs with schizophrenia. The c.1922A>G mutation that changes the amino acid lysine to arginine at codon 641 was found in one out of 121 patients, but not in 275 control subjects, suggesting it might be a patient-specific mutation. Nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis showed this mutation does not affect the function of the DLGAP1 gene and appears to be a benign variant. Hence, its relationship with the pathogenesis remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Éxons , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Associadas SAP90-PSD95 , Esquizofrenia/etnologia , Taiwan
6.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 22(3): 272-8, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22882876

RESUMO

Medication non-adherence is associated with higher rates of relapse in persons with schizophrenia. Psychiatric nurses play a significant role in facilitating their medication adherence. The motivators which strengthen patients with schizophrenia to maintain their adherence to medication have seldom been explored. This study aims to explore what motivates persons with schizophrenia to consistently maintain their medication adherence. A qualitative approach was used to collect data from a psychiatric day-care centre at an armed forces hospital in Taiwan. Ten clients agreed to undergo an in-depth interview. The data was analyzed by a content analysis method. Four themes were identified: (i) the benefits of antipsychotic medication treatment; (ii) firm and ongoing family support; and the Chinese values of (iii) filial piety and (iv) hope for the future. These findings may provide psychiatric nurses with a better understanding of the motivators for medication adherence in persons with schizophrenia from the Chinese perspective. Nurses will then be able to adjust their practice to facilitate patients' medication adherence.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Motivação , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Taiwan
7.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 39(1): 149-55, 2012 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22691714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early growth response genes (EGR1, 2, 3, and 4) encode a family of nuclear proteins that function as transcriptional regulators. They are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory, and are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a genetic association analysis of 14 SNPs selected from the EGR1, 2, 3, and 4 genes of 564 patients with schizophrenia and 564 control subjects. We also conducted Western blot analysis and promoter activity assay to characterize the EGR genes associated with schizophrenia RESULTS: We did not detect a true genetic association of these 14 SNPs with schizophrenia in this sample. However, we observed a nominal over-representation of C/C genotype of rs9990 of EGR2 in female schizophrenia as compared to female control subjects (p=0.012, uncorrected for multiple testing). Further study showed that the average mRNA level of the EGR2 gene in the lymphoblastoid cell lines of female schizophrenia patients was significantly higher than that in female control subjects (p=0.002). We also detected a nominal association of 4 SNPs (rs6747506, rs6718289, rs2229294, and rs3813226) of the EGR4 gene that form strong linkage disequilibrium with schizophrenia in males. Reporter gene assay showed that the haplotype T-A derived from rs6747506 and rs6718289 at the promoter region had significantly reduced promoter activity compared with the haplotype A-G. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a tendency of gender-specific association of EGR2 and EGR4 in schizophrenia, with an elevated expression of EGR2 in lympoblastoid cell lines of female schizophrenia patients and a reduced EGR4 gene expression in male schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genes Reporter/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Caracteres Sexuais
8.
PLoS One ; 5(12): e15107, 2010 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21151988

RESUMO

Hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated signal transduction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) plays a critical role in regulating the trafficking and activity of the NMDA receptor and altered expression of the PSD95 has been detected in the post-mortem brain of patients with schizophrenia. The study aimed to examine whether the DLG4 gene that encodes the PSD95 may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. We re-sequenced the core promoter, all the exons, and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of the DLG4 gene in 588 Taiwanese schizophrenic patients and conducted an association study with 539 non-psychotic subjects. We did not detect any rare mutations at the protein-coding sequences of the DLG4 gene associated with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, we identified four polymorphic markers at the core promoter and 5' UTR and one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the 3'UTR of the DLG4 gene in this sample. Genetic analysis showed an association of a haplotype (C-D) derived from 2 polymorphic markers at the core promoter (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.51, p = 0.01), and a borderline association of the T allele of the rs13331 at 3'UTR with schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval = 0.99-1.43, p = 0.06). Further reporter gene assay showed that the C-D-C-C and the T allele of the rs13331 had significant lower activity than their counter parts. Our data indicate that the expression of the DLG4 gene is subject to regulation by the polymorphic markers at the core promoter region, 5' and 3'UTR of the gene, and is associated with the susceptibility of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Taiwan
9.
Neurosci Lett ; 481(2): 120-5, 2010 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20600594

RESUMO

Cellular, animal and human studies support the involvement of aberrant NRG-ErbB signaling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to examine whether genetic variation in the human ERBB4 gene is associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Two hundred and twenty-seven unrelated chronic inpatients with schizophrenia were enrolled in the study, and the genetic variation in the polymorphisms of the ERBB4 gene in the patients was compared with that of the control group, which consisted of 223 subjects free of psychiatric illness. The results showed that one coding-synonymous polymorphism (rs3748962, Val1065Val) was in genotypic (p=0.0027) and allelic (p=0.0007) association with schizophrenia. In comparison with subjects of the rs3748962-TT type, those of the rs3748962-CT and rs3748962-CC types were at 1.74- and 2.64-fold greater risk of schizophrenia (CT vs. TT: OR=1.71 (95% CI=1.15-2.53), p=0.0014; CC vs. TT: OR=2.64 (95% CI=1.37-5.23), p=0.0047), which supports the hypothesis of an additive model of transmission (p=0.0006). Furthermore, the frequency of haplotype ATC of rs3791709-rs2289086-rs3748962 was found to be significantly higher in the patients with schizophrenia than in the controls (case vs. control=36.0% vs. 24.4%, permutation p-value=0.0002). The findings support the involvement of the ERBB4 gene in schizophrenia in Han Chinese.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-4 , Taiwan
10.
Schizophr Res ; 121(1-3): 179-86, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20541370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) package glutamate into vesicles in the presynaptic terminal and regulate the release of glutamate. In mesencephalic dopamine neuron culture, the majority of isolated dopamine neurons express VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 or 3, have been demonstrated. As related to the dysregulated glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia, the gene encoding VGLUT2 is the most plausible candidate involved in the pathogenesis of this illness. METHODS: We searched for genetic variants in the promoter region and 12 exons (including UTR ends) of the VGLUT2 gene using direct sequencing in a sample of Han Chinese schizophrenic patients (n=375) and non-psychotic controls (n=366) from Taiwan, and conducted a case-control association study. RESULTS: We identified 8 common SNPs in the VGLUT2 gene. SNP and haplotype-based analyses showed no association with schizophrenia. Besides, we identified 9 rare variants in 13 out of 375 patients, including 3 variants located at the promoter region, 2 synonymous variants located at protein coding regions, and 4 variants located at UTR ends. No rare variants were found in the control subjects. Collectively, these rare variants were significantly overrepresented in the patient group (3.5% versus 0, p value of Fisher's exact test=2.3x10(-5)), suggesting they may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: Although the functional significance of these rare variants remains to be characterized, our study may lend support to the multiple rare mutations hypothesis of schizophrenia, and may provide genetic clues to indicate the involvement of the glutamate transmission pathway in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/genética , Adulto , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Taiwan
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